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1.
Cancer Med ; 10(6): 2153-2163, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650323

RESUMO

Prior studies reported the association of reproductive factors with breast cancer (BC), but the evidence is inconsistent. We conducted a pooled analysis of nine cohort studies in Japan to evaluate the impact of six reproductive factors (age at menarche/age at first birth/number of births/age at menopause/use of female hormones/breastfeeding) on BC incidence. We conducted analyses according to menopausal status at the baseline or at the diagnosis. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated by applying Cox proportional-hazards model in each study. These hazard ratios were integrated using a random-effects model. Among 187,999 women (premenopausal: 61,113, postmenopausal: 126,886), we observed 873 premenopausal and 1,456 postmenopausal cases. Among premenopausal women, use of female hormones significantly increased BC incidence (HR: 1.53 [1.04-2.25]). Although P value for trend was not significant for age at first birth and number of births (P for trend: 0.15 and 0.30, respectively), women giving first birth at ages ≥36 experienced significantly higher BC incidence than at ages 21-25 years, and women who had ≥2 births experienced significantly lower BC incidence than nulliparous women. Among postmenopausal women, more births significantly decreased BC incidence (P for trend: 0.03). Although P value for trend was not significant for age at first birth and age at menopause (P for trend: 0.30 and 0.37, respectively), women giving first birth at ages 26-35 years experienced significantly higher BC incidence than at ages 21-25 years, and women with age at menopause: ≥50 years experienced significantly higher BC incidence than age at menopause: ≤44 years. BC incidence was similar according to age at menarche or breastfeeding history among both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. In conclusion, among Japanese women, use of female hormones increased BC incidence in premenopausal women, and more births decreased BC incidence in postmenopausal women.

2.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492551

RESUMO

We examined the mortality risks among 2463 individuals who were exposed in utero to atomic bomb radiation in Hiroshima or Nagasaki in August 1945 and were followed from October 1950 through 2012. Individual estimates of mother's weighted absorbed uterine dose (DS02R1) were used. Poisson regression method was used to estimate the radiation-associated excess relative risk per Gy (ERR/Gy) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for cause-specific mortality. Head size, birth weight, and parents' survival status were evaluated as potential mediators of radiation effect. There were 339 deaths (216 males and 123 females) including deaths from solid cancer (n = 137), lymphohematopoietic cancer (n = 8), noncancer disease (n = 134), external cause (n = 56), and unknown cause (n = 4). Among males, the unadjusted ERR/Gy (95% CI) was increased for noncancer disease mortality (1.22, 0.10-3.14), but not for solid cancer mortality (- 0.18, < - 0.77-0.95); the unadjusted ERR/Gy for external cause mortality was not statistically significant (0.28, < - 0.60-2.36). Among females, the unadjusted ERRs/Gy were increased for solid cancer (2.24, 0.44-5.58), noncancer (2.86, 0.56-7.64), and external cause mortality (2.57, 0.20-9.19). The ERRs/Gy adjusted for potential mediators did not change appreciably for solid cancer mortality, but decreased notably for noncancer mortality (0.39, < - 0.43-1.91 for males; 1.48, - 0.046-4.55 for females) and external cause mortality (0.10, < - 0.57-1.96 for males; 1.38, < - 0.46-5.95 for females). In conclusion, antenatal radiation exposure is a consistent risk factor for increased solid cancer mortality among females, but not among males. The effect of exposure to atomic bomb radiation on noncancer disease and external cause mortality among individuals exposed in utero was mediated through small head size, low birth weight, and parental loss.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 148(11): 2736-2747, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497475

RESUMO

Although alcohol consumption is reported to increase the incidence of breast cancer in European studies, evidence for an association between alcohol and breast cancer in Asian populations is insufficient. We conducted a pooled analysis of eight large-scale population-based prospective cohort studies in Japan to evaluate the association between alcohol (both frequency and amount) and breast cancer risk with categorization by menopausal status at baseline and at diagnosis. Estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated in the individual cohorts and combined using random-effects models. Among 158 164 subjects with 2 369 252 person-years of follow-up, 2208 breast cancer cases were newly diagnosed. Alcohol consumption had a significant association with a higher risk of breast cancer in both women who were premenopausal at baseline (regular drinker compared to nondrinker: HR 1.37, 1.04-1.81, ≥23 g/d compared to 0 g/d: HR 1.74, 1.25-2.43, P for trend per frequency category: P = .017) and those who were premenopausal at diagnosis (≥23 g/d compared to 0 g/d: HR 1.89, 1.04-3.43, P for trend per frequency category: P = .032). In contrast, no significant association was seen in women who were postmenopausal at baseline or at diagnosis, despite a substantial number of subjects and long follow-up period. Our results revealed that frequent and high alcohol consumption are both risk factors for Asian premenopausal breast cancer, similarly to previous studies in Western countries. The lack of a clear association in postmenopausal women in our study warrants larger investigation in Asia.

4.
Radiat Res ; 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264396

RESUMO

As part of the recent series of articles to create a comprehensive description of the radiation risks of solid cancer incidence after ionizing radiation exposure, based on the atomic bomb survivors' Life Span Study (LSS), this work focuses on the risks of urinary tract cancer (UTC) and kidney cancer. Analyses covered a 52-year period of follow-up, through 2009, among 105,444 eligible survivors who were alive and cancer free in 1958. This represents an additional 11 years of follow-up since the last comprehensive report, with a total of 3,079,502 person-years. We observed 790 UTC and 218 kidney cancer cases. Adjusted for smoking, there was a strong linear radiation dose response for UTC. The sex-averaged excess relative risk per 1 Gy (ERR/Gy) was 1.4 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.82 to 2.1). Both males and females showed significantly increased ERRs/Gy with female point estimates at a factor of 3.4 (95% CI: 1.4 to 8.6) greater than male estimates. UTC radiation risks were largely unmodified by age at exposure or attained age. The attributable fraction of UTC to radiation exposure was approximately 18% while that attributed to smoking was 48%. Kidney cancer showed an increased ERR due to smoking (0.56 per 50 pack-years; 95% CI -0.007 to 1.6; P = 0.054), but we did not observe any strong associations of kidney cancer with radiation exposure, although sex-specific dose responses were found to be statistically different.

5.
Radiat Res ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181833

RESUMO

Epidemiological evidence for a radiation effect on prostate cancer risk has been inconsistent and largely indicative of no or little effect. Here we studied prostate cancer incidence among males of the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors in a follow-up from 1958 to 2009, eleven years more than was previously reported. During this period there were 851 incident cases of prostate cancer among 41,544 male subjects, doubling the total number of cases in the cohort. More than 50% of the cases were diagnosed among those who were less than 20 years of age at the time of the bombings and who were at, or near, the ages of heightened prostate cancer risks during the last decade of follow-up. In analyses of the radiation dose response using Poisson regression methods, we used a baseline-rate model that allowed for calendar period effects corresponding to the emergence of prostate-specific antigen screening in the general population as well as effects of attained age and birth cohort. The model also allowed for markedly increased baseline rates among the Adult Health Study participants between 2005 and 2009, a period during which a prostate-specific antigen test was included in Adult Health Study biennial health examinations. We found a significant linear dose response with an estimated excess relative risk (ERR) per Gy of 0.57 (95% CI: 0.21, 1.00, P = 0.001). An estimated 40 of the observed cases were attributed to radiation exposure from the bombings. There was a suggestion of the ERR decreasing with increasing age at exposure (P = 0.09). We found no indication of effects of smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index on the baseline risk of prostate cancer. The observed dose response strengthens the evidence of a radiation effect on the risk of prostate cancer incidence in the atomic bomb survivors.

6.
Radiat Res ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181839

RESUMO

There is limited evidence concerning the association between radiation exposure and ovarian cancer. We evaluated radiation risk of ovarian cancer between 1958 and 2009 among 62,534 female atomic bomb survivors in the Life Span Study cohort, adding 11 years of follow-up from the previously reported study. Poisson regression methods were used to estimate excess relative risk per Gy (ERR/Gy) for total ovarian cancer and according to tumor type. We assessed the modifying effect of follow-up period and other factors on the radiation risk. We ascertained 288 first primary ovarian cancers including 77 type 1 epithelial cancers, 75 type 2 epithelial cancers, 66 epithelial cancers of undetermined type and 70 other cancers. Radiation dose was positively, although not significantly, associated with risk of total ovarian cancer [ERR/Gy = 0.30, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.22 to 1.11]. There was a suggestion of heterogeneity in radiation effects (P = 0.08) for type 1 (ERR/Gy = -0.32, 95% CI: <-0.32 to 0.88) and type 2 cancers (ERR/Gy = 1.24, 95% CI: -0.08 to 4.16). There were no significant trends in the ERR with time since exposure or age at exposure. Further follow-up will help characterize more accurately the patterns of radiation risk for total ovarian cancer and its types.

7.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761607

RESUMO

Smoking has been consistently associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Western populations; however, evidence is limited and inconsistent in Asian people. To assess the association of smoking status, smoking intensity and smoking cessation with colorectal risk in the Japanese population, we performed a pooled analysis of 10 population-based cohort studies. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox's proportional hazards model and then pooled using a random-effects model. Among 363 409 participants followed up for 2 666 004 person-years, 9232 incident CRCs were identified. In men, compared with never smokers, ever smokers showed higher risk of CRC. The HRs (95% CI) were 1.19 (1.10-1.29) for CRC, 1.19 (1.09-1.30) for colon cancer, 1.28 (1.13-1.46) for distal colon cancer and 1.21 (1.07-1.36) for rectal cancer. Smoking was associated with risk of CRC in a dose-response manner. In women, compared with never smokers, ever smokers showed increased risk of distal colon cancer (1.47 [1.19-1.82]). There was no evidence of a significant gender difference in the association of smoking and CRC risk. Our results confirm that smoking is associated with an increased risk of CRC, both overall and subsites, in Japanese men and distal colon cancer in Japanese women.

8.
Biom J ; 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608110

RESUMO

The paper proposes an approach to causal mediation analysis in nested case-control study designs, often incorporated with countermatching schemes using conditional likelihood, and we compare the method's performance to that of mediation analysis using the Cox model for the full cohort with a continuous or dichotomous mediator. Simulation studies are conducted to assess our proposed method and investigate the efficiency relative to the cohort. We illustrate the method using actual data from two studies of potential mediation of radiation risk conducted within the Adult Health Study cohort of atomic-bomb survivors. The performance becomes comparable to that based on the full cohort, illustrating the potential for valid mediation analysis based on the reduced data obtained through the nested case-control design.

9.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(6): 591-600, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982981

RESUMO

Radiation exposure is among the few factors known to be associated with risk of central nervous system (CNS) tumors. However, the patterns of radiation risk by histological type, sex or age are unclear. We evaluated radiation risks of first primary glioma, meningioma, schwannoma, and other or not otherwise specified (other/NOS) tumors in the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors. Cases diagnosed between 1958 and 2009 were ascertained through population-based cancer registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. To estimate excess relative risk per Gy (ERR/Gy), we fit rate models using Poisson regression methods. There were 285 CNS tumors (67 gliomas, 107 meningiomas, 49 schwannomas, and 64 other/NOS tumors) among 105,444 individuals with radiation dose estimates to the brain contributing 3.1 million person-years of observation. Based on a simple linear model without effect modification, ERR/Gy was 1.67 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.12 to 5.26) for glioma, 1.82 (95% CI: 0.51 to 4.30) for meningioma, 1.45 (95% CI: - 0.01 to 4.97) for schwannoma, and 1.40 (95% CI: 0.61 to 2.57) for all CNS tumors as a group. For each tumor type, the dose-response was consistent with linearity and appeared to be stronger among males than among females, particularly for meningioma (P = 0.045). There was also evidence that the ERR/Gy for schwannoma decreased with attained age (P = 0.002). More than 60 years after the bombings, radiation risks for CNS tumors continue to be elevated. Further follow-up is necessary to characterize the lifetime risks of specific CNS tumors following radiation exposure.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Bombas Atômicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/epidemiologia , Exposição à Radiação/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/etiologia , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Feminino , Glioma/epidemiologia , Glioma/etiologia , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Longevidade , Masculino , Meningioma/epidemiologia , Meningioma/etiologia , Meningioma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurilemoma/epidemiologia , Neurilemoma/etiologia , Neurilemoma/patologia , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco
10.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 635-645, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873589

RESUMO

Radiation effects on colorectal cancer rates, adjusted for smoking, alcohol intake and frequency of meat consumption and body mass index (BMI) by anatomical subsite (proximal colon, distal colon and rectum) were examined in a cohort of 105,444 atomic bomb survivors. Poisson regression methods were used to describe radiation-associated excess relative risks (ERR) and excess absolute rates (EAR) for the 1958-2009 period. There were 2,960 first primary colorectal cancers including 894 proximal, 871 distal and 1,046 rectal cancers. Smoking, alcohol intake and BMI were associated with subsite-specific cancer background rates. Significant linear dose-responses were found for total colon (sex-averaged ERR/Gy for 70 years old exposed at age 30 = 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.34; 0.98), proximal [ERR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.32; 1.44] and distal colon cancers [ERR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.04; 0.97], but not for rectal cancer [ERR = 0.023, 95% CI: -0.081; 0.13]. The ERRs for proximal and distal colon cancers were not significantly different (p = 0.41). The ERR decreased with attained age for total colon, but not for proximal colon cancer, and with calendar year for distal colon cancer. The ERRs and EARs did not vary by age at exposure, except for decreasing trend in EAR for proximal colon cancer. In conclusion, ionizing radiation is associated with increased risk of proximal and distal colon cancers. The ERR for proximal cancer persists over time, but that for distal colon cancer decreases. There continues to be no indication of radiation effects on rectal cancer incidence in this population.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Bombas Atômicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Retais/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colo/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias do Colo/etiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos da radiação , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Carne/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/etiologia , Neoplasias Retais/etiologia , Reto/efeitos da radiação , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Radiat Res ; 192(3): 299-310, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291162

RESUMO

The Life Span Study (LSS) of atomic bomb survivors has consistently demonstrated significant excess radiation-related risks of liver cancer since the first cancer incidence report. Here, we present updated information on radiation risks of liver, biliary tract and pancreatic cancers based on 11 additional years of follow-up since the last report, from 1958 to 2009. The current analyses used improved individual radiation doses and accounted for the effects of alcohol consumption, smoking and body mass index. The study participants included 105,444 LSS participants with known individual radiation dose and no known history of cancer at the start of follow-up. Cases were the first primary incident cancers of the liver (including intrahepatic bile duct), biliary tract (gallbladder and other and unspecified parts of biliary tract) or pancreas identified through linkage with population-based cancer registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Poisson regression methods were used to estimate excess relative risks (ERRs) and excess absolute risks (EARs) associated with DS02R1 doses for liver (liver and biliary tract cancers) or pancreas (pancreatic cancer). We identified 2,016 incident liver cancer cases during the follow-up period. Radiation dose was significantly associated with liver cancer risk (ERR per Gy: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.23 to 0.89; EAR per 10,000 person-year Gy: 5.32, 95% CI: 2.49 to 8.51). There was no evidence for curvature in the radiation dose response (P=0.344). ERRs by age-at-exposure categories were significantly increased among those who were exposed at 0-9, 10-19 and 20-29 years, but not significantly increased after age 30 years, although there was no statistical evidence of heterogeneity in these ERRs (P = 0.378). The radiation ERRs were not affected by adjustment for smoking, alcohol consumption or body mass index. As in previously reported studies, radiation dose was not associated with risk of biliary tract cancer (ERR per Gy: -0.02, 95% CI: -0.25 to 0.30). Radiation dose was associated with a nonsignificant increase in pancreatic cancer risk (ERR per Gy: 0.38, 95% CI: <0 to 0.83). The increased risk was statistically significant among women (ERR per Gy: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.12 to 1.45), but not among men.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/epidemiologia , Armas Nucleares , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/etiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/etiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/etiologia , Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Radiat Res ; 192(3): 331-344, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356146

RESUMO

As a follow-up to the comprehensive work on solid cancer incidence in the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of atomic bomb survivors between 1958 and 1998, we report here on updated radiation risk estimates for upper digestive tract cancers. In this study, we added 11 years of follow-up (1958-2009), used improved radiation dose estimates, considered effects of smoking and alcohol consumption and performed dose-response analyses by anatomical sub-site. In examining 52 years'worth of data, we ascertained the occurrence of 394 oral cavity/pharyngeal cancers, 486 esophageal cancers and 5,661 stomach cancers among 105,444 subjects. The radiation risk for oral cavity/pharyngeal cancer, other than salivary gland, was elevated but not significantly so. In contrast, salivary gland cancer exhibited a strong linear dose response with excess relative risk (ERR) of 2.54 per Gy [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69 to 6.1]. Radiation risk decreased considerably with increasing age at time of exposure (-66% per decade, 95% CI: -88% to -32%). The dose response for esophageal cancer was statistically significant under a simple linear, linear-quadratic and quadratic model. Both linear-quadratic and quadratic models described the data better than a simple linear model and, of the two, the quadratic model showed a marginally better fit based on the Akaike Information Criteria. Sex difference in linear ERRs was not statistically significant; however, when the dose-response shape was allowed to vary by sex, statistically significant curvature was found among males, with no evidence of quadratic departure from linearity among females. The risk for stomach cancer increased significantly with dose and there was little evidence for quadratic departure from linearity among either males or females. The sex-averaged ERR at age 70 was 0.33 per Gy (95% CI: 0.20 to 0.47). The ERR decreased significantly (-1.93 power of attained age, 95% CI: -2.94 to -0.82) with increasing attained age, but not with age at exposure, and was higher in females than males (P = 0.02). Our results are largely consistent with the results of prior LSS analyses. Salivary gland, esophageal and stomach cancers continue to show significant increases in risk with radiation dose. Adjustment for lifestyle factors had almost no impact on the radiation effect estimates. Further follow-up of the LSS cohort is important to clarify the nature of radiation effects for upper digestive tract cancers, especially for oral cavity/pharyngeal and esophageal cancers, for which detailed investigation for dose-response shape could not be conducted due to the small number of cases.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/epidemiologia , Armas Nucleares , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos , Trato Gastrointestinal Superior/efeitos da radiação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/etiologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/etiologia
13.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(8): 1370-1378, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Detailed prospective evaluation of cigarette smoking associated with pancreatic cancer risk in large Asian populations is limited. The aim of this study was to examine this association in a Japanese population, with a particular focus on evaluating sex differences. METHODS: We performed a pooled analysis of 10 population-based cohort studies. We calculated study-specific HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional hazards regression, and then estimated summary HRs by pooling these estimates with a random effects model. RESULTS: During 4,695,593 person-years of follow-up in 354,154 participants, 1,779 incident pancreatic cancer cases were identified. We observed an increased pancreatic cancer risk for current smoking compared with never smoking in both males [HR (95% CI), 1.59 (1.32-1.91)] and females [HR (95% CI), 1.81 (1.43-2.30)]. Significant risk elevations for former smoking and small cumulative dose of ≤20 pack-years (PY) were observed only among females, regardless of environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Trend analysis indicated significant 6% and nonsignificant 6% increases in pancreatic cancer risk for every 10 PYs in males and females, respectively. Risk became comparable with never smokers after 5 years of smoking cessation in males. In females, however, we observed no risk attenuation by smoking cessation. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the well-known association between smoking and pancreatic cancer and indicates potential sex differences in a Japanese population. Quitting smoking would be beneficial for pancreatic cancer prevention, especially in males. IMPACT: Pancreatic cancer risk is increased with cumulative smoking exposure and decreased with smoking cessation, with potential sex differences.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sexismo , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar Tabaco/patologia
14.
J Clin Med ; 8(5)2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027324

RESUMO

Salivary gland neoplasms are uncommon, and their epidemiology in Japan has not been well described. We conducted a retrospective review of salivary gland tumors registered in the Hiroshima Tumor Tissue Registry over a period of 39 years. The subjects were 5015 cases ranging in age from 6 to 97 (mean, 54.3) years old. The incidence of both benign tumors and malignant tumors increased with age until 60-69 years and then declined. Among the 5015 salivary gland neoplasms, 3998 (80%) were benign and 1017 (20%) were malignant. Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) was the most frequent benign tumor (68%), followed by Warthin tumor (26%). Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) (27%) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) (26%) were the two most frequent malignant tumors. Characteristically, there was a very low incidence of polymorphous adenocarcinoma in Japan. The average annual age-adjusted incidence rate per 100,000 population was 3.3 for benign tumors and 0.8 for malignant tumors. This is the large-scale multi-institutional analysis to describe the characteristics of salivary gland neoplasms, based on the pathological tissue registry data. We hope that the present data can contribute to early diagnosis and effective treatment of salivary gland tumors and to cancer prevention.

15.
J Epidemiol ; 29(6): 238-240, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Histological classification of lung cancer is essential for investigations of carcinogenesis and treatment selection. We examined the temporal changes of lung cancer histological subtypes. METHODS: Lung cancer cases diagnosed in the Life Span Study cohort between 1958 and 1999 were collected from tumor registries (TR), mainly consisting of population-based cancer registries. A total of 1,025 cases were histologically reviewed according to the World Health Organization 2004 Classification by a panel of pathologists (PP). Sensitivity and specificity of diagnoses in TR were calculated, assuming that the diagnosis by PP was the gold standard. RESULTS: Sensitivity and specificity were 0.91 and 0.92 for adenocarcinoma (AD), respectively, and 0.92 and 0.94, respectively, for squamous cell carcinoma (SQ). They were similar for AD and SQ throughout the observation period. For small cell carcinoma (SM), sensitivity was low until about 1980 (0.47 in 1958-1969, and 0.61 in 1970-1979) and then became higher thereafter (0.98 in 1980-1989, and 0.95 in 1990-1999), whereas specificity was high during the whole period (range 0.99 to 1.00). Among 45 cases that were not reported as SM in TR but diagnosed as SM by PP, 16 cases were recorded as undifferentiated carcinoma in TR. CONCLUSION: Diagnosis of AD and SQ of lung cancer were generally consistent between TR records and PP review, but SMs tended to be coded as other histological types until the 1970s.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/classificação , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Sistema de Registros , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Japão , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Organização Mundial da Saúde
16.
Int J Cancer ; 144(9): 2144-2152, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30474210

RESUMO

In Japan, cervical cancer incidence has increased since the late 1990s especially among young women, despite a decreasing trend in most developed countries. Here, we examined age, period and birth cohort trends in cervical cancer incidence rates from 1985 to 2012. Incidence rates were ascertained using three population-based cancer registries and analyzed using Joinpoint regression and age-period-cohort models. We compared the findings in Japan to trends among Japanese-Americans in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Registries and among women in South Korea using the Korea Central Registry. Age-standardized incidence rates in Japan decreased by 1.7% per year (95% confidence interval - 3.3%, 0.0%) until 1997 and thereafter increased by 2.6% per year (1.1%, 4.2%). Incidence rates increased among women under age 50, were stable among women aged 50-54, and decreased or remained stable among women aged 55 and over. The age-standardized incidence rate ratio by birth cohort showed a U-shaped pattern with the lowest rates in women born in the late 1930s and 1940s. In comparison, women born before 1920 and after 1970 had about double the incidence. Increasing risk in recent birth cohorts was not evident in Japanese-American or South Korean women. The trends in Japan may be attributable to increasing prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among young women. Screening and vaccination have been shown to be highly effective and would help reverse these trends.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Sistema de Registros , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Radiat Res ; 190(4): 433-444, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30044713

RESUMO

The importance of reproductive history in breast tissue development and etiology of sporadic breast cancer in females is well established. However, there is limited evidence of factors, other than age, that modify risk of radiation-related breast cancer. In this study, we evaluated breast cancer incidence in the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors, adding 11 years of follow-up and incorporating reproductive history data. We used Poisson regression models to describe radiation risks and modifying effects of age and reproductive factors. Among 62,534 females, we identified 1,470 breast cancers between 1958 and 2009. Of 397 new cases diagnosed since 1998, 75% were exposed before age 20. We found a strong linear dose response with excess relative risk (ERR) of 1.12 per Gy [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73 to 1.59] for females at age 70 after exposure at age 30. The ERR decreased with increasing attained age ( P = 0.007) while excess absolute rate (EAR) increased with attained age up to age 70 ( P < 0.001). Age at menarche was a strong modifier of the radiation effect: for a given dose, both the ERR and EAR decreased with increasing age at menarche ( P = 0.007 and P < 0.001). Also, independently, age-at-exposure effects on ERR and EAR differed before and after menarche ( P = 0.043 and P = 0.015, respectively, relative to log-linear trends), with highest risks for exposures around menarche. Despite the small number of male breast cancers (n = 10), the data continue to suggest a dose response (ERR per Gy = 5.7; 95% CI: 0.3 to 30.8; P = 0.018). Persistently increased risk of female breast cancer after radiation exposure and its modification pattern suggests heightened breast sensitivity during puberty.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/epidemiologia , Armas Nucleares , Sobreviventes , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição à Radiação
18.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 2(4): pky081, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249993

RESUMO

Background: Ionizing radiation is known to be capable of causing cancer of many organs, but its relationship with uterine cancer has not been well characterized. Methods: We studied incidence of uterine cancer during 1958-2009 among 62 534 female atomic bomb survivors. Using Poisson regression analysis, we fitted excess relative risk (ERR) models to uterine cancer rates adjusted for several lifestyle and reproductive factors. Person-years at risk were also adjusted for the probability of prior hysterectomy, because it could affect the subsequent risk of uterine cancer. We assessed the modifying effect of age and other factors on the radiation risk. For analysis of the modifying effect of age at radiation exposure around menarche, we compared the radiation risk for several exposure-age categories as well as using parametric models. Results: There were 224 uterine corpus cancers and 982 cervical cancers. We found a significant association between radiation dose and risk of corpus cancer (ERR per Gray [ERR/Gy] = 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.03 to 1.87) but not for cervical cancer (ERR/Gy = 0.00, 95% CI = -0.22 to 0.31). For corpus cancer, we found statistically significant heterogeneity in ERR/Gy by age (P heterogeneity = .001) with elevated risk for women exposed to radiation between ages 11 and 15 years (ERR/Gy = 4.10, 95% CI = 1.47 to 8.42) and no indication of a radiation effect for exposures before or after this exposure-age range. Conclusions: The current data suggest that uterine corpus is especially sensitive to the carcinogenic effect of radiation exposure occurring during the mid-pubertal period preceding menarche. There is little evidence for a radiation effect on cervical cancer risk.

19.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 32(12): 1055-1063, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29204903

RESUMO

In cohort studies, unbiased estimation of exposure-outcome associations requires selection of an appropriate reference group of unexposed individuals. We illustrate strategies for analyzing cohort data with multiple potential reference groups. We analyzed the association between radiation exposure and incidence of first primary solid cancer among 105,444 participants of the Life Span Study (Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, 1958-2009). Potential reference groups included zero-dose survivors at different ground distances from the hypocenter (internal) and city residents who were not in either city at the time of the bombings (external). DS02R1 weighted absorbed colon doses were estimated by the DS02 dosimetry system. Piecewise constant hazard models estimated excess relative risks of first primary solid cancer. We focused on sex-averaged excess relative risks and the shape of the dose-response curve. A model with internal standardization provided a sex-averaged excess relative risk of 0.510, 95% confidence interval: (0.414, 0.612) per gray of weighted absorbed colon dose, as well as strong evidence of a curvilinear dose response among males (P = 0.008). Selection of not-in-city residents as the reference group resulted in a larger excess relative risk of 0.560, 95% confidence interval: (0.467, 0.657) per gray, and reduced evidence of a curvilinear dose response among males (P = 0.042). These differences were particularly apparent at weighted absorbed colon doses < 1 gray. In cohort studies, selection of an appropriate reference group requires understanding of the nature of unmeasured confounding to which the results could be sensitive.


Assuntos
Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/epidemiologia , Armas Nucleares/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição à Radiação/efeitos adversos , Lesões por Radiação , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Exposição à Radiação/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
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