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1.
Haematologica ; 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371409

RESUMO

Immunotherapeutic strategies targeting the rare leukemic stem cell compartment might provide salvage to the high relapse rates currently observed in acute myeloid leukemia. We applied gene expression profiling for comparison of leukemic blasts and leukemic stem cells with their normal counterparts. Here, we show that the T-cell receptor γ chain alternate reading frame protein (TARP) is overexpressed in de novo pediatric (n=13) and adult (n=17) acute myeloid leukemia sorted leukemic stem cells and blasts compared to hematopoietic stem cells and normal myeloblasts (15 healthy controls). Moreover, TARP expression was significantly associated with a fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-3 internal tandem duplications in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. TARP overexpression was confirmed in acute myeloid leukemia cell lines (n=9), and was found to be absent in B-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia (n=5) and chronic myeloid leukemia (n=1). Sequencing revealed that both a classical TARP transcript, as described in breast and prostate adenocarcinoma, and an acute myeloid leukemia-specific alternative TARP transcript, were present. Protein expression levels mostly matched transcript levels. TARP was shown to reside in the cytoplasmic compartment and showed sporadic endoplasmatic reticulum co-localization. TARP-T-cell receptor engineered cytotoxic T-cells in vitro killed acute myeloid leukemia cell lines and patient leukemic cells co-expressing TARP and HLA-A*0201. In conclusion, TARP qualifies as a relevant target for immunotherapeutic T-cell therapy in acute myeloid leukemia.

2.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(10): e27893, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276297

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Knowledge is limited regarding the prevalence and persistence of chemotherapy-induced leukoencephalopathy in childhood sarcoma patients. This study explored the presence, clinical relevance, and potential risk factors of leukoencephalopathy in childhood bone and soft tissue sarcoma survivors, treated with intravenous chemotherapy. METHODS: We acquired cross-sectional neurocognitive data in adult survivors (n = 34) (median age at diagnosis [AaD] = 13.32 years, age range = 16-35 years) and healthy age-matched controls (n = 34). Additionally, magnetic resonance imaging included T2-weighted FLAIR (leukoencephalopathy Fazekas rating), multiexponential T2 relaxation (MET2), and multishell diffusion MRI to estimate myelin integrity-related metrics and fluid movement restrictions. Finally, chemotherapy subgroups (methotrexate, alkylating agents, or combination), AaD, and Apoε and MTHFRC677T polymorphisms were explored as potential risk factors for leukoencephalopathy. RESULTS: At the group level, quality of life, working memory, processing speed, and visual memory were significantly lower in patients compared to controls. Furthermore, long-term leukoencephalopathy was observed in 27.2% of the childhood sarcoma survivors, which was related to attentional processing speed. Lesions were related to diffusion-derived, but not to myelin-sensitive metrics. A significant interaction effect between AaD and chemotherapy group demonstrated more lesions in case of high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) (F = 3.434, P = .047). However, patients treated with alkylating agents (without HD-MTX) also showed lesions in younger patients. Genetic predictors were nonsignificant. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATION: This study suggests long-term leukoencephalopathy with possibly underlying changes in vasculature, inflammation, or axonal injury, but not necessarily long-term demyelination. Such lesions could affect processing speed, and as such long-term daily life functioning of these patients.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8230, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160679

RESUMO

In children with unilateral cerebral palsy (uCP), the corticospinal tract (CST)-wiring patterns may differ (contralateral, ipsilateral or bilateral), partially determining motor deficits. However, the impact of such CST-wiring on functional connectivity remains unknown. Here, we explored resting-state sensorimotor functional connectivity in 26 uCP with periventricular white matter lesions (mean age (standard deviation): 12.87 m (±4.5), CST wiring: 9 contralateral, 9 ipsilateral, 6 bilateral) compared to 60 healthy controls (mean age (standard deviation): 14.54 (±4.8)), and between CST-wiring patterns. Functional connectivity from each M1 to three bilateral sensorimotor regions of interest (primary sensory cortex, dorsal and ventral premotor cortex) and the supplementary motor area was compared between groups (controls vs. uCP; and controls vs. each CST-wiring group). Seed-to-voxel analyses from bilateral M1 were compared between groups. Additionally, relations with upper limb motor deficits were explored. Aberrant sensorimotor functional connectivity seemed to be CST-dependent rather than specific from all the uCP population: in the dominant hemisphere, the contralateral CST group showed increased connectivity between M1 and premotor cortices, whereas the bilateral CST group showed higher connectivity between M1 and somatosensory association areas. These results suggest that functional connectivity of the sensorimotor network is CST-wiring-dependent, although the impact on upper limb function remains unclear.

4.
Br J Haematol ; 186(5): 741-753, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124581

RESUMO

Outcomes in childhood T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) are steadily improving due to intensive therapy. Between 1989 and 2008, 599 children with newly diagnosed T-ALL were enrolled in two successive European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer - Children's Leukaemia Group trials (58881 and 58951), both based on the Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster protocol and without cranial irradiation. In the latter trial induction chemotherapy was intensified. The most important randomizations were Medac Escherichia coli asparaginase versus Erwinia asparaginase in trial 58881, and dexamethasone (6 mg/m2 /day) versus prednisolone (60 mg/m2 /day) and prolonged versus conventional asparaginase duration in trial 58951. 8-year event-free survival (EFS) increased from 65·1% to 74·0% in trial 58951. Improvement was most profound for patients with white blood cell (WBC) counts <100 × 109 /l and "good responders" to prephase. Medac E. coli asparaginase was associated with longer EFS [hazard ratio (HR) 0·54, P = 0·0015] and overall survival (HR 0·51, P = 0·0018). Induction therapy with dexamethasone did not improve EFS compared to prednisolone. Remarkably, intensification of central nervous system (CNS)-directed therapy in trial 58951 resulted in fewer bone marrow relapses, while the incidence of CNS relapses remained low. In summary, we showed that adequate asparaginase therapy, intensified induction treatment and intensification of CNS-directed chemotherapy can result in an improvement of outcome in T-ALL patients with good prephase response and initial WBC counts <100 × 109 /l, representing approximately 50% of T-ALL patients.

5.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(9): 1786-1791, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082473

RESUMO

Gonadal impairment is an important late effect with a significant impact on quality of life of transplanted patients. The aim of this study was to compare gonadal function after busulfan (Bu) or treosulfan (Treo) conditioning regimens in pre- and postpubertal children. This retrospective, multicenter study included children transplanted in pediatric European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) centers between 1992 and 2012 who did not receive gonadotoxic chemoradiotherapy before the transplant. We evaluated 137 patients transplanted in 25 pediatric EBMT centers. Median age at transplant was 11.04 years (range, 5 to 18); 89 patients were boys and 48 girls. Eighty-nine patients were prepubertal at transplant and 48 postpubertal. One hundred eighteen children received Bu and 19 Treo. A higher proportion of girls treated with Treo in the prepubertal stage reached spontaneous puberty compared with those treated with Bu (P = .02). Spontaneous menarche was more frequent after Treo than after Bu (P < .001). Postpubertal boys and girls treated with Treo had significantly lower luteinizing hormone levels (P = .03 and P = .04, respectively) compared with the Bu group. Frequency of gonadal damage associated with Treo was significantly lower than that observed after Bu. These results need to be confirmed in a larger population.

6.
Leukemia ; 33(4): 1055-1062, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850735

RESUMO

Following the publication of this article, the authors noted that Dr Laura Fancello was not listed among the authors. The corrected author list is given below. Additionally, the following was not included in the author contribution statement: 'L.F. analyzed RNA sequencing data'.

7.
Neuropsychol Rev ; 29(2): 190-219, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927148

RESUMO

The rise in cancer survival rates has raised concerns about the long-term adverse effects of cancer treatment, including neurocognitive impairment. Neurocognitive deficits such as attention and processing speed are frequently observed and can have a profound, lifelong impact in daily life of cancer patients. Interestingly, large interpatient variability exists in cognitive outcomes. Emerging evidence indicates that such differences may be related to genetic variation. The aim of our review was to systematically summarize the current literature on the modulatory effects of germline genetic polymorphisms on cancer treatment-induced cognitive changes and the potential age-dependent impact in cancer survivors. The PubMed/Medline database was screened using an extensive search string focusing on four components: "cancer", "cancer treatment", "neurocognitive outcome" and "germline genetic variation". Seventeen studies meeting predefined eligibility criteria were analyzed, including sixteen candidate gene studies and one genome-wide association study. 38 polymorphisms in 15 genes across proposed pathophysiological pathways, including (1) neural plasticity and repair, (2) neuroinflammation and defenses against oxidative stress, (3) neurotransmission, and (4) folate metabolism pathway, were reported to be significantly associated with treatment-related neurocognitive dysfunction or neuroimaging abnormalities. Still, some study results remained discordant, partly due to the methodological heterogeneity (i.e. in test assessments, age, cancer-type populations). Future large-scale, (epi-)genome studies integrating neurocognitive assessments and advanced neuroimaging techniques, are recommended in order to investigate neurotoxicity throughout the lifespan. Hence, adverse neurodevelopmental problems during childhood and neurodegenerative processes later in life could be minimized based on genetic risk classifications.

8.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(5): e27605, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30623572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have a 70% survival rate with treatment regimens containing high doses of cytarabine and anthracyclines and, in some, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). PROCEDURE: In this multicenter Dutch-Belgian protocol (DB AML-01), 112 children with de novo AML were included. Treatment was stratified according to day 15 bone marrow response after the first induction course. Poor responders received a second course without delay while good responders awaited hematological recovery. Patients achieving CR after two induction courses continued with three consolidation courses without HSCT in CR1. RESULTS: The overall remission rate was 93.5%. After a median follow-up of 4.1 years, three-year event-free survival (EFS) was 52.6% (95% CI, 42.9%-61.3%), three-year cumulative incidence of relapse 39.7% (95% CI, 30.1%-49.0%), and three-year overall survival (OS) 74.0% (95% CI, 64.8%-81.2%). Significantly more events occurred in patients with high WBC at diagnosis or FLT3-ITD/NPM1-WT, whereas core binding factor (CBF) leukemia had a significantly better EFS. KMT2A rearrangements and age > 10 years negatively impacted OS. CONCLUSIONS: DB AML-01 response-guided therapy results in a favorable OS, particularly for children with CBF leukemia, children younger than 10 years or with initial WBC counts below 100 × 109 /L. Outcome of patients with FLT3-ITD/NPM1-WT remains poor and warrants alternative treatment strategies.

10.
Leukemia ; 2018 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29930300

RESUMO

The R98S mutation in ribosomal protein L10 (RPL10 R98S) affects 8% of pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cases, and was previously described to impair cellular proliferation. The current study reveals that RPL10 R98S cells accumulate reactive oxygen species which promotes mitochondrial dysfunction and reduced ATP levels, causing the proliferation defect. RPL10 R98S mutant leukemia cells can survive high oxidative stress levels via a specific increase of IRES-mediated translation of the anti-apoptotic factor B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2), mediating BCL-2 protein overexpression. RPL10 R98S selective sensitivity to the clinically available Bcl-2 inhibitor Venetoclax (ABT-199) was supported by suppression of splenomegaly and the absence of human leukemia cells in the blood of T-ALL xenografted mice. These results shed new light on the oncogenic function of ribosomal mutations in cancer, provide a novel mechanism for BCL-2 upregulation in leukemia, and highlight BCL-2 inhibition as a novel therapeutic opportunity in RPL10 R98S defective T-ALL.

11.
Leukemia ; 32(6): 1358-1369, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29740158

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing has provided a detailed overview of the various genomic lesions implicated in the pathogenesis of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Typically, 10-20 protein-altering lesions are found in T-ALL cells at diagnosis. However, it is currently unclear in which order these mutations are acquired and in which progenitor cells this is initiated. To address these questions, we used targeted single-cell sequencing of total bone marrow cells and CD34+CD38- multipotent progenitor cells for four T-ALL cases. Hierarchical clustering detected a dominant leukemia cluster at diagnosis, accompanied by a few smaller clusters harboring only a fraction of the mutations. We developed a graph-based algorithm to determine the order of mutation acquisition. Two of the four patients had an early event in a known oncogene (MED12, STAT5B) among various pre-leukemic events. Intermediate events included loss of 9p21 (CDKN2A/B) and acquisition of fusion genes, while NOTCH1 mutations were typically late events. Analysis of CD34+CD38- cells and myeloid progenitors revealed that in half of the cases somatic mutations were detectable in multipotent progenitor cells. We demonstrate that targeted single-cell sequencing can elucidate the order of mutation acquisition in T-ALL and that T-ALL development can start in a multipotent progenitor cell.

12.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 39(8): 3375-3387, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29675944

RESUMO

With the increase of survival rates of pediatric cancer patients, the number of children facing potential cognitive sequelae has grown. Previous adult studies suggest that white matter (WM) microstructural changes may contribute to cognitive impairment. This study aims to investigate WM microstructure in childhood bone and soft tissue sarcoma. Differences in (micro-)structure can be investigated using diffusion MRI (dMRI). The typically used diffusion tensor model (DTI) assumes Gaussian diffusion, and lacks information about fiber populations. In this study, we compare WM structure of childhood bone and soft tissue sarcoma survivors (n = 34) and matched controls (n = 34), combining typical and advanced voxel-based models (DTI and NODDI model, respectively), as well as recently developed fixel-based models (for estimations of intra-voxel differences, apparent fiber density [AFD] and fiber cross-section [FC]). Parameters with significant findings were compared between treatments, and correlated with subscales of the WAIS-IV intelligence test, age at diagnosis, age at assessment and time since diagnosis. We encountered extensive regions showing lower fractional anisotropy, overlapping with both significant NODDI parameters and fixel-based parameters. In contrast to these diffuse differences, the fixel-based measure of AFD was reduced in the cingulum and corpus callosum only. Furthermore, AFD of the corpus callosum was significantly predicted by chemotherapy treatment and correlated positively with time since diagnosis, visual puzzles and similarities task scores. This study suggests altered WM structure of childhood bone and soft tissue sarcoma survivors. We conclude global chemotherapy-related changes, with particular vulnerability of centrally located WM bundles. Finally, such differences could potentially recover after treatment.

13.
J Nucl Med ; 59(10): 1524-1530, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29653979

RESUMO

To determine whether the current 18F-FDG PET response criterion for skeletal involvement in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is suitable, we performed a systematic evaluation of the different types of skeletal involvement and their response on PET after 2 cycles of chemotherapy (PET-2). A secondary objective was to observe the influence of the initial uptake intensity (measured as qPET) and initial metabolic tumor volume (MTV) of skeletal lesions on the PET-2 response. Methods: The initial PET scans of 1,068 pediatric HL patients from the EuroNet-PHL-C1 trial were evaluated for skeletal involvement by central review. Three types of skeletal lesions were distinguished: PET-only lesions (those detected on PET only), bone marrow (BM) lesions (as confirmed by MRI or BM biopsy), and bone lesions. qPET and MTV were calculated for each skeletal lesion. All PET-2 scans were assessed for residual tumor activity. The rates of complete metabolic response for skeletal and nodal involvement on PET-2 were compared. Results: Of the 1,068 patients, 139 (13%) showed skeletal involvement (44 PET-only, 32 BM, and 63 bone). Of the 139 patients with skeletal involvement, 101 (73%) became PET-2-negative in the skeleton and 94 (68%) became PET-2-negative in the lymph nodes. The highest number of PET-2-negative scans in the skeleton was 42 (95%) in the 44 PET-only patients, followed by 22 skeletal lesions (69%) in the 32 BM patients and 37 (59%) in the 63 bone patients. Lesions that became PET-2-negative showed a lower initial median qPET (2.74) and MTV (2 cm3) than lesions that remained PET-2-positive (3.84 and 7 cm3, respectively). Conclusion: In this study with pediatric HL patients, the complete response rate for skeletal involvement on PET-2 was similar to that for nodal involvement. Bone flare seemed to be irrelevant. Overall, the current skeletal PET response criterion-comparison with the local skeletal background-is well suited. The initial qPET and MTV of skeletal lesions were predictive of the PET-2 result. Higher values for both parameters were associated with a worse PET-2 response.

14.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 110(8): 905-913, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29514304

RESUMO

Background: This study aimed to assess functional and structural brain connectivity in adult childhood leukemia survivors and the link with cognitive functioning and previously identified risk factors such as intrathecal methotrexate dose and age at start of therapy. Methods: Thirty-one nonirradiated adult childhood leukemia survivors and 35 controls underwent cognitive testing and multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (resting state functional MRI, T1-weighted, diffusion-weighted, and myelin water imaging [MWI]). Analyses included dual regression, voxel-based morphometry, advanced diffusion, and MWI modeling techniques besides stepwise discriminant function analysis to identify the most affected executive cognitive domain. Correlations with discrete intrathecal MTX doses and (semi)continuous variables were calculated using Spearman's rank and Pearson's correlation, respectively. All correlation tests were two-sided. Positive and negative T-contrasts in functional and structural MRI analysis were one-sided. Results: Survivors demonstrated lower functional connectivity between the default mode network (DMN) and inferior temporal gyrus (ITG; P < .008). Additionally, we observed higher fractional anisotropy (FA; P = .04) and lower orientation dispersion index (ODI; P = .008) at the left centrum semiovale, which could-given that several fiber bundles cross this region-suggest selective reduced integrity of the respective white matter tracts. Set shifting reaction time, a measure of cognitive flexibility, was mostly impaired and correlated with lower FA (r = -0.53, P = .003) and higher ODI (r = 0.40, P = .04) in survivors but not with DMN-ITG connectivity. There were no statistically significant differences between survivors and controls in WM or GM volume, nor was there a statistically significant correlation between imaging measurements and age at start of therapy or intrathecal methotrexate dose. Conclusions: Adult, nonirradiated childhood leukemia survivors show altered brain connectivity, which is linked with cognitive flexibility.

15.
Haematologica ; 102(10): 1727-1738, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28751566

RESUMO

Asparaginase is an essential component of combination chemotherapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The value of asparaginase was further addressed in a group of non-very high-risk patients by comparing prolonged (long-asparaginase) versus standard (short-asparaginase) native E. coli asparaginase treatment in a randomized part of the phase III 58951 trial of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Children's Leukemia Group. The main endpoint was disease-free survival. Overall, 1,552 patients were randomly assigned to long-asparaginase (775 patients) or short-asparaginase (777 patients). Patients with grade ≥2 allergy to native E. coli asparaginase were switched to equivalent doses of Erwinia or pegylated E. coli asparaginase. The 8-year disease-free survival rate (±standard error) was 87.0±1.3% in the long-asparaginase group and 84.4±1.4% in the short-asparaginase group (hazard ratio: 0.87; P=0.33) and the 8-year overall survival rate was 92.6±1.0% and 91.3±1.2% respectively (hazard ratio: 0.89; P=0.53). An exploratory analysis suggested that the impact of long-asparaginase was beneficial in the National Cancer Institute standard-risk group with regards to disease-free survival (hazard ratio: 0.70; P=0.057), but far less so with regards to overall survival (hazard ratio: 0.89). The incidences of grade 3-4 infection during consolidation (25.2% versus 14.4%) and late intensification (22.6% versus 15.9%) and the incidence of grade 2-4 allergy were higher in the long-asparaginase arm (30% versus 21%). Prolonged native E. coli asparaginase therapy in consolidation and late intensification for our non-very high-risk patients did not improve overall outcome but led to an increase in infections and allergy. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00003728.


Assuntos
Asparaginase/uso terapêutico , Linfoma não Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Asparaginase/administração & dosagem , Asparaginase/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Quimioterapia de Consolidação , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/efeitos adversos , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução , Lactente , Linfoma não Hodgkin/diagnóstico , Linfoma não Hodgkin/mortalidade , Masculino , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/diagnóstico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Pharmacogenomics ; 18(8): 787-795, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28592186

RESUMO

AIM: Osteosarcoma patients receive high doses of methotrexate (MTX). However, pharmacogenetic information remains limited and has mainly been investigated in leukemia so far. PATIENTS & METHODS: We investigated the link between the MTHFR C677T genotype, toxicity levels (mucositis, MTX plasma level, hematological toxicity and hepatotoxicity) and survival of 48 pediatric osteosarcoma patients. RESULTS: The TT genotype did not show more toxicity compared with the CC/CT genotype. However, plasma MTX levels were related with mucositis, but not with hematological toxicity, nor hepatotoxicity. Survival rates did not differ between homozygous and non-homozygous patients. Yet, homozygous patients had higher relapse risk. CONCLUSION: The MTHFR C667T polymorphism is not predictive for toxicity or overall survival, but could be used for relapse risk stratification.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/genética , Metotrexato/efeitos adversos , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/genética , Osteossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Osteossarcoma/genética , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Adolescente , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Feminino , Genótipo , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Farmacogenética/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Haematologica ; 102(9): 1605-1616, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28659337

RESUMO

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma is characterized by 2p23/ALK aberrations, including the classic t(2;5)(p23;q35)/NPM1-ALK rearrangement present in ~80% of cases and several variant t(2p23/ALK) occurring in the remaining cases. The ALK fusion partners play a key role in the constitutive activation of the chimeric protein and its subcellular localization. Using various molecular technologies, we have characterized ALK fusions in eight recently diagnosed anaplastic large cell lymphoma cases with cytoplasmic-only ALK expression. The identified partner genes included EEF1G (one case), RNF213/ALO17 (one case), ATIC (four cases) and TPM3 (two cases). Notably, all cases showed copy number gain of the rearranged ALK gene, which is never observed in NPM1-ALK-positive lymphomas. We hypothesized that this could be due to lower expression levels and/or lower oncogenic potential of the variant ALK fusions. Indeed, all partner genes, except EEF1G, showed lower expression in normal and malignant T cells, in comparison with NPM1 In addition, we investigated the transformation potential of endogenous Npm1-Alk and Atic-Alk fusions generated by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 genome editing in Ba/F3 cells. We found that Npm1-Alk has a stronger transformation potential than Atic-Alk, and we observed a subclonal gain of Atic-Alk after a longer culture period, which was not observed for Npm1-Alk Taken together, our data illustrate that lymphomas driven by the variant ATIC-ALK fusion (and likely by RNF213-ALK and TPM3-ALK), but not the classic NPM1-ALK, require an increased dosage of the ALK hybrid gene to compensate for the relatively low and insufficient expression and signaling properties of the chimeric gene.


Assuntos
Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Rearranjo Gênico , Hidroximetil e Formil Transferases/genética , Linfoma Anaplásico de Células Grandes/genética , Complexos Multienzimáticos/genética , Nucleotídeo Desaminases/genética , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/genética , Translocação Genética , Tropomiosina/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Adolescente , Idoso , Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Linfoma Anaplásico de Células Grandes/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Psychooncology ; 26(4): 508-514, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27246629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), radiotherapy for CNS prophylaxis is not used in frontline therapy anymore. Standard treatment for ALL nowadays consists of polychemotherapy. Therefore, assessment of potential chemotherapy-induced cognitive side effects becomes important. Although neurotoxicity was demonstrated in cross-sectional studies, longitudinal studies remain scarce. PROCEDURE: We evaluated intellectual development of 94 pediatric ALL patients between 1990 and 1997, diagnosed before the age of 12 years, treated according to the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Children's Leukemia Group 58881 protocol. Three assessments of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised were performed since diagnosis, according to age. Using repeated measures regression analysis, we investigated the effect of gender (low versus increased) risk group, parents' education, age at diagnosis, intelligence quotient (IQ) subscale (verbal (VIQ) versus performance (PIQ) intelligence), and test session. RESULTS: PIQ scores were lower than VIQ at baseline (-5.3 points on average, p = 0.0032), yet PIQ increased more strongly (PIQ: +3.9 points per test session; VIQ: +0.8, p = 0.0079), so this baseline difference disappeared (p = 0.0079). There were no clear effects of gender (girls: +0.6 points; p = 0.78) or risk group (low risk: +1.5 points; p = 0.49), but IQ scores were higher when one parent had followed higher education (+9.5 points, p < 0.0001). Finally, diagnosis at younger age predicted lower IQ scores (-1.3 points per year, p = 0.0009). CONCLUSION: Given that IQ scores did not decline, our findings demonstrate a stable pattern. However, the lower PIQ scores at baseline may indicate that performance functioning is vulnerable to acute neurotoxicity. Also, lower scores for younger patients highlight the stronger impact of the disease and/or treatment at younger age.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Testes de Inteligência , Inteligência , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Escalas de Wechsler
20.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 109(7)2017 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29982754

RESUMO

Central nervous system-directed prophylactic chemotherapy increases survival in childhood leukemia, but possible late neurocognitive sequelae remain a concern. We compared intellectual performance (WAIS IV), memory (AVLT), and executive functioning (ANT) between adult leukemia survivors (n = 31) and control individuals (n = 35). In survivors, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) during treatment and total intrathecal methotrexate dose correlated with adult intellectual performance (Pearson's and Spearman's coefficients, respectively). Long-term memory and attentional control, both maturing before survivors' mean age at diagnosis, were unaffected (P > .05 on all four subtests), in contrast to cognitive flexibility and information processing (P < .05 for eight of the subtests), which mature during adolescence. CSF p-Tau and methotrexate dose negatively correlated with intellectual performance (r = -0.414, P = .04 and r = -0.484, P = .007, respectively), but not with each other (r = 0.219, P = .29). These data identify CSF p-Tau as a predictor of late neurocognitive sequelae (in addition to methotrexate dose). Early identification of children at risk could inspire interventions to prevent or remediate chemotherapy-induced cognitive sequelae.

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