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1.
Addiction ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636086

RESUMO

AIMS: To test efficacy of "MiQuit', a tailored, self-help, text message stop smoking programme for pregnancy, as an adjunct to usual care (UC) for smoking cessation in pregnancy. DESIGN: Multicentre, open, two-arm, parallel-group, superiority randomised controlled trial (RCT) and a Trial Sequential Analysis (TSA) meta-analysis combining trial findings with two previous ones. SETTING: 24 English hospital antenatal clinics. PARTICIPANTS: 1002 pregnant women who were ≥16 years old, were ≤ 25 weeks gestation, and smoked ≥ one daily cigarette and accepted information on cessation with no requirement to set quit dates. INTERVENTIONS: UC or UC plus 'MiQuit': 12 weeks of tailored, smoking cessation text messages focussed on inducing and aiding cessation. MEASUREMENTS: Primary outcome: biochemically-validated cessation between 4 weeks after randomisation and late pregnancy. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: shorter and non-validated abstinence periods, pregnancy outcomes and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. FINDINGS: RCT: cessation was 5.19% (26/501) and 4.59% (23/501) in MiQuit and UC groups [adjusted odds ratio (adj OR) for quitting with MiQuit versus UC, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.15 (0.65 to 2.04)]; other abstinence findings were similar, with higher point estimates. Primary outcome ascertainment was 61.7% (309) and 67.3% (337) in MiQuit and UC groups with 71.1% (54/76) and 69.5% (41/59) abstinence validation rates, respectively. Pregnancy outcomes were similar and the incremental cost per Quality-Adjusted Life Year was -£1,118 (95% CI -£4,806 to £1,911). More MiQuit group women reported making at least one quit attempt (adj OR (95% CI) for making an attempt, 1.50 (1.07 to 2.09).TSA Meta-analysis: This found no significant difference in prolonged abstinence between MiQuit and UC (pooled OR 1.49, adjusted 95% CI 0.62 to 3.60). CONCLUSIONS: Irrespective of whether they want to try quitting, when offered a tailored, self-help, text message stop smoking programme for pregnancy (MiQuit) as an adjunct to usual care, pregnant women are not more likely to stop smoking until childbirth but they report more attempts at stopping smoking.

2.
Addict Behav ; 123: 107050, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343923

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is limited information about longitudinal patterns of vaping during pregnancy and the postpartum. We describe the prevalence, frequency, and reasons for vaping throughout pregnancy and postpartum. We also describe temporal patterns in pregnant women's vaping. METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study across England and Scotland, with questionnaires in early pregnancy (8-24 weeks gestation), late pregnancy (34-38 weeks) and 3 months postpartum. A total of 750 women, aged 16 years or over, who were either current smokers, vapers or had smoked in the 3 months before pregnancy, were recruited between June and November 2017. RESULTS: Vaping prevalence was 15.9% (n = 119/750) in early pregnancy: 12.4% (n = 93/750) were dual users and 3.5% (n = 26/750) exclusive vapers. Late pregnancy vaping prevalence was 17.8% (n = 68/383): 12.5% (n = 48/383) were dual users and 5.2% (n = 20/383) exclusive vapers. Postpartum vaping prevalence was 23.1% (n = 95/411): 14.6% (n = 60/411) were dual users and 8.5% (n = 35/411) exclusive vapers. The most frequently reported reason to vape among all vapers was to quit smoking. A total of 316 women completed all three surveys: 2.6% (n = 8/316) were exclusive vapers in early pregnancy with most remaining exclusive vapers postpartum (n = 6/8, 75%). Of the 11.5% (n = 35/316) dual users in early pregnancy, 31.4% (n = 11/35) were exclusive smokers by the postpartum. CONCLUSION: Vaping prevalence was between 15.9% and 23.1% during pregnancy and the postpartum period, and the majority were dual users. Vaping habits of exclusive vapers remains stable throughout pregnancy and the postpartum. However, the vaping habits of dual users varies, with a third exclusively smoking in the postpartum.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Vaping , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Fumar/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
4.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 320, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419155

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Peer support is rapidly being introduced into mental health services internationally, yet peer support interventions are often poorly described, limiting the usefulness of research in informing policy and practice. This paper reports the development of a peer support intervention that aims to improve outcomes of discharge from inpatient to community mental health care. People with experiential knowledge of using mental health services-peer workers and service user researchers-were involved in all stages of developing the intervention: generating intervention components; producing the intervention handbook; piloting the intervention. RESULTS: Systematic review and expert panels, including our Lived Experience Advisory Panel, identified 66 candidate intervention components in five domains: Recruitment and Role Description of Peer Workers; Training for Peer Workers; Delivery of Peer Support; Supervision and Support for Peer Workers; Organisation and Team. A series of Local Advisory Groups were used to prioritise components and explore implementation issues using consensus methods, refining an intervention blueprint. A peer support handbook and peer worker training programme were produced by the study team and piloted in two study sites. Feedback workshops were held with peer workers and their supervisors to produce a final handbook and training programme. The ENRICH trial is registered with the ISRCTN clinical trial register, number ISRCTN 10043328, and was overseen by an independent steering committee and a data monitoring committee.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Aconselhamento , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Saúde Mental , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
5.
J Behav Med ; 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232456

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking remains the leading behavioral risk factor for chronic disease and premature mortality. This RCT tested the efficacy of moderate intensity aerobic exercise as an adjunctive smoking cessation treatment among women. Participants (N = 105; age = 42.5, SD = 11.2) received brief smoking cessation counseling and 10 weeks of nicotine replacement therapy and were randomized to 12 weeks of moderate intensity exercise (Exercise; n = 53) or 12 weeks of health education (Control; n = 52). Longitudinal models, with Generalized Estimating Equations, showed no differences between Exercise and Control in cotinine-verified 7-day point prevalence abstinence (Wald = 1.96, p = 0.10) or continuous abstinence (Wald = 1.45, p = 0.23) at 12-weeks (post-treatment) or 6-, 9-, or 12-month follow-up, controlling for differences in baseline nicotine dependence. There was no effect of exercise on smoking cessation. The present study adds to the literature suggesting null effects of exercise as a smoking cessation adjunctive treatment despite promising findings in short-term laboratory based studies.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430407

RESUMO

Use of e-cigarettes (vaping) has potential to help pregnant women stop smoking. This study explored factors influencing adherence among participants in the vaping arm of the first trial of vaping for smoking cessation in pregnancy. We conducted semi-structured telephone interviews (n = 28) with women at three-months postpartum. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis, informed by the Theoretical-Domains Framework, Necessity-Concerns Framework and Perceptions and Practicalities Approach. Interviewees generally reported high levels of vaping. We found that: (1) intervention adherence was driven by four necessity beliefs-stopping smoking for the baby, and vaping for harm reduction, smoking cessation or as a last resort; (2) necessity beliefs outweighed vaping concerns, such as dependence and safety; (3) adherence was linked to four practicalities themes, acting as barriers and facilitators to vaping-device and e-liquid perceptions, resources and support, whether vaping became habitual, and social and environmental factors; and (4) intentional non-adherence was rare; unintentional non-adherence was due to device failures, forgetting to vape, and personal circumstances and stress. Pregnant smokers provided with e-cigarettes, and with generally high levels of vaping, had positive beliefs about the necessity of vaping for smoking cessation which outweighed concerns about vaping. Non-adherence was mainly due to unintentional factors.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Vaping , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Gestantes , Fumantes
7.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 23(3): 471-478, 2021 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621745

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Finding effective ways to help pregnant women quit smoking and maintain long-term abstinence is a public health priority. Electronic cigarettes (ie, vaping) could be a suitable cessation tool in pregnancy for those who struggle to quit; however, healthcare professionals (HCP) must be informed about these devices to offer appropriate advice. This study used the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation, and Behavior (COM-B) model and Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to explore HCP attitudes towards vaping in pregnancy and postpartum; beliefs about the health risks of vaping; perceived barriers and facilitators of vaping in pregnancy; knowledge of current guidelines and policies; and training needs. METHODS: Interviews (n = 60) were conducted with midwives (n = 17), health visitors (n = 10), general practitioners (n = 15) and stop smoking specialists (n = 18) across the United Kingdom. Interview transcriptions were analyzed thematically using the framework approach and the COM-B. RESULTS: Discussing vaping as a tool for quitting smoking in pregnancy was prevented by a lack of capability (limited knowledge of vaping, lack of training in smoking cessation); lack of opportunity (restricted by organizational policies and guidelines, lack of time and financial issues impacting on training), and negative social influences (sensationalist media and stigma associated with vaping in pregnancy); and lack of motivation (fear of future litigation and comebacks should adverse effects from vaping arise). CONCLUSIONS: Factors related to capability, opportunity, and motivation were identified that influence HCPs attitudes and behaviors towards vaping in pregnancy. Gaps in knowledge and training needs were identified, which could inform the development of targeted vaping training. IMPLICATIONS: Vaping could be suitable in pregnancy for those struggling to quit smoking. However, HCPs must be informed about these devices to offer appropriate advice. These data extend our knowledge of factors influencing HCP attitudes and behaviors towards vaping in pregnancy. Generally, vaping was perceived as safer than cigarettes, but a perceived lack of evidence, health and safety risks, dependency, and regulation issues were concerning. Considering our findings, greater efforts are needed to ensure HCPs are sufficiently informed about vaping and guidelines available. More importance should be placed on training for all HCPs who have contact with pregnant women.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Período Pós-Parto , Gestantes/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar Tabaco/psicologia , Vaping/psicologia , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estigma Social , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Fumar Tabaco/terapia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Vaping/efeitos adversos
8.
J Nutr ; 151(2): 379-386, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies have shown that higher cereal fiber intake is associated with reduced type 2 diabetes risk. However, it remains uncertain whether this association is causal. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the feasibility of an intervention to increase cereal fiber intake in children using breakfast cereals. METHODS: The study was a 2-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial in 9-10-y-old children, who received free supplies of high-fiber breakfast cereals (>3.5 g/portion) or low-fiber breakfast cereals (<1.0 g/portion) to eat daily for 1 mo with behavioral support to promote adherence. Children provided baseline and 1-mo fasting blood samples, physical measurements, and 24-h dietary recalls. The primary outcome was the group difference in change in plasma total alkylresorcinol (AR) concentration; secondary outcomes were group differences in nutrient intakes and adiposity indices. Analyses (complete case and multiple imputation) were conducted by regressing the final AR concentration on baseline AR in models adjusted for sex, ethnicity, age, and school (random effect). RESULTS: Two-hundred seventy-two children were randomly assigned (137 receiving a low-fiber and 135 a high-fiber diet) and 193 (71%) provided fasting blood samples at baseline and follow-up. Among randomized participants, median (IQR) of baseline AR was 43.1 (24.6-85.5) nmol/L and of cereal fiber intake was 4.5 (2.7-6.4) g; 87% of participants reported consuming the cereal on most or all days. Compared with changes in the low-fiber group, the high-fiber group had greater increases in AR (40.7 nmol/L; 95% CI: 21.7, 59.8 nmol/L, P < 0.0001) and in reported cereal fiber intake (2.9g/d; 95% CI: 2.0, 3.7 g; P < 0.0001). There were no appreciable differences in other secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: We have developed a simple and acceptable nutritional intervention that increases markers of daily cereal fiber intake in children. This intervention could be used to test whether increases in cereal fiber intake in children might reduce insulin resistance. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN33260236.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Grão Comestível/química , Criança , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
9.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e043331, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33262194

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Smoking reduction can lead to increased success in quitting. This study aims to determine if a client-focused motivational support package for smoking reduction (and quitting) and increasing (or otherwise using) physical activity (PA) can help smokers who do not wish to quit immediately to reduce the amount they smoke, and ultimately quit. This paper reports the study design and methods. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A pragmatic, multicentred, parallel, two group, randomised controlled superiority clinical trial, with embedded process evaluation and economics evaluation. Participants who wished to reduce smoking with no immediate plans to quit were randomised 1:1 to receive either (1) tailored individual health trainer face-to-face and/or telephone support to reduce smoking and increase PA as an aid to smoking reduction (intervention) or (2) brief written/electronic advice to reduce or quit smoking (control). Participants in both arms of the trial were also signposted to usual local support for smoking reduction and quitting. The primary outcome measure is 6-month carbon monoxide-confirmed floating prolonged abstinence following participant self-reported quitting on a mailed questionnaire at 3 and 9 months post-baseline. Participants confirmed as abstinent at 9 months will be followed up at 15 months. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Approved by SW Bristol National Health Service Research Committee (17/SW/0223). Dissemination will include publication of findings for the stated outcomes, parallel process evaluation and economic evaluation in peer-reviewed journals. Results will be disseminated to trial participants and healthcare providers. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN47776579; Pre-results.


Assuntos
Fumantes , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fumar , Medicina Estatal , Alcatrões
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105823

RESUMO

Children are particularly vulnerable to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). There is no routine support to reduce ETS in the home. We systematically reviewed trials to reduce ETS in children in order to identify intervention characteristics and behaviour change techniques (BCTs) to inform future interventions. We searched Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register from January 2017 to June 2020 to update an existing systematic review. We included controlled trials to reduce parent/caregiver smoking or ETS in children <12 years that demonstrated a statistically significant benefit, in comparison to less intensive interventions or usual care. We extracted trial characteristics; and BCTs using Behaviour Change Technique Taxonomy v1. We defined "promising" BCTs as those present in at least 25% of effective interventions. Data synthesis was narrative. We included 16 trials, of which eight were at low risk of bias. All trials used counselling in combination with self-help or other supporting materials. We identified 13 "promising" BCTs centred on education, setting goals and planning, or support to reach goals. Interventions to reduce ETS in children should incorporate effective BCTs and consider counselling and self-help as mechanisms of delivery.


Assuntos
Comportamento , Exposição Ambiental , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle
11.
BMJ Open ; 10(7): e034747, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699126

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To understand the barriers and facilitators to uptake and retention of postnatal women randomised to a commercial group weight management intervention using the COM-B (capability, opportunity, motivation and behaviour) behaviour change model. DESIGN: Concurrent mixed-methods (qualitative dominant) process evaluation nested within a feasibility randomised controlled trial, comprising questionnaires and interviews at 6 and 12 months postbirth. SETTING: One National Health Service maternity unit in an inner city area in the south of England. PARTICIPANTS: 98 postnatal women with body mass indices>25 kg/m2 (overweight/obese) at pregnancy commencement. INTERVENTION: Twelve-week Slimming World (SW) commercial group weight management programme, commencing anytime from 8 to 16 weeks postnatally. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Data regarding uptake and retention from questionnaires and interviews conducted 6 and 12 months postbirth analysed thematically and mapped to the COM-B model. RESULTS: Barriers to SW uptake mostly concerned opportunity issues (eg, lack of time or childcare support) though some women also lacked motivation, not feeling that weight reduction was a priority, and a few cited capability issues such as lacking confidence. Weight loss aspirations were also a key factor explaining retention, as were social opportunity issues, particularly in relation to factors such as the extent of group identity and relationship with the group consultant; and physical opportunity such as perceived support from and fit with family lifestyle. In addition, barriers relating to beliefs and expectations about the SW programme were identified, including concerns regarding compatibility with breastfeeding and importance of exercise. Women's understanding of the SW approach, and capability to implement into their lifestyles, appeared related to level of attendance (dose-response effect). CONCLUSIONS: Uptake and retention in commercial weight management programmes may be enhanced by applying behaviour change techniques to address the barriers impacting on women's perceived capability, motivation and opportunity to participate. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN39186148.


Assuntos
Motivação , Medicina Estatal , Peso Corporal , Inglaterra , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635510

RESUMO

E-cigarettes may have a role in supporting pregnant women who would otherwise smoke to stop smoking. The study aimed to understand pregnant women's vaping experiences, in particular how vaping to stop smoking is facilitated and how barriers to this are overcome. We conducted semi structured telephone interviews (n = 15) with pregnant or postpartum women who vaped during pregnancy, either exclusively (n = 10) or dual-used (n = 5) (smoked and vaped). Thematic analysis was used to analyse the interviews. Two themes emerged. First, 'facilitating beliefs': inherent beliefs that helped women overcome barriers to vaping. These included understanding the relative safety of vaping and economic gains compared with smoking and pregnancy being a motivator to stop smoking. Second, 'becoming a confident vaper': accumulating sufficient skill and confidence to comfortably vape. This included experimentation with e-cigarettes to ensure nicotine dependence and sensory needs were met. Seeking social support and employing strategies to address social stigma were also important. Positive beliefs about vaping and becoming proficient at vaping were viewed as ways to overcome barriers to vaping. The theoretical domain framework informed intervention recommendations to assist pregnant smokers who have tried but cannot stop smoking to switch to vaping.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Gestantes/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fumantes , Fumar/psicologia , Telefone
13.
Trials ; 21(1): 183, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eighty per cent of UK women have at least one baby, making pregnancy an opportunity to help women stop smoking before their health is irreparably compromised. Smoking cessation during pregnancy helps protect infants from miscarriage, still birth, low birth weight, asthma, attention deficit disorder and adult cardiovascular disease. UK national guidelines highlight lack of evidence for effectiveness of financial incentives to help pregnant smokers quit. This includes a research recommendation: within a UK context, are incentives an acceptable, effective and cost-effective way to help pregnant women who smoke to quit? METHODS: The Cessation in Pregnancy Incentives Trial (CPIT) III is a pragmatic, 42-month, multi-centre, parallel-group, individually randomised controlled superiority trial of the effect on smoking status of adding to usual Stop Smoking Services (SSS) support, the offer of up to £400 of financial voucher incentives, compared with usual support alone, to quit smoking during pregnancy. Participants (n = 940) are pregnant smokers (age > 16 years, < 24 weeks pregnant, English speaking), who consent via telephone to take part and are willing to be followed-up in late pregnancy and 6 months after birth. The primary outcome is cotinine/anabasine-validated abstinence from smoking in late pregnancy. Secondary outcomes include engagement with SSS, quit rates at 4 weeks from agreed quit date and 6 months after birth, and birth weight. Outcomes will be analysed by intention to treat, and regression models will be used to compare treatment effects on outcomes. A meta-analysis will include data from the feasibility study in Glasgow. An economic evaluation will assess cost-effectiveness from a UK NHS perspective. Process evaluation using a case-study approach will identify opportunities to improve recruitment and learning for future implementation. Research questions include: what is the therapeutic efficacy of incentives; are incentives cost-effective; and what are the potential facilitators and barriers to implementing incentives in different parts of the UK? DISCUSSION: This phase III trial in Scotland, England and Northern Ireland follows a successful phase II trial in Glasgow, UK. The participating sites have diverse SSS that represent most cessation services in the UK and serve demographically varied populations. If found to be acceptable and cost-effective, this trial could demonstrate that financial incentives are effective and transferable to most UK SSS for pregnant women. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials, ISRCTN15236311. Registered on 9 October 2017.


Assuntos
Apoio Financeiro , Motivação , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Inglaterra , Estudos de Equivalência como Asunto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Irlanda do Norte , Ensaios Clínicos Pragmáticos como Assunto , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/psicologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Escócia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/economia , Fumar/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/economia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Medicina Estatal/economia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 22(7): 1178-1186, 2020 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited research exists on interest in and use of smoking cessation support in pregnancy and postpartum. METHODS: A longitudinal cohort of pregnant smokers and recent ex-smokers were recruited in Nottinghamshire, United Kingdom (N = 850). Data were collected at 8-26 weeks gestation, 34-36 weeks gestation, and 3 months postpartum and used as three cross-sectional surveys. Interest and use of cessation support and belief and behavior measures were collected at all waves. Key data were adjusted for nonresponse and analyzed descriptively, and multiple regression was used to identify associations. RESULTS: In early and late pregnancy, 44% (95% CI 40% to 48%) and 43% (95% CI 37% to 49%) of smokers, respectively, were interested in cessation support with 33% (95% CI 27% to 39%) interested postpartum. In early pregnancy, 43% of smokers reported discussing cessation with a midwife and, in late pregnancy, 27% did so. Over one-third (38%) did not report discussing quitting with a health professional during pregnancy. Twenty-seven percent of smokers reported using any National Health Service (NHS) cessation support and 12% accessed NHS Stop Smoking Services during pregnancy. Lower quitting confidence (self-efficacy), higher confidence in stopping with support, higher quitting motivation, and higher age were associated with higher interest in support (ps ≤ .001). A recent quit attempt and greater interest in support was associated with speaking to a health professional about quitting and use of NHS cessation support (ps ≤ .001). CONCLUSIONS: When asked in early or late pregnancy, about half of pregnant smokers were interested in cessation support, though most did not engage. Cessation support should be offered throughout pregnancy and after delivery. IMPLICATIONS: There is relatively high interest in cessation support in early and late pregnancy and postpartum among smokers; however, a much smaller proportion of pregnant or postpartum women access any cessation support, highlighting a gap between interest and engagement. Reflecting women's interest, offers of cessation support should be provided throughout pregnancy and after delivery. Increasing motivation to quit and confidence in quitting with assistance may enhance interest in support, and promoting the discussion of stopping smoking between women and health practitioners may contribute to higher support engagement rates.


Assuntos
Motivação , Período Pós-Parto , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/terapia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Gravidez , Autoeficácia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
15.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2019(10)2019 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Taking regular exercise, whether cardiovascular-type exercise or resistance exercise, may help people to give up smoking, particularly by reducing cigarette withdrawal symptoms and cravings, and by helping to manage weight gain. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of exercise-based interventions alone, or combined with a smoking cessation programme, for achieving long-term smoking cessation, compared with a smoking cessation intervention alone or other non-exercise intervention. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register for studies, using the term 'exercise' or 'physical activity' in the title, abstract or keywords. The date of the most recent search was May 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials that compared an exercise programme alone, or an exercise programme as an adjunct to a cessation programme, with a cessation programme alone or another non-exercise control group. Trials were required to recruit smokers wishing to quit or recent quitters, to assess abstinence as an outcome and have follow-up of at least six months. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed standard Cochrane methods. Smoking cessation was measured after at least six months, using the most rigorous definition available, on an intention-to-treat basis. We calculated risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for smoking cessation for each study, where possible. We grouped eligible studies according to the type of comparison, as either smoking cessation or relapse prevention. We carried out meta-analyses where appropriate, using Mantel-Haenszel random-effects models. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 24 eligible trials with a total of 7279 adult participants randomised. Two studies focused on relapse prevention among smokers who had recently stopped smoking, and the remaining 22 studies were concerned with smoking cessation for smokers who wished to quit. Eleven studies were with women only and one with men only. Most studies recruited fairly inactive people. Most of the trials employed supervised, group-based cardiovascular-type exercise supplemented by a home-based exercise programme and combined with a multi-session cognitive behavioural smoking cessation programme. The comparator in most cases was a multi-session cognitive behavioural smoking cessation programme alone. Overall, we judged two studies to be at low risk of bias, 11 at high risk of bias, and 11 at unclear risk of bias. Among the 21 studies analysed, we found low-certainty evidence, limited by potential publication bias and by imprecision, comparing the effect of exercise plus smoking cessation support with smoking cessation support alone on smoking cessation outcomes (RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.22; I2 = 0%; 6607 participants). We excluded one study from this analysis as smoking abstinence rates for the study groups were not reported. There was no evidence of subgroup differences according to the type of exercise promoted; the subgroups considered were: cardiovascular-type exercise alone (17 studies), resistance training alone (one study), combined cardiovascular-type and resistance exercise (one study) and type of exercise not specified (two studies). The results were not significantly altered when we excluded trials with high risk of bias, or those with special populations, or those where smoking cessation intervention support was not matched between the intervention and control arms. Among the two relapse prevention studies, we found very low-certainty evidence, limited by risk of bias and imprecision, that adding exercise to relapse prevention did not improve long-term abstinence compared with relapse prevention alone (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.47; I2 = 0%; 453 participants). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence that adding exercise to smoking cessation support improves abstinence compared with support alone, but the evidence is insufficient to assess whether there is a modest benefit. Estimates of treatment effect were of low or very low certainty, because of concerns about bias in the trials, imprecision and publication bias. Consequently, future trials may change these conclusions.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Prevenção Secundária , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Resultado do Tratamento , Ganho de Peso
16.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e032852, 2019 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780593

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To (1) estimate the combined risks of cigarette smoking and physical inactivity for chronic disease, disability and depressive symptoms and (2) determine whether risks associated with these behaviours are additive or synergistic. DESIGN AND SETTING: Longitudinal observational population study using data from Waves 2 (2004/2005) through 8 (2016/2017) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, a prospective study of community-dwelling older adults in England. PARTICIPANTS: 6425 men and women aged ≥52 years (mean (SD) 65.88 (9.34) years) at baseline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Smoking status (never, former, current) and level of physical activity (high, defined as moderate/vigorous physical activity (MVPA) more than once a week; low, defined as MVPA once a week or less) were self-reported at Wave 2 baseline. Self-rated health, limiting long-standing illness, chronic conditions (coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, cancer, chronic lung disease) and depressive symptoms were reported in each biennial wave. RESULTS: Both smoking and low levels of physical activity were associated with increased risk of incident health problems over the 12-year follow-up period. Current smokers with low levels of physical activity had especially high risks of developing fair/poor self-rated health, CHD, stroke, cancer and chronic lung disease compared with highly active never smokers (adjusted relative risk range 1.89-14.00). While additive effects were evident, tests of multiplicative interactions revealed no evidence of large synergistic effects of smoking and low physical activity (Bayes factor range 0.04-0.61), although data were insensitive to detect smaller effects. CONCLUSIONS: Among older adults in England, there was no evidence of large synergistic effects of smoking and low levels of physical activity on risk of developing chronic disease or depressive symptoms over 12 years. However, additive effects of smoking and low levels of physical activity were evident, underscoring the importance of each of these lifestyle risk behaviours for disease onset.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Idoso , Comorbidade , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
17.
Pilot Feasibility Stud ; 5: 117, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666983

RESUMO

Introduction: A high BMI during and after pregnancy is linked to poor pregnancy outcomes and contributes to long-term maternal obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. Evidence of feasible, effective postnatal interventions is lacking. This randomised controlled trial will assess the feasibility of conducting a future definitive trial to determine effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of lifestyle information and access to Slimming World® (Alfreton, UK) groups for 12 weeks commencing from 8 to 16 weeks postnatally, in relation to supporting longer-term postnatal weight management in women in an ethnically diverse inner city population. Methods/analysis: Women will be recruited from one maternity unit in London. To be eligible, women will be overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m2) or obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) as identified at their first antenatal contact, or have a normal BMI (18.5-24.9 kg/m2) at booking but gain excessive gestational weight as assessed at 36 weeks gestation. Women will be aged 18 and over, can speak and read English, expecting a single baby, and will not have accessed weight management groups in this pregnancy. Women will be randomly allocated to standard care plus lifestyle information and access to Slimming World® (Alfreton, UK) groups or standard care only. A sample of 130 women is required.Feasibility trial objectives reflect those considered most important inform a decision about undertaking a definitive future trial. These include estimation of impact of lifestyle information and postnatal access to Slimming World® (Alfreton, UK) on maternal weight change between antenatal booking weight and weight at 12 months postbirth, recruitment rate and time to recruitment, retention rate, influence of lifestyle information and Slimming World® (Alfreton, UK) groups on weight management, diet, physical activity, breastfeeding, smoking cessation, alcohol intake, physical and mental health, infant health, and health-related quality of life 6 and 12 months postnatally. An embedded process evaluation will assess acceptability of study processes and procedures to women. Ethics/dissemination: London-Camberwell St Giles Research Ethics Committee, reference: 16/LO/1422. Outcomes will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and presentations at national and international conferences. Trial registration: Trial registration number: ISRCTN 39186148. Protocol version number: v7, 13 August 17. Trial sponsor: King's College London.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382531

RESUMO

Pregnant women experience certain barriers and facilitators (B&Fs) when trying to quit smoking. This study aimed to elicit women's views on techniques that could help overcome or enhance these. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 pregnant women who had experience of smoking during pregnancy. Participants were prompted to discuss experiences of B&Fs and give suggestions of techniques that could address these appropriately. A thematic analysis was conducted using the one sheet of paper method. Four themes relating to suggested techniques were identified: accessing professional help, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), distraction, and social interactions. Experiences of accessing professional help were generally positive, especially if there was a good rapport with, and easy access to a practitioner. Most women were aware of NRT, those who had used it reported both negative and positive experiences. Praise and encouragement from others towards cessation attempts appeared motivating; peer support groups were deemed useful. Women reported experiencing B&Fs which fell under four themes: influence of others, internal motivation, cues to smoke, and health. Overall, accessing professional support generated positive changes in smoking habits. Establishing ways of how to encourage more women to seek help and raising awareness of different types of support available would seem beneficial.


Assuntos
Fumantes/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco , Adulto , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fumar/terapia , Fumar Tabaco
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466394

RESUMO

Relapse to smoking postpartum is a common and important public health problem. Difficulty in adjusting to a non-smoking identity is a key factor prompting relapse. However, postpartum relapse prevention interventions rarely focus upon offering support for identity change. We conducted an exploratory inductive analysis of a dataset from the Prevention of Return to Smoking Postpartum (PReS) study to understand identity constructs and experiences of pre- and postpartum women (smokers and ex-smokers), partners and health professionals. Data were obtained from 77 unique participants via focus groups, interviews, email or online questionnaires, and were analyzed by two researchers independently, using NVivo 12. Four main themes emerged reflecting identity transition from the pre- to the postpartum period: (i) Pregnancy and the categorization of smoking status; (ii) the disruption of motherhood and loss of self; (iii) adapting to a maternal non-smoking identity; and (iv) factors influencing sustained abstinence versus relapse to smoking. Postpartum relapse prevention interventions need to consider support for women, and the whole family unit, in adjusting to a new identity as a non-smoking mother. Smoking status should be revisited throughout pregnancy and into the postpartum period to aid the long-term integration of smoke-free behavior.


Assuntos
Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Identificação Social , Fumar Tabaco/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Recidiva , Prevenção Secundária , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar
20.
Addict Behav Rep ; 9: 100164, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31193880

RESUMO

Introduction: Pregnant women can experience barriers and facilitators towards achieving smoking cessation. We sought consensus from smoking cessation practitioners on how influential pre-identified barriers and facilitators can be on pregnant women's smoking behaviour, and how difficult these might be to manage. Suggestions for techniques that could help overcome the barriers or enhance the facilitators were elicited and consensus sought on the appropriateness for their use in practice. Methods: Forty-four practitioners who provided cessation support to pregnant women completed a three-round modified Delphi survey. Round one sought consensus on the 'influence' and 'difficulty' of the barriers and facilitators, and gathered respondents' suggestions on ways to address these. Rounds two and three sought further consensus on the barriers and facilitators and on 'appropriateness' of the respondent-suggested techniques. The techniques were coded for behaviour change techniques (BCTs) content using existing taxonomies. Results: Barriers and facilitators considered to be the most important mainly related to the influence of significant others and the women's motivation & self-efficacy. Having a supportive partner was considered the most influential, whereas lack of support from partner was the only barrier that reached consensus as being difficult to manage. Barriers relating to social norms were also considered influential, however these received poor coverage of respondent-suggested techniques. Those considered the easiest to address mainly related to aspects of cessation support, including misconceptions surrounding the use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Barriers and facilitators relating to the women's motivation & self-efficacy, such as the want to protect the baby, were also considered as being particularly easy to address. Fifty of the 54 respondent-suggested techniques reached consensus as being appropriate. Those considered the most appropriate ranged from providing support early, giving correct information on NRT, highlighting risks and benefits and reinforcing motivating beliefs. Thirty-three BCTs were identified from the respondent-suggested techniques. 'Social support (unspecified)', 'Tailor interactions appropriately' and 'Problem solving' were the most frequently coded BCTs. Conclusions: Involving partners in quit attempts was advocated. Existing support could be potentially improved by establishing appropriate ways to address barriers relating to pregnant smokers' 'social norms'. In general, providing consistent and motivating support seemed favourable.

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