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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34988788

RESUMO

The most serious challenge to the global facade is figuring out how to mitigate pollution levels without compromising agricultural productivity. The spillover effect of environmental change is predicted to be very high, although it will differ by region and crop. Considering this view, this study tries to address this issue by adopting comprehensive methodologies to assess the influence of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, agricultural labor, land, feeds, and fertilizers on agricultural productivity in Pakistan from 1961 to 2018. The autoregressive distributive lag (ARDL) and wavelet transform coherence (WTC) approaches are applied to estimate the long-run and short-run elasticity estimates. The empirical findings discover that CO2 emissions, agricultural land, labor, feed, and fertilizers exert high pressure on agricultural productivity which is backed up by the WTC findings. Furthermore, the gradual shift causality test results reveal the presence of a unidirectional causality relationship between all regressors and agriculture productivity, demonstrating that all the factors significantly influence agriculture productivity. Moreover, these findings are robust to different robustness tests that we perform to test the reliability/accuracy of our core results. From policy perspectives, regulations must be developed to explore a practicable expansion strategy that includes the use of efficient fertilizers and feed at optimal levels, as well as environmental protection through public-private investment in the agricultural sector.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35000178

RESUMO

Emergencies and corruption go hand in hand in times of crisis. We are currently living in a pandemic phase, and corruption is even more damaging during these times of crisis that the world is experiencing with COVID-19. Vaccination is the only survival option that we have. The development of a nation will soon be measured by the criteria of who owns more vaccines. This study has four objectives. The first is to explore the most recent relevant literature. Moreover, we also investigate the unique trilogy of corruption, the environment, and the COVID-19 pandemic. The second is to identify adequate channels for distributing the COVID-19 vaccines. The vaccines should be dispersed based on the categories of age, gender, ethnicity, profession, and health conditions. Third, we explored the factors that are causing corruption in the distribution of the COVID-19 vaccines. Our findings show that unequal distribution, theft and black markets, weaponization of vaccines, logistical challenges, and substandard and falsified vaccines are the factors that potentially lead to corruption. The fourth objective is to investigate solutions for mitigating corruption. We revealed that blockchain, awareness, well-planned distribution channels, and prioritization of vulnerable groups are the steps that could effectively reduce corruption.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35010727

RESUMO

Relying on tournament theory and environmental management research, we examine how CEO tournament incentives induce top executives to invest more in green innovation. Using a sample of Chinese listed companies from 2010 to 2016, we find evidence that CEO tournament incentives are positively associated with green innovation. In addition, we find that a positive relationship between CEO tournament incentives and green innovation is stronger in state-owned enterprises than in non-state-owned enterprises. These results support tournament theory, which proposes that better incentives induce top executives' efforts to win the tournament incentives, and such efforts are subject to fiercer competition among employees, which improves firms' social and financial performance. Moreover, our findings have implications for policy makers and regulators who wish to enhance environmental legitimacy by providing tournament incentives to top executives.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34997512

RESUMO

For successive economic growth of any society, sustainable energy plays a pivotal role. Considering this view, developing countries are facing serious challenges of energy at the present time. However, policymakers have outlined numerous policies to satisfy energy demand but still remain incapable to fill the gap between demand and supply. At a halt, 11% of the world population lacks access to different formulae of energy supply and access. Additionally, in different time periods, distinct policies have erupted for the progress of renewable energy. It includes especially those households of the far-flung areas having no gas and electricity availability. However, the basis of this research study is to determine the significant renewable energy source for Pakistan's economy with the economic benefits such as job creation in energy sector. This research study aims in finding ways to secure energy supplies and achieving economic benefits. The research study concludes by engaging renewable energy technologies with the least operational and externality cost that is the utmost choice in the future. In policy perspective, Pakistani government should take actions in favor of renewable energy and technological innovation that necessitates biomass resources to be tied to non-sustainable prolonged investments.

5.
Environ Pollut ; 294: 118655, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34896220

RESUMO

As a promising amendment, biochar has excellent characteristics and can be used as a remediation agent for diverse types of soil pollution. Biochar is mostly made from agricultural wastes, forestry wastes, and biosolids (eg, sewage sludge), but not all the biochar has the same performance in the improvement of soil quality. There is a lack of guidelines devoted to the selection of biochar to be used for different types of soil pollution, and this can undermine the remediation efficiency. To shed light on this sensitive issue, this review focus on the following aspects, (i) how feedstocks affect biochar properties, (ii) the effects of biochar on heavy metals and organic pollutants in soil, and (iii) the impact on greenhouse gas emissions from soil. Generally, the biochars produced from crop residue and woody biomass which are composed of lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose are more suitable for organic pollution remediation and greenhouse gas emission reduction, while biochar with high ash content are more suitable for cationic organic pollutant and heavy metal pollution (manure and sludge, etc.). Additionally, the effect of biochar on soil microorganisms shows that gram-negative bacteria in soil tend to use WB biochar with high lignin content, while biochar from OW (rich in P, K, Mg, and other nutrients) is more able to promote enzyme activity. Finally, our recommendations on feedstocks selection are presented in the form of a flow diagram, which is precisely intended to be used as a support for decisions on the crucial proportioning conditions to be selected for the preparation of biochar having specific properties and to maximize its efficiency in pollution control.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Carvão Vegetal , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
6.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 120: 190-201, 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848303

RESUMO

Heavy metals (HMs) contaminated fish is a threat to humans when consumed. Dietary probiotics have evolved as a successful HMs removal approach. In this study, probiotics Enterococcus (EC) sp. and Lactococcus (LC) sp. were evaluated for toxicity alleviation and gut microbiota maintenance in Cyprinus carpio (single and combined approach) on Cr, Cd, and Cu mixture (0.8 mg/L and 1.6 mg/L) exposure (28 days). HMs removal, oxidative stress, cytokines response, histology, and gut microbiota were investigated. LC alone showed remarkable HMs removal for Cr (62.28%-87.57%), Cd (89%-90.42%), and Cu (72%-88%) than LC + EC. Probiotics up-regulated superoxide dismutase and total protein levels, while decreased the activity of malondialdehyde than the control. Pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α) and chemokine (IL-8) expressions were higher at 1.6 mg/L concentration, whereas anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) was higher in the 0.8 mg/L group. LC mitigated the histological alterations of gills, kidneys, and intestines, particularly at the lower concentration. Sequencing results revealed that Proteobacteria (44%-61%) was the most dominant phylum in all groups, followed by Fusobacteria (34%-36%) at 0.8 mg/L and Firmicutes (19%-34%) at 1.6 mg/L. The current study presented LC and EC potential separately and in combination to countermeasure HMs mixture induced toxicity and gut microbial dysbiosis, in which the conjoint group was less effective.

7.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 721819, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34858169

RESUMO

Background: Vancomycin is a narrow therapeutic agent, and it is necessary to optimize the dose to achieve safe therapeutic outcomes. The purpose of this study was to identify the significant covariates for vancomycin clearance and to optimize the dose among surgical patients in Pakistan. Methods: Plasma concentration data of 176 samples collected from 58 surgical patients treated with vancomycin were used in this study. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed on NONMEM® using plasma concentration-time data. The effect of all available covariates was evaluated on the pharmacokinetic parameters of vancomycin by stepwise covariate modeling. The final model was evaluated using bootstrap, goodness-of-fit plots, and visual predictive checks. Results: The pharmacokinetics of vancomycin followed a one-compartment model with first-order elimination. The vancomycin clearance (CL) and volume of distribution (Vd) were 2.45 L/h and 22.6 l, respectively. Vancomycin CL was influenced by creatinine clearance (CRCL) and body weight of the patients; however, no covariate was significant for its effect on the volume of distribution. Dose tailoring was performed by simulating dosage regimens at a steady state based on the CRCL of the patients. The tailored doses were 400, 600, 800, and 1,000 mg for patients with a CRCL of 20, 60, 100, and 140 ml/min, respectively. Conclusion: Vancomycin CL is influenced by CRCL and body weight of the patient. This model can be helpful for the dose tailoring of vancomycin based on renal status in Pakistani patients.

8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 287: 114942, 2021 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34968664

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Justicia vahlii Roth. (Acanthaceae), also called as kodasoori and bhekkar is an annual therophyte erect or decumbent herb used traditionally in toothache, skin diseases (itching, topical inflammation) and for the treatment of various respiratory disorders. AIM OF THE STUDY: The current study aimed at exploring pain cessation potential of J. vahlii Roth. via murine model of neuropathic pain and its phytochemical, toxicological and antioxidant profiles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The hydro-alcoholic extract of J. vahlii (HAEJv) prepared by maceration technique was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening, total bioactive content determination, UPLC-QTOF-MS and GC-MS analysis. Toxicity assessment was carried out by using brine shrimp lethality assay and acute oral toxicity test. Murine model of neuropathic pain was applied to assess the antineuropathic potential of the species. Furthermore effect of the extract on catalase, superoxide oxide dismutase (SOD), Glutathione (GSH), interleukin-1beta (IL-1ß) and total necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) was also studied. In vitro antioxidant profile was explored by using four methods; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), CUPric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) and Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. RESULTS: The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, coumarins, alkaloids and lignans as the major classes of secondary metabolites. The extract was found rich in total phenolics content (TPC) and total flavonoids content (TFC) with identification of total 59 bioactives in UPLC-QTOF-MS and 40 compounds in GC-MS analysis. The extract was found nontoxic up to 4000 mg/kg (p.o.) in mice and no mortality observed in brine shrimp lethality assay. The HAEJv significantly reduced number of acetic acid induced abdominal constrictions at 100 mg/kg (p < 0.01) and 200 mg/kg (p < 0.001) and increased paw withdrawal threshold p < 0.05 at 100 mg/kg and p < 0.001 at 200 mg/kg, and an increase in tail withdrawal latency time p < 0.001 at 200 mg/kg was observed. The extract significantly increased levels of catalase, SOD and GSH while decreased IL-1ß and TNF-α levels in sciatic nerve tissue of mice. HAEJv showed highest antioxidant activity through CUPRAC method 121.32 ± 1.22 mg trolox equivalent per gram of dry extract (mg TE/g DE) followed by DPPH 81.334 ± 4.35 mg TE/g DE, FRAP 69.89 ± 3.05 mg TE/g DE and ABTS 38.17 ± 2.12 mg TE/g DE. CONCLUSION: The current study back the traditional use of J. vahlii in pain cessation through antioxidant based antineuropathic pain activity and revealed the extract non-toxic with number of functional phytoconstituents and warrants further research on isolation of the compounds and sub-acute toxicity studies.

9.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 54: 102001, 2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34952452

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Almost 17 months after the first COVID-19 case was reported, the exact pathogenesis of the virus is still open to interpretation. Postmortem studies have been relatively scarce due to the high infectivity rate of the virus. We systematically reviewed the literature available for studies that reported gross, histological, microscopic, and immunohistochemical findings in COVID-19 fatalities with the aim of reporting any recurrent findings among different demographics. PubMed and Scopus were searched up till the second of May 2021 and 46 studies with a total of 793 patients were shortlisted after the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria. The selected studies reported gross, histological, microscopic, and immunohistochemical autopsy findings in the lungs, heart, liver, gallbladder, bowels, kidney, spleen, bone marrow, lymph nodes, CNS, pancreas, endocrine/exocrine glands, and a few other miscellaneous locations. The SARS-CoV-2 virus was detected in multiple organs and so was the presence of widespread microthrombi. This finding suggests that the pathogenesis of this highly infectious virus might be linked to some form of coagulopathy. Further studies should focus on analyzing postmortem findings in a larger number of patients from different demographics in order to obtain more generalizable results.

10.
Acta Crystallogr E Crystallogr Commun ; 77(Pt 12): 1243-1248, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34925890

RESUMO

Two structurally different metal-organic frameworks based on Sr2+ ions and 1,2,4,5-tetra-kis-(4-carb-oxy-phen-yl)benzene linkers have been synthesized solvothermally in different solvent systems and studied with single-crystal X-ray diffraction technique. These are poly[[µ12-4,4',4'',4'''-(benzene-1,2,4,5-tetra-yl)tetra-benzoato](di-methyl-formamide)-distrontium(II)], [Sr2(C34H18O8)(C3H7NO)2] n , and poly[tetra-aqua-{µ2-4,4'-[4,5-bis-(4-carb-oxy-phen-yl)benzene-1,2-di-yl]dibenzoato}tris-trontium(II)], [Sr3(C34H20O8)2(H2O)4]. The differences are noted between the crystal structures and coordination modes of these two MOFs, which are responsible for their semiconductor properties, where structural control over the bandgap is desirable. Hydrogen bonding is present in only one of the compounds, suggesting it has a slightly higher structural stability.

11.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(11)2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34835647

RESUMO

We integrate fractional calculus and plasma modelling concepts with specific geometry in this article, and further formulate a higher dimensional time-fractional Vlasov Maxwell system. Additionally, we develop a quick, efficient, robust, and accurate numerical approach for temporal variables and filtered Gegenbauer polynomials based on finite difference and spectral approximations, respectively. To analyze the numerical findings, two types of boundary conditions are used: Dirichlet and partial slip. Particular methodology is used to demonstrate the proposed scheme's numerical convergence. A detailed analysis of the proposed model with plotted figures is also included in the paper.

12.
J Environ Manage ; : 114148, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838377

RESUMO

In the present study, the viability of using manure (M), lime (L), and sepiolite (S) alone and in combinations (M/L, M/S, and M/L/S) was evaluated for the remediation of a red paddy soil artificially contaminated with three levels of cadmium (Cd- 0.6, 1, and 2 mg kg-1 soil). Experiments were performed in columns (to evaluate Cd leaching) and pots by growing rice plants (to study Cd accumulation in plants). Before their application, the tested amendments were thoroughly characterized using SEM, EDS and FT-IR spectroscopy. The leaching experiment indicates that the application of L or M/L significantly improved the pH of soil leachate collected at different time intervals. However, the use of M/L/S was found better in decreasing the Cd contents in collected leachate. The use of M/L efficiently decreased the DTPA metal extraction (0.19, 0.41, and 0.55 mg kg-1) as compared to the CK (0.35, 0.63, and 1.13 mg kg-1, respectively). The Cd speciation results depicted a 33% decrease in exchangeable Cd with M/L/S treatment when compared with control (55%). Moreover, the M/L/S treatment was more efficient in lowering the Cd phytoavailability and subsequent accumulation in rice grains (0.05, 0.09, and 0.08 mg kg-1). These findings demonstrate that the use of composite amendments is categorically effective as an in-situ remediation tool to decrease Cd leaching and availability in diverse contaminations.

13.
Surg Neurol Int ; 12: 481, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34754531

RESUMO

Background: The cauda equina (CE) is the most common site for intradural extramedullary metastasis from systemic malignancies such as lung, breast, and thyroid carcinomas. However, renal cell carcinomas (RCC), with their high metastatic potential, are rarely responsible for CE metastatic lesions. Here, we report an intradural cauda equina mass, as the first and only site of metastasis of a renal cell carcinoma. Case Description: A 55-year-old female had undergone a left nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma 8 years ago. She now presented with a unifocal renal cell metastasis to the CE. As such metastases are rare, establishing the correct pathological diagnosis proved to be a challenge. Conclusion: The cauda equina was the first and only site of an 8-year-delayed metastasis attributed to a renal cell carcinoma.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766219

RESUMO

The linkage between renewable energy resources and environmental influences on economic growth among selected Asian economies play a vital role in sustainable economic development. This study encompasses the panel data sets for eight selected Asian countries, and the period starts from 1990 to 2018. This research relies on the panel vector error correction model (PVECM) for data estimation. The overall findings indicate that biomass, geothermal, and wind power sources of energy have a positive and significant impact on the economic advancement of Asian economies. Besides that, as opposed to the other two renewable energy sources, windpower has a greater impact on economic development. Furthermore, the empirical findings of current research have significant implications towards selected Asian countries' energy policy related to both private and public sector enterprises as it helps in identifying the industrial sectors which have greater contribution towards the economy and their energy requirements in long term.

15.
Cureus ; 13(11): e19650, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804756

RESUMO

Since its first use as a bone void filler at the end of the 19th century, calcium sulphate products have been adapted in different ways to aid orthopaedic surgeons. Calcium sulphate local antibiotic delivery systems offer a promising solution in the delivery of high antibiotic concentrations locally for an extended period of time. Over the years, multiple centres have reported side effects such as wound drainage, heterotrophic ossification and hypercalcaemia. This study was carried out to assess the risk of wound drainage in prosthetic joints after implantation of antibiotic-impregnated calcium sulphate beads. Two reviewers searched the literature in three online databases using the Cochrane methodology for systematic reviews. The search of databases yielded 182 articles. The studies without reported post-operative complications, mainly drainage outcomes, were excluded. After screening, seven articles were deemed suitable and selected. Out of the 1,112 cases identified, 43 joints developed wound drainage after calcium sulphate bead placement. This complication was resolved in all these cases by either conservative or operative approaches. The factors implicated in the development of wound drainage include the volume of the product used, procedural placement and host factors. The result of this systematic review shows that calcium sulphate products can be used for treatment and prophylaxis in prosthetic joints with a risk of post-procedural wound drainage. This risk, however, is lesser with the use of synthetic calcium sulphate products as compared with conventional calcium sulphate products.

16.
Cureus ; 13(10): e18778, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796067

RESUMO

Introduction The United Kingdom was one of the hardest-hit countries during the COVID-19 Pandemic. The UK government announced three national lockdowns to control the spread of the coronavirus and prevent the NHS from getting overburdened with COVID-19 related attendances. Two of the most significant peaks in terms of COVID-19 related hospitalizations and COVID-19 related deaths were in Summer 2020 (corresponding to lockdown 1, which was in effect from 26th March to 26th May 2020) and early 2021 (corresponding to lockdown 3, which was in effect 6th January to 8th March 2021). During this time, a significant proportion of NHS resources was being diverted towards the treatment of COVID-19 patients. Measures were being taken to prevent unnecessary hospitalizations and reduce patient contact. These included but were not limited to measures to reduce attendances to Emergency departments, introducing telemedicine clinics, and pausing elective services.  Our hospital is a Major Trauma Centre providing Tertiary Pelvic trauma service to the Greater Manchester area and the North West of England. We conducted this retrospective comparative study to compare the trends in presentation and Management of Pelvic trauma and identify trends in how these changed throughout the pandemic. We want to share these insights with our readers. Methodology We conducted a retrospective comparative study by comparing two cohorts of patients, patients presenting to the Pelvic Trauma service during Lockdown 1 and Lockdown 3 in the UK, named Group A and Group B, respectively. Data on patient demographics, injuries, and their management was identified from the Electronic Patient Record System. The data analysis was carried out with the aid of Stata/IC version 16.1. using descriptive Statistics. Results Group A contained 19 patients, with a mean age of 66.9 years. Group B contained 23 patients with a mean age of 67.4 years. There was no statistically significant difference in these patients' population demographics, injury patterns, and management (operative vs conservative). However, there was an absolute reduction in the complication rate from Group A to Group B of 17.2% (26.3% vs 9.1%). The higher complication rate during Lockdown 1 can be explained by conservatively managing Pelvic and Acetabular Fractures that would have been eligible for fixation, had COVID-19 not been a factor. Conclusions Within the limitations of our study, it appears that operatively managing a carefully selected cohort of acute Pelvic Trauma patients with proper precautions was safe and effective. It is unclear whether there was an added benefit to having a higher threshold to operate and adopting the watch-and-wait policy in Lockdown 1. We recommend continuing to follow the current evidence and fix these fractures early.

17.
J Hazard Mater ; : 127670, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34772554

RESUMO

Fenton-based treatments have received tremendous attention in recent decades as viable strategies for soil decontamination. Historically contaminated soils are characterized by particular contamination types, pollution composition patterns, soil constituents, and complex soil-pollutant interactions arising due to long-term pollutant aging. These major pitfalls dictate the remediation efficiency in a significantly different way in soils with a history of contamination than that in a spiked soil. It becomes, therefore, highly challenging to treat historically contaminated soils. Despite the immense amount of collected research data in these soils, to our knowledge, no comprehensive review of this topic has been published. This article is intended to provide a critical review of the applications, limitations, and implications of various Fenton-based processes exclusively in these soils. These processes are differentiated on the basis of experimental conditions, reaction chemistry, efficiency, and impacts on soil biota. These processes are critically evaluated to illustrate the promising techniques with a brief description of related challenges and their potential solutions. Moreover, coupling Fenton oxidation with other remediation techniques such as bioremediation, chemical reduction, and soil washing has also been discussed. The last part of this review describes the effects of these processes onto soil quality and native biota, and how they can be addressed. It is also highly demanding to identify the processes which are not likely to evolve in practice either due to their poor efficiency, treatment cost, or environmental impacts. Future critical research directions have been identified to promote research for the upscaling of this technique for real field application.

19.
Chem Rec ; 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757694

RESUMO

The continuous carbon dioxide (CO2 ) gas emissions associated with fossil fuel production, valorization, and utilization are serious challenges to the global environment. Therefore, several developments of CO2 capture, separation, transportation, storage, and valorization have been explored. Consequently, we documented a comprehensive review of the most advanced strategies adopted in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) for CO2 capture and separation. The enhancements in CO2 capture and separation are generally achieved due to the chemistry of MOFs by controlling pore window, pore size, open-metal sites, acidity, chemical doping, post or pre-synthetic modifications. The chemistry of defects engineering, breathing in MOFs, functionalization in MOFs, hydrophobicity, and topology are the salient advanced strategies, recently reported in MOFs for CO2 capture and separation. Therefore, this review summarizes MOF materials' advancement explaining different strategies and their role in the CO2 mitigations. The study also provided useful insights into key areas for further investigations.

20.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm ; : 1-11, 2021 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779318

RESUMO

Purpose of present study was to prepare and evaluate self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) of curcumin (Cur) to enhance its solubility and percentage release for the evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect. Curcumin loaded SEDDS formulation was prepared, and zones of self-emulsification were recognized by dilution method for the construction of phase diagram. Lauroglycol FCC, Tween 80 (surfactant), and Transcutol HP (co-surfactant) were selected based on their solubility and highest emulsion region in phase diagram. Thermodynamic stability of Cur-SEDDS was calculated through globule size, zeta potential, polydispersity index (PDI), viscosity and pH. Cur-SEDDS were also characterized by encapsulation efficiency (EE %), FT-IR, in vitro release, and in vivo anti-inflammatory effect. Results revealed that droplet size of Cur-SEDDS was 19.77 ± 0.03 nm with their PDI 0.22 ± 0.19, zeta potential -19.33 ± 0.94 and viscosity 25.68 ± 0.86 cp. EE % of Cur-SEDDS was found to be 94.99 ± 0.38%, percentage release 65.83% compared with pure curcumin powder. The designed formulation possesses significant anti-inflammatory activity in paw edema when compared with positive control in carrageenan induced rat paw edema assay. Newly developed Cur-SEDDS with enhanced curcumin solubility, percentage release and better anti-inflammatory action may be an alternative source of oral delivery of curcumin.

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