Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 7 de 7
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Afr J Emerg Med ; 11(4): 422-428, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34513579

RESUMO

Introduction: Injuries cause significant burdens in sub-Saharan Africa. In Rwanda, national regulations to reduce COVID-19 altered population mobility and resource allocations. This study evaluated epidemiological trends and care among injured patients preceding and during the COVID-19 pandemic at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Kigali (CHUK) in Kigali, Rwanda. Methods: This prospective interrupted cross-sectional study enrolled injured adult patients (≥15 years) presenting to the CHUK emergency department (ED) from January 27th-March 21st (pre-COVID-19 period) and June 1st-28th (intra-COVID-19 period). Trained study personnel continuously collected standardized data on enrolled participants through the first six-hours of ED care. The Kampala Trauma Score (KTS) was calculated as a metric of injury severity. Case characteristics prior to and during the pandemic were compared, statistical differences were assessed using χ2 or Fisher's exact tests. Results: Data were collected from 409 pre-COVID-19 and 194 intra-COVID-19 cases. Median age was 32, with a male predominance (74.3%). Road traffic injuries (RTI) were the most common injury mechanism pre-COVID-19 (47.8%) and intra-COVID-19 (53.6%) (p = 0.27). There was a significant increase in the number of transfer cases during the intra-COVID-19 period (52.1%) versus pre-COVID-19 (41.3%) (p = 0.01). KTS was significantly lower among intra-COVID-19 patients (p = 0.04), indicating higher severity of presentation. In the intra-COVID-19 period, there was a significant increase in the number of surgery consultations (40.7%) versus pre-COVID-19 (26.7%) (p < 0.001). The number of hospital admissions increased from 35.5% pre-COVID-19 to 46.4% intra-COVID-19 (p = 0.01). There was no significant mortality difference pre-COVID-19 as compared to the intra-COVID-19 period among injured patients (p = 0.76). Conclusion: Emergency injury care showed increased injury burden, inpatient admission and resource requirements during the pandemic period. This suggests the spectrum of disease may be more severe and that greater resources for injury management may continue to be needed during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic in Rwanda and other similar settings.

2.
West J Emerg Med ; 22(2): 435-444, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856336

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: While trauma prognostication and triage scores have been designed for use in lower-resourced healthcare settings specifically, the comparative clinical performance between trauma-specific and general triage scores for risk-stratifying injured patients in such settings is not well understood. This study evaluated the Kampala Trauma Score (KTS), Revised Trauma Score (RTS), and Triage Early Warning Score (TEWS) for accuracy in predicting mortality among injured patients seeking emergency department (ED) care at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Kigali (CHUK) in Rwanda. METHODS: A retrospective, randomly sampled cohort of ED patients presenting with injury was accrued from August 2015-July 2016. Primary outcome was 14-day mortality and secondary outcome was overall facility-based mortality. We evaluated summary statistics of the cohort. Bootstrap regression models were used to compare areas under receiver operating curves (AUC) with associated 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Among 617 cases, the median age was 32 years and 73.5% were male. The most frequent mechanism of injury was road traffic incident (56.2%). Predominant anatomical regions of injury were craniofacial (39.3%) and lower extremities (38.7%), and the most common injury types were fracture (46.0%) and contusion (12.0%). Fourteen-day mortality was 2.6% and overall facility-based mortality was 3.4%. For 14-day mortality, TEWS had the highest accuracy (AUC = 0.88, 95% CI, 0.76-1.00), followed by RTS (AUC = 0.73, 95% CI, 0.55-0.92), and then KTS (AUC = 0.65, 95% CI, 0.47-0.84). Similarly, for facility-based mortality, TEWS (AUC = 0.89, 95% CI, 0.79-0.98) had greater accuracy than RTS (AUC = 0.76, 95% CI, 0.61-0.91) and KTS (AUC = 0.68, 95% CI, 0.53-0.83). On pairwise comparisons, RTS had greater prognostic accuracy than KTS for 14-day mortality (P = 0.011) and TEWS had greater accuracy than KTS for overall (P = 0.007) mortality. However, TEWS and RTS accuracy were not significantly different for 14-day mortality (P = 0.864) or facility-based mortality (P = 0.101). CONCLUSION: In this cohort of emergently injured patients in Rwanda, the TEWS demonstrated the greatest accuracy for predicting mortality outcomes, with no significant discriminatory benefit found in the use of the trauma-specific RTS or KTS instruments, suggesting that the TEWS is the most clinically useful approach in the setting studied and likely in other similar ED environments.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Triagem , Ferimentos e Lesões , Adulto , Emergências/epidemiologia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/normas , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Triagem/métodos , Triagem/organização & administração , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
3.
Afr J Emerg Med ; 11(1): 152-157, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33680737

RESUMO

Background: Injuries cause significant morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan African countries such as Rwanda. These burdens may be compounded by limited access to intravenous (IV) resuscitation fluids such as crystalloids and blood products. This study evaluates the association between emergency department (ED) intravenous volume resuscitation and mortality outcomes in adult trauma patients treated at the University Teaching Hospital-Kigali (UTH- K). Methods: Data were abstracted using a structured protocol for a random sample of ED patients treated during periods from 2012 to 2016. Patients under 15 years of age were excluded. Data collected included demographics, clinical aspects, types of IV fluid resuscitation provided and outcomes. The primary outcome was facility-based mortality. Descriptive statistics were used to explore characteristics of the population. Kampala Trauma Scores (KTS) were used to control for injury severity. Magnitudes of effects were quantified using multivariable regression models adjusted for gender, KTS, time period, clinical interventions, presence of head injury and transfer to a tertiary care centre to yield adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: From the random sample of 3609 cases, 991 trauma patients were analysed. The median age was 32 [IQR 26, 46] years and 74.3% were male. ED volume resuscitation was given to 50.1% of patients with 43.5% receiving crystalloid and 6.4% receiving crystalloid and packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions. The median KTS score was 13 [IQR 12, 13]. In multivariable regression, mortality likelihood was increased in those who received crystalloid (aOR = 4.31, 95%CI 1.24, 15.05, p = 0.022) and PRBC plus crystalloid (aOR = 9.97, 95%CI 2.15,46.17, p = 0.003) as compared to trauma patients not treated with IV resuscitation fluids. Conclusions: Injured ED patients treated with volume resuscitation had higher mortality, which may be due to unmeasured confounding or therapies provided. Further studies on fluid resuscitation in trauma populations in resource-limited settings are needed.

4.
Int J Emerg Med ; 14(1): 9, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emergency care is a new but growing specialty across Africa where medical conditions have been estimated to account for 92% of all disability-adjusted life years. This study describes the epidemiology of medical emergencies and the impact of formalized emergency care training on patient outcomes for medical conditions in Rwanda. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed using a database of randomly sampled patients presenting to the emergency center (EC) at the University Teaching Hospital of Kigali. All patients, > 15 years of age treated for medical emergencies pre- and post-implementation of an Emergency Medicine (EM) residency training program were eligible for inclusion. Patient characteristics and final diagnosis were described by time period (January 2013-September 2013 versus September 2015-June 2016). Univariate chi-squared analysis was performed for diagnoses, EC interventions, and all cause EC and inpatient mortality stratified by time period. RESULTS: A random sample of 1704 met inclusion with 929 patients in the pre-residency time period and 775 patients in the post-implementation period. Demographics, triage vital signs, and shock index were not different between time periods. Most frequent diagnoses included gastrointestinal, infectious disease, and neurologic pathology. Differences by time period in EC management included antibiotic use (37.2% vs. 42.2%, p = 0.04), vasopressor use (1.9% vs. 0.5%, p = 0.01), IV crystalloid fluid (IVF) use (55.5% vs. 47.6%, p = 0.001) and mean IVF administration (2057 ml vs. 2526 ml, p < 0.001). EC specific mortality fell from 10.0 to 1.4% (p < 0.0001) across time periods. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality rates fell across top medical diagnoses after implementation of an EM residency program. Changes in resuscitation care may explain, in part, this mortality decrease. This study demonstrates that committing to emergency care can potentially have large effects on reducing mortality.

5.
Afr J Emerg Med ; 10(2): 68-73, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612911

RESUMO

Background: Studies from high-income countries (HIC) support restrictive blood transfusion thresholds in medical patients. In low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), the etiologies of anemia and baseline health states differ greatly; optimal transfusion thresholds are unknown. This study evaluated the association of packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusion with mortality outcomes across hemoglobin levels amongst emergency center (EC) patients presenting with medical pathology in Kigali, Rwanda. Methods: This retrospective cohort study was performed using a random sample of patients presenting to the EC at the University Teaching Hospital of Kigali. Patients ≥15 years of age, treated for medical emergencies during 2013-16, with EC hemoglobin measurements were included. The relationship between EC PRBC transfusion and patient mortality was evaluated using logistic regression, with stratified analyses performed at hemoglobin levels of 7 mg/dL and 5 mg/dL. Results: Of 3609 cases sampled, 1116 met inclusion. The median age was 42 years (IQR 29, 60) and 45.2% were female. Transfusion occurred in 12.1% of patients. Hematologic (24.4%) and gastrointestinal pathologies (20.7%) were the primary diagnoses of those transfused. Proportional mortality was higher amongst those receiving transfusions, although not statistically significant (23.7% vs 17.0%, p = 0.06). No significant difference in adjusted odds of overall mortality by PRBC transfusion was found. In stratified analysis, patients receiving EC transfusions with a hemoglobin >5.0 mg/dL, had 2.21 times the odds of mortality (95% CI 1.51-3.21) as compared to those ≤5.0 mg/dL. Conclusions: No association between PRBC transfusion and odds of mortality was observed amongst EC patients in this LMIC setting. An increased mortality association was found for patients receiving PRBC transfusions with an initial hemoglobin >5 mg/dL. Results suggest benefits from PRBC transfusion are limited as compared to HIC. Further research evaluating emergent transfusion thresholds for medical pathologies should be performed in LMICs to guide practice.

6.
Injury ; 51(7): 1468-1476, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, injuries account for approximately five million mortalities annually, with 90% occurring in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although guidelines characterizing data for blood product transfusion in injury resuscitation have been established for high-income countries (HICs), no such information on use of blood products in LMICs exists. This systematic review evaluated the available literature on the use and associated outcomes of blood product transfusion therapies in LMICs for acute care of patients with injuries. METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, Global Health, CINAHL and Cochrane databases through November 2018 was performed by a health sciences medical librarian. Prospective and cross-sectional reports of injured patients from LMICs involving data on blood product transfusion therapies were included. Two reviewers identified eligible records (κ=0.92); quality was assessed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. Report elements, patient characteristics, injury information, blood transfusion therapies provided and mortality outcomes were extracted and analyzed. RESULTS: Of 3411 records, 150 full-text reports were reviewed and 17 met inclusion criteria. Identified reports came from the World Health Organization regions of Africa, the Eastern Mediterranean, and South-East Asia. A total of 6535 patients were studied, with the majority from exclusively inpatient hospital settings (52.9%). Data on transfusion therapies demonstrated that packed red blood cells were given to 27.0% of patients, fresh frozen plasma to 13.8%, and unspecified product types to 50.1%. Among patients with blunt and penetrating injuries, 5.8% and 15.7% were treated with blood product transfusions, respectively. Four reports provided data on comparative mortality outcomes, of which two found higher mortality in blood transfusion-treated patients than in untreated patients at 17.4% and 30.4%. The overall quality of evidence was either low (52.9%) or very low (41.2%), with one report of moderate quality by GRADE criteria. CONCLUSION: There is a paucity of high-quality data to inform appropriate use of blood transfusion therapies in LMIC injury care. Studies were geographically limited and did not include sufficient data on types of therapies and specific injury patterns treated. Future research in more diverse LMIC settings with improved data collection methods is needed to inform injury care globally.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue , Hemorragia/terapia , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Doença Aguda , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia
7.
Afr J Emerg Med ; 10(1): 17-22, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161707

RESUMO

Background: Triage is essential for efficient and effective delivery of care in emergency centers (ECs) where numerous patients present simultaneously with varying acuity of conditions. Implementing EC triage systems provides a method of recognizing which patients may require admission and are at higher risks for poor health outcomes. Rwanda is experiencing increased demand for emergency care; however, triage has not been well-studied. The University Teaching Hospital of Kigali (UTH-K) is an urban tertiary care health center utilizing a locally modified South African Triage Score (mSATS) that classifies patients into five color categories. Our study evaluated the utility of the mSATS tool at UTH-K. Methods: UTH-K implemented mSATS in April 2013. All patients aged 15 years or older from August 2015 to July 2016 were eligible for inclusion in the database. Variables of interest included demographic information, mSATS category, patient case type (trauma or medical), disposition from the ED and mortality. Results: 1438 cases were randomly sampled; the majority were male (61.9%) and median age was 35 years. Injuries accounted for 56.7% of the cases while medical conditions affected 43.3%. Admission likelihood significantly increased with higher triage color category for medical patients (OR: Yellow = 3.61, p < .001 to Red (with alarm) = 7.80, p < .01). Likelihood for trauma patients, however, was not significantly increased (OR: Yellow = .84, p = .75 to Red (with alarm) = 1.50, p = .65). Mortality rates increased with increasing triage category with the red with alarm category having the highest mortality (7.7%, OR 18.91). Conclusion: The mSATS tool accurately predicted patient disposition and mortality for the overall ED population. The mSATS tool provided useful clinical guidance on the need for hospital admission for medical patients but did not accurately predict patient disposition for injured patients. Further trauma-specific triage studies are needed to improve emergency care in Rwanda.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...