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2.
J Clin Invest ; 130(1): 507-522, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714901

RESUMO

X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, EBV infection, and neoplasia (XMEN) disease are caused by deficiency of the magnesium transporter 1 (MAGT1) gene. We studied 23 patients with XMEN, 8 of whom were EBV naive. We observed lymphadenopathy (LAD), cytopenias, liver disease, cavum septum pellucidum (CSP), and increased CD4-CD8-B220-TCRαß+ T cells (αßDNTs), in addition to the previously described features of an inverted CD4/CD8 ratio, CD4+ T lymphocytopenia, increased B cells, dysgammaglobulinemia, and decreased expression of the natural killer group 2, member D (NKG2D) receptor. EBV-associated B cell malignancies occurred frequently in EBV-infected patients. We studied patients with XMEN and patients with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) by deep immunophenotyping (32 immune markers) using time-of-flight mass cytometry (CyTOF). Our analysis revealed that the abundance of 2 populations of naive B cells (CD20+CD27-CD22+IgM+HLA-DR+CXCR5+CXCR4++CD10+CD38+ and CD20+CD27-CD22+IgM+HLA-DR+CXCR5+CXCR4+CD10-CD38-) could differentially classify XMEN, ALPS, and healthy individuals. We also performed glycoproteomics analysis on T lymphocytes and show that XMEN disease is a congenital disorder of glycosylation that affects a restricted subset of glycoproteins. Transfection of MAGT1 mRNA enabled us to rescue proteins with defective glycosylation. Together, these data provide new clinical and pathophysiological foundations with important ramifications for the diagnosis and treatment of XMEN disease.

3.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 26(1): 94-106, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493539

RESUMO

Allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (BMT) is a potentially curative therapy for patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID). Safe and effective reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) approaches that are associated with low toxicity, use alternative donors, and afford good immune reconstitution are needed to advance the field. Twenty PID patients, ranging in age from 4 to 58 years, were treated on a prospective clinical trial of a novel, radiation-free and serotherapy-free RIC, T-cell-replete BMT approach using pentostatin, low-dose cyclophosphamide, and busulfan for conditioning with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide-based graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. This was a high-risk cohort with a median hematopoietic cell transplantation comorbidity index of 3. With median follow-up of survivors of 1.9 years, 1-year overall survival was 90% and grade III to IV acute GVHD-free, graft-failure-free survival was 80% at day +180. Graft failure incidence was 10%. Split chimerism was frequently observed at early post-BMT timepoints, with a lower percentage of donor T cells, which gradually increased by day +60. The cumulative incidences of grade II to IV and grade III to IV acute GVHD (aGVHD) were 15% and 5%, respectively. All aGVHD was steroid responsive. No patients developed chronic GVHD. Few significant organ toxicities were observed. Evidence of phenotype reversal was observed for all engrafted patients, even those with significantly mixed chimerism (n = 2) or with unknown underlying genetic defect (n = 3). All 6 patients with pre-BMT malignancies or lymphoproliferative disorders remain in remission. Most patients have discontinued immunoglobulin replacement. All survivors are off immunosuppression for GVHD prophylaxis or treatment. This novel RIC BMT approach for patients with PID has yielded promising results, even for high-risk patients.

4.
J Exp Med ; 217(2)2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841125

RESUMO

Antibody-mediated autoimmune diseases are a major health burden. However, our understanding of how self-reactive B cells escape self-tolerance checkpoints to secrete pathogenic autoantibodies remains incomplete. Here, we demonstrate that patients with monogenic immune dysregulation caused by gain-of-function mutations in PIK3CD, encoding the p110δ catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), have highly penetrant secretion of autoreactive IgM antibodies. In mice with the corresponding heterozygous Pik3cd activating mutation, self-reactive B cells exhibit a cell-autonomous subversion of their response to self-antigen: instead of becoming tolerized and repressed from secreting autoantibody, Pik3cd gain-of-function B cells are activated by self-antigen to form plasmablasts that secrete high titers of germline-encoded IgM autoantibody and hypermutating germinal center B cells. However, within the germinal center, peripheral tolerance was still enforced, and there was selection against B cells with high affinity for self-antigen. These data show that the strength of PI3K signaling is a key regulator of pregerminal center B cell self-tolerance and thus represents a druggable pathway to treat antibody-mediated autoimmunity.

5.
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program ; 2019(1): 443-448, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808899

RESUMO

Recent advances in genomics have greatly expanded the spectrum of primary immune deficiencies (PIDs). Along with the identification of pathogenic variants in novel genes, distinct phenotypes have been associated with different variants in the same gene. Although PIDs have been historically defined based on increased susceptibility to infections, immune dysregulation has emerged as a frequent and in some cases, predominant phenotype. Autoimmune cytopenias with onset in childhood, lasting longer than 12 months, and affecting multiple lineages should raise the suspicion of a possible PID with monogenic origin. Characterization of the various molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for these unusual manifestations of PIDs, although at times resource intensive, may allow for targeted intervention in many of them.

6.
J Clin Immunol ; 2019 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865525

RESUMO

Variants in MAGT1 have been identified as the cause of an immune deficiency termed X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and neoplasia (XMEN) disease. Here, we describe 2 cases of XMEN disease due to novel mutations in MAGT1, one of whom presented with classical features of XMEN disease and another who presented with a novel phenotype including probable CNS vasculitis, HHV-8 negative multicentric Castelman disease and severe molluscum contagiosum, thus highlighting the clinical diversity that may be seen in this condition. Peripheral blood immunophenotyping of these 2 patients, together with an additional 4 XMEN patients, revealed reduced NKG2D expression, impaired CD28 expression on CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cell lymphopenia, an inverted CD4:CD8 ratio and decreased memory B cells. In addition, we showed for the first time alterations to the CD8+ T cell memory compartment, reduced CD56hi NK cells, MAIT and iNKT cells, as well as compromised differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells into IL-21-producing Tfh-type cells in vitro. Both patients were treated with supplemental magnesium with limited benefit. However, one patient has undergone allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant, with full donor chimerism and immune reconstitution. These results expand our understanding of the clinical and immunological phenotype in XMEN disease, adding to the current literature, which we further discuss here.

7.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1433, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354696

RESUMO

Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT1)1 gain of function (GOF) pathogenic variants have been associated with increased levels of phosphorylated STAT1 and STAT1-dependent cellular responses. Delayed dephosphorylation was proposed as the underlying mechanism leading to the characteristically raised pSTAT1 levels. We examined the levels of STAT1 protein and message as well as rates of STAT1 phosphorylation, dephosphorylation, and degradation associated with STAT1 GOF pathogenic variants. Fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 14 STAT1 GOF patients carrying 10 different pathogenic variants in the coiled-coil, DNA binding, and SH2 domains and healthy donors were used to study STAT1 levels and phosphorylation (pSTAT1) following IFNγ and IFNα stimulation. STAT1 protein levels were measured by flow cytometry and immunoblot. STAT1 mRNA levels were measured using quantitative reverse transcription PCR. STAT1 protein degradation was studied using cycloheximide. Patient IFNγ and IFNα induced peak pSTAT1 was higher than in healthy controls. The velocity of pSTAT1 dephosphorylation after treatment of IFNγ stimulated CD14+ monocytes with the Janus Kinase (JAK)-inhibitor ruxolitinib was significantly faster in patient cells. STAT1 protein levels in patient CD14+ monocytes and CD3+ T cells were higher than in healthy donors. There was a strong and positive correlation between CD14+ STAT1 protein levels and peak pSTAT1 levels. Patient fresh PBMC STAT1 mRNA levels were increased at rest and after 16 h of incubation. STAT1 protein degradation was similar in patient and healthy volunteer cells. Patient IFNγ receptors 1 and 2 and JAK2 levels were normal. One patient in our cohort was treated with the oral JAK inhibitor ruxolitinib. Treatment was associated with normalization of both STAT1 protein and peak pSTAT1 levels. After JAK inhibitor treatment was stopped the patient's CD14+ monocyte STAT1 protein and peak phosphorylation levels increased proportionally. These findings suggest that patients with STAT1 GOF mutations have higher levels of total STAT1 protein, leading to high levels of pSTAT1 after stimulation, despite rapid STAT1 dephosphorylation and normal degradation.

8.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(5): 1676-1687, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060715

RESUMO

The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway is involved in a broad range of cellular processes, including growth, metabolism, differentiation, proliferation, motility, and survival. The PI3Kδ enzyme complex is primarily present in the immune system and comprises a catalytic (p110δ) and regulatory (p85α) subunit. Dynamic regulation of PI3Kδ activity is required to ensure normal function and differentiation of immune cells. In the last decade, discovery of germline mutations in genes involved in the PI3Kδ pathway (PIK3CD, PIK3R1, or phosphatase and tensin homolog [PTEN]) proved that both overactivation and underactivation (gain of function and loss of function, respectively) of PI3Kδ lead to impaired and dysregulated immunity. Although a small group of patients reported to underactivate PI3Kδ show predominantly humoral defects and autoimmune features, more than 200 patients have been described with overactivation of PI3Kδ, presenting with a much more complex phenotype of combined immunodeficiency and immune dysregulation. The clinical and immunologic characterization, as well as current pathophysiologic understanding and specific therapies for PI3K pathway defects leading to immunodeficiency and immune dysregulation, are reviewed here.

9.
JCI Insight ; 52019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021819

RESUMO

Bi-allelic inactivating mutations in DOCK8 cause a combined immunodeficiency characterised by severe pathogen infections, eczema, allergies, malignancy and impaired humoral responses. These clinical features result from functional defects in most lymphocyte lineages. Thus, DOCK8 plays a key role in immune cell function. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is curative for DOCK8 deficiency. While previous reports have described clinical outcomes for DOCK8 deficiency following HSCT, the effect on lymphocyte reconstitution and function has not been investigated. Our study determined whether defects in lymphocyte differentiation and function in DOCK8-deficient patients were restored following HSCT. DOCK8-deficient T and B lymphocytes exhibited aberrant activation and effector function in vivo and in vitro. Frequencies of αß T and MAIT cells were reduced while γδT cells were increased in DOCK8-deficient patients. HSCT improved, abnormal lymphocyte function in DOCK8-deficient patients. Elevated total and allergen-specific IgE in DOCK8-deficient patients decreased over time following HSCT. Our results document the extensive catalogue of cellular defects in DOCK8-deficient patients, and the efficacy of HSCT to correct these defects, concurrent with improvements in clinical phenotypes. Overall, our findings provide mechanisms at a functional cellular level for improvements in clinical features of DOCK8 deficiency post-HSCT, identify biomarkers that correlate with improved clinical outcomes, and inform the general dynamics of immune reconstitution in patients with monogenic immune disorders following HSCT.

10.
Front Immunol ; 10: 77, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30891027

RESUMO

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) plays an integral role in lymphocyte function. Mutations in PIK3CD and PIK3R1, encoding the PI3K p110δ and p85α subunits, respectively, cause increased PI3K activity and result in immunodeficiency with immune dysregulation. We describe here the first cases of disseminated and congenital toxoplasmosis in a mother and child who share a pathogenic mutation in PIK3R1 and review the mechanisms underlying susceptibility to severe Toxoplasma gondii infection in activated PI3Kδ syndrome (APDS) and in other forms of primary immunodeficiency.


Assuntos
Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Classe Ia de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Mutação/genética , Toxoplasma/fisiologia , Toxoplasmose Congênita/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Lactente , Linfadenopatia , Mães , Fenótipo , Toxoplasmose Congênita/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose Congênita/genética
11.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(2): 148-158, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911953

RESUMO

"This porridge is too hot!" she exclaimed. So, she tasted the porridge from the second bowl. "This porridge is too cold," she said. So, she tasted the last bowl of porridge. "Ahhh, this porridge is just right," she said happily and she ate it all up. While this describes the adventures of Goldilocks in the classic fairytale "The Story of Goldilocks and the Three Bears," it is an ideal analogy for the need for balanced signaling mediated by phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), a key signaling hub in immune cells. Either too little or too much PI3K activity is deleterious, even pathogenic-it needs to be "just right"! This has been elegantly demonstrated by the identification of inborn errors of immunity in key components of the PI3K pathway, and the impact of these mutations on immune regulation. Detailed analyses of patients with germline activating mutations in PIK3CD, as well as the parallel generation of novel murine models of this disease, have shed substantial light on the role of PI3K in lymphocyte development and differentiation, and mechanisms of disease pathogenesis resulting not only from PIK3CD mutations but genetic lesions in other components of the PI3K pathway. Furthermore, by being able to pharmacologically target PI3K, these monogenic conditions have provided opportunities for the implementation of precision medicine as a therapy, as well as to gain further insight into the consequences of modulating the PI3K pathway in clinical settings.

12.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(1): 236-253, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30738173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in PIK3CD cause a primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent respiratory tract infections, susceptibility to herpesvirus infections, and impaired antibody responses. Previous work revealed defects in CD8+ T and B cells that contribute to this clinical phenotype, but less is understood about the role of CD4+ T cells in disease pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to dissect the effects of increased phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling on CD4+ T-cell function. METHODS: We performed detailed ex vivo, in vivo, and in vitro phenotypic and functional analyses of patients' CD4+ T cells and a novel murine disease model caused by overactive PI3K signaling. RESULTS: PI3K overactivation caused substantial increases in numbers of memory and follicular helper T (TFH) cells and dramatic changes in cytokine production in both patients and mice. Furthermore, PIK3CD GOF human TFH cells had dysregulated phenotype and function characterized by increased programmed cell death protein 1, CXCR3, and IFN-γ expression, the phenotype of a TFH cell subset with impaired B-helper function. This was confirmed in vivo in which Pik3cd GOF CD4+ T cells also acquired an aberrant TFH phenotype and provided poor help to support germinal center reactions and humoral immune responses by antigen-specific wild-type B cells. The increase in numbers of both memory and TFH cells was largely CD4+ T-cell extrinsic, whereas changes in cytokine production and TFH cell function were cell intrinsic. CONCLUSION: Our studies reveal that CD4+ T cells with overactive PI3K have aberrant activation and differentiation, thereby providing mechanistic insight into dysfunctional antibody responses in patients with PIK3CD GOF mutations.

14.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(1): 276-291.e6, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29800648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline gain-of function (GOF) mutations in PIK3CD, encoding the catalytic p110δ subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), result in hyperactivation of the PI3K-AKT-mechanistic target of rapamycin pathway and underlie a novel inborn error of immunity. Affected subjects exhibit perturbed humoral and cellular immunity, manifesting as recurrent infections, autoimmunity, hepatosplenomegaly, uncontrolled EBV and/or cytomegalovirus infection, and increased incidence of B-cell lymphoproliferation, lymphoma, or both. Mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underpinning inefficient surveillance of EBV-infected B cells is required to understand disease in patients with PIK3CD GOF mutations, identify key molecules required for cell-mediated immunity against EBV, and develop immunotherapeutic interventions for the treatment of this and other EBV-opathies. METHODS: We studied the consequences of PIK3CD GOF mutations on the generation, differentiation, and function of CD8+ T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, which are implicated in host defense against infection with herpesviruses, including EBV. RESULTS: PIK3CD GOF total and EBV-specific CD8+ T cells were skewed toward an effector phenotype, with exaggerated expression of markers associated with premature immunosenescence/exhaustion and increased susceptibility to reactivation-induced cell death. These findings were recapitulated in a novel mouse model of PI3K GOF mutations. NK cells in patients with PIK3CD GOF mutations also exhibited perturbed expression of differentiation-associated molecules. Both CD8+ T and NK cells had reduced capacity to kill EBV-infected B cells. PIK3CD GOF B cells had increased expression of CD48, programmed death ligand 1/2, and CD70. CONCLUSIONS: PIK3CD GOF mutations aberrantly induce exhaustion, senescence, or both and impair cytotoxicity of CD8+ T and NK cells. These defects might contribute to clinical features of affected subjects, such as impaired immunity to herpesviruses and tumor surveillance.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Mutação com Ganho de Função , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Senescência Celular/genética , Senescência Celular/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/genética , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/patologia , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/patologia , Humanos , Vigilância Imunológica/genética , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Front Immunol ; 9: 1758, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30116245

RESUMO

Activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta syndrome (APDS), also known as p110 delta-activating mutation causing senescent T cells, lymphadenopathy and immunodeficiency (PASLI), is an autosomal dominant primary human immunodeficiency (PID) caused by heterozygous gain-of-function mutations in PIK3CD, which encodes the p110δ catalytic subunit of PI3K. This recently described PID is characterized by diverse and heterogeneous clinical manifestations that include recurrent respiratory infections, lymphoproliferation, progressive lymphopenia, and defective antibody responses. A major clinical manifestation observed in the NIH cohort of patients with PIK3CD mutations is chronic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and/or cytomegalovirus viremia. Despite uncontrolled EBV infection, many APDS/PASLI patients had normal or higher frequencies of EBV-specific CD8+ T cells. In this review, we discuss data pertaining to CD8+ T cell function in APDS/PASLI, including increased cell death, expression of exhaustion markers, and altered killing of autologous EBV-infected B cells, and how these and other data on PI3K provide insight into potential cellular defects that prevent clearance of chronic infections.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/imunologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Senescência Celular , Criança , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 4/imunologia , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Camundongos , Mutação , Piridinas/farmacologia , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nat Immunol ; 19(9): 986-1000, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30127432

RESUMO

Gain-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase catalytic subunit p110δ (PI3Kδ) result in a human primary immunodeficiency characterized by lymphoproliferation, respiratory infections and inefficient responses to vaccines. However, what promotes these immunological disturbances at the cellular and molecular level remains unknown. We generated a mouse model that recapitulated major features of this disease and used this model and patient samples to probe how hyperactive PI3Kδ fosters aberrant humoral immunity. We found that mutant PI3Kδ led to co-stimulatory receptor ICOS-independent increases in the abundance of follicular helper T cells (TFH cells) and germinal-center (GC) B cells, disorganized GCs and poor class-switched antigen-specific responses to immunization, associated with altered regulation of the transcription factor FOXO1 and pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic members of the BCL-2 family. Notably, aberrant responses were accompanied by increased reactivity to gut bacteria and a broad increase in autoantibodies that were dependent on stimulation by commensal microbes. Our findings suggest that proper regulation of PI3Kδ is critical for ensuring optimal host-protective humoral immunity despite tonic stimulation from the commensal microbiome.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Centro Germinativo/fisiologia , Mutação/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/fisiologia , Animais , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Células Cultivadas , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/genética , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral/genética , Switching de Imunoglobulina/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo
17.
Hepatol Commun ; 2(8): 919-928, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30094403

RESUMO

Noncirrhotic portal hypertension (NCPH) is a rare disease that may lead to serious clinical consequences. Currently, noninvasive tools for the assessment of NCPH are absent. We investigated the utility of spleen and liver volumetrics as a marker of the presence and severity of portal hypertension in this population. A cohort of NCPH patients evaluated between 2003 and 2015 was retrospectively studied. The association of spleen and liver volumes with the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) level was evaluated using locally weighted scatterplot smoothing curves. A cohort of patients with viral hepatitis-related liver disease was used as controls. Of the 86 patients with NCPH evaluated during the study period, 75 (mean age, 35 ± 17; 73% males) were included in the final analysis. Patients with portal hypertension had significantly higher spleen and liver to body mass index (BMI) ratios compared to patients with HVPG <5 mm Hg (39.5 ± 27.9 versus 22.8 ± 10.6 cm3/kg/m2, P = 0.003; 91.1 ± 40.1 versus 71.4 ± 16.7 cm3/kg/m2, P = 0.014, for spleen/BMI and liver/BMI, respectively). In contrast to the patients with viral hepatitis, a positive linear correlation was observed in the NCPH cohort between spleen/BMI and liver/BMI (above a cutoff of 25 and 80 cm3/kg/m2, respectively) and HVPG level. Additionally, only in the NCPH cohort was an increase in spleen/BMI range quartile predictive of a higher prevalence of portal hypertension and clinically significant portal hypertension (trend, P = 0.014 and 0.031, respectively). Conclusion: Spleen and liver volumetrics may have utility in the assessment of NCPH as a noninvasive biomarker that can be performed using routine radiologic examinations. Further studies are needed to validate these findings. (Hepatology Communications 2018; 00:000-000).

18.
J Exp Med ; 215(8): 2073-2095, 2018 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30018075

RESUMO

Gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in PIK3CD, encoding the p110δ subunit of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), cause a primary immunodeficiency. Affected individuals display impaired humoral immune responses following infection or immunization. To establish mechanisms underlying these immune defects, we studied a large cohort of patients with PIK3CD GOF mutations and established a novel mouse model using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing to introduce a common pathogenic mutation in Pik3cd In both species, hyperactive PI3K severely affected B cell development and differentiation in the bone marrow and the periphery. Furthermore, PI3K GOF B cells exhibited intrinsic defects in class-switch recombination (CSR) due to impaired induction of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and failure to acquire a plasmablast gene signature and phenotype. Importantly, defects in CSR, AID expression, and Ig secretion were restored by leniolisib, a specific p110δ inhibitor. Our findings reveal key roles for balanced PI3K signaling in B cell development and long-lived humoral immunity and memory and establish the validity of treating affected individuals with p110δ inhibitors.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/citologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Animais , Afinidade de Anticorpos/imunologia , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Criança , Mutação com Ganho de Função/genética , Humanos , Switching de Imunoglobulina , Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Interleucinas/farmacologia , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Fenótipo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Plasmócitos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
19.
JCI Insight ; 3(9)2018 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29720571

RESUMO

The underlying pathology of atopic dermatitis (AD) includes impaired skin barrier function, susceptibility to Staphylococcus aureus skin infection, immune dysregulation, and cutaneous dysbiosis. Our recent investigation into the potential role of Gram-negative skin bacteria in AD revealed that isolates of one particular commensal, Roseomonas mucosa, collected from healthy volunteers (HVs) improved outcomes in mouse and cell culture models of AD. In contrast, isolates of R. mucosa from patients with AD worsened outcomes in these models. These preclinical results suggested that interventions targeting the microbiome could provide therapeutic benefit for patients with AD. As a first test of this hypothesis in humans, 10 adult and 5 pediatric patients were enrolled in an open-label phase I/II safety and activity trial (the Beginning Assessment of Cutaneous Treatment Efficacy for Roseomonas in Atopic Dermatitis trial; BACTERiAD I/II). Treatment with R. mucosa was associated with significant decreases in measures of disease severity, topical steroid requirement, and S. aureus burden. There were no adverse events or treatment complications. We additionally evaluated differentiating bacterial metabolites and topical exposures that may contribute to the skin dysbiosis associated with AD and/or influence future microbiome-based treatments. These early results support continued evaluation of R. mucosa therapy with a placebo-controlled trial.


Assuntos
Terapia Biológica , Dermatite Atópica/terapia , Disbiose/terapia , Methylobacteriaceae , Microbiota , Pele/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Terapia Biológica/efeitos adversos , Criança , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatite Atópica/genética , Dermatite Atópica/microbiologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Methylobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
20.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 3529, 2018 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29476109

RESUMO

A subset of human follicular helper T cells (TFH) cells expresses CD57 for which no distinct function has been identified. We show that CD57+ TFH cells are universally PD-1hi, but compared to their CD57- PD-1hi counterparts, express little IL-21 or IL-10 among others. Instead, CD57 expression on TFH cells marks cytotoxicity transcriptional signatures that translate into only a weak cytotoxic phenotype. Similarly, circulating PD-1+ CD57+ CD4+ T cells make less cytokine than their CD57- PD-1+ counterparts, but have a prominent cytotoxic phenotype. By analysis of responses to STAT3-dependent cytokines and cells from patients with gain- or loss-of-function STAT3 mutations, we show that CD4+ T cell cytotoxicity is STAT3-dependent. TFH formation also requires STAT3, but paradoxically, once formed, PD-1hi cells become unresponsive to STAT3. These findings suggest that changes in blood and germinal center cytotoxicity might be affected by changes in STAT3 signaling, or modulation of PD-1 by therapy.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD57/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Tonsilite/imunologia , Antígenos CD57/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Proliferação de Células , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Interleucinas/genética , Interleucinas/imunologia , Tonsila Palatina/imunologia , Tonsila Palatina/patologia , Tonsila Palatina/cirurgia , Fenótipo , Cultura Primária de Células , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/patologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/patologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/patologia , Tonsilectomia , Tonsilite/genética , Tonsilite/patologia , Tonsilite/cirurgia
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