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1.
Infectio ; 23(3): 271-304, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1002162

RESUMO

Abstract Invasive Candidiasis (IC) and candidemia (as its most frequent manifestation) have become the main cause of opportunistic mycosis at hospital settings. This study, made by members of the Colombian Association of Infectious Diseases (ACIN), was aimed at providing a set of recommendations for the management, follow-up and prevention of IC / candidemia and mucous membrane candida infection in adult, pediatric and neonatal patients in a hospital setting, including the hemato-oncological and critical care units. All the data obtained through an exhaustive search were reviewed and analyzed in a comprehensive manner by all the members of the group, and the recommendations issued are being made after a careful review of the scientific literature available and the consensus of all specialists involved; the emergence of Candida Spp. problem is highlighted and a correct orientation to health professionals regarding the management of patients with candidiasis is provided in a rational and practical way, emphasizing patient evaluation, diagnostic strategies, prophylaxis, empirical treatment, directed treatment and preventative therapy.


Resumen La Candidiasis Invasora (CI) y la candidemia, como su manifestación más frecuente, se ha convertido en la principal causa de micosis oportunista a nivel hospitalario. Este manuscrito realizado por miembros de la Asociación Colombiana de Infectología (ACIN), tuvo como objetivo proporcionar un conjunto de recomendaciones para manejo, seguimiento y prevención de la CI/candidemia y de la infección candidiásica de mucosas, en población adulta, pediátrica y neonatal, en un entorno hospitalario, incluyendo las unidades hemato-oncológicas y unidades de cuidado crítico. Todos los datos obtenidos mediante una búsqueda exhaustiva, fueron revisados y analizados de manera amplia por todos los miembros del grupo, y las recomendaciones emitidas se elaboraron luego de la evaluación de la literatura científica disponible, y el consenso de todos los especialistas involucrados, reconociendo el problema de la emergencia de las infecciones por Candida Spp. y brindando una correcta orientación a los profesionales de la salud sobre el manejo de pacientes con enfermedad candidiásica, de una forma racional y práctica, enfatizando en la evaluación del paciente, estrategias de diagnóstico, profilaxis, tratamiento empírico, tratamiento dirigido y terapia preventiva.

2.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 20(6): e12978, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30120808

RESUMO

Chikungunya virus is a recent emerging arbovirus in Latin America, and the clinical manifestations can vary from fever and rash to severe chronic inflammatory arthritis. Few reports have been published regarding this infection in immunocompromised patients, including solid organ transplant recipients. We report a case series of solid organ transplant recipients with confirmed Chikungunya infection by positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), identified between January 2014 and December 2016. In addition, we conducted a literature review searching PubMed, EMBASE, and LILACS databases on Chikungunya infection in solid organ transplant recipients. Ten solid organ transplant recipients were included, consisting of 5 kidney, 4 liver, and 1 liver/kidney transplant recipient. Mean age of the transplant recipients was 47 years, and the most frequent symptoms of Chikungunya infection were arthralgia and fever. None of the patients required treatment in the intensive care unit, no deaths or graft rejection occurred. None of our patients had recurrent arthritis during 3-month follow-up period after the infection. Twenty-one cases of Chikungunya virus were identified in the literature review. Most cases had a benign clinical course with no severe complications, death, or chronic inflammatory arthritis. In conclusion, Chikungunya infection in solid organ transplant recipients has a benign course and has no chronic recurrent arthritis. It is possible that the immunosuppression regimen could decrease the risk of severe or chronic inflammatory manifestations in solid organ transplant recipients infected with Chikungunya.

3.
Lancet ; 391(10135): 2116-2127, 2018 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29856344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recipients of autologous haemopoietic stem-cell transplants (auto-HSCT) have an increased risk of herpes zoster and herpes zoster-related complications. The aim of this study was to establish the efficacy and safety of an inactivated varicella zoster vaccine for the prevention of herpes zoster after auto-HSCT. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial, participants were recruited from 135 medical centres (ie, stem-cell transplant centres and hospitals) in North America, South America, Europe, and Asia. Patients were eligible if they were aged 18 years or older, scheduled to receive an auto-HSCT within 60 days of enrolment, and had a history of varicella infection or were seropositive for antibodies to varicella zoster virus, or both. Exclusion criteria included a history of herpes zoster within the previous year of enrolment, and intended antiviral prophylaxis for longer than 6 months after transplantation. Participants were randomly assigned according to a central randomisation schedule generated by the trial statistician, to receive either the inactivated-virus vaccine from one of three consistency lots, a high-antigen lot, or placebo, stratified by age (<50 vs ≥50 years) and intended duration of antiviral prophylaxis after transplantation (≤3 months vs >3 to ≤6 months). Participants, investigators, trial staff, and the funder's clinical and laboratory personnel were masked to group assignment. Participants were given four doses of inactivated vaccine or placebo, with the first dose 5-60 days before auto-HSCT, and the second, third, and fourth doses at about 30, 60, and 90 days after transplantation. The primary efficacy endpoint was the incidence of herpes zoster, confirmed by PCR or adjudication by a masked clinical committee, or both, assessed in all participants randomly assigned to the vaccine consistency lot group or placebo group who received at least one dose of vaccine and had auto-HSCT. Safety was assessed in all randomised participants who received at least one dose of vaccine and had follow-up data. A prespecified vaccine efficacy success criterion required the lower bound of the 95% CI be higher than 25% for the relative reduction of the hazard ratio of herpes zoster infection in participants given the vaccine from one of the consistency lots compared with those given placebo. This trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01229267) and EudraCT (2010-020150-34). FINDINGS: Between Dec 7, 2010, and April 25, 2013, 560 participants were randomly assigned to the vaccine consistency lot group, 106 to the high-antigen lot group, and 564 to the placebo group. 249 (44%) of patients in the vaccine consistency lot group, 35 (33%) in the high-antigen lot group, and 220 (39%) in the placebo group discontinued before study end, mostly because of death or withdrawal. 51 participants were excluded from the primary efficacy endpoint analyses because they did not undergo auto-HSCT or were not vaccinated, or both (22 [4%] in the vaccine consistency lot group, and 29 [5%] in the placebo group). Mean follow-up for efficacy was 2·4 years (SD 1·3) in the vaccine consistency lot group and 2·3 years (SD 1·3) in the placebo group. 42 (8%) of 538 participants in the vaccine consistency lot group (32·9 per 1000 person-years) and 113 (21%) of 535 in the placebo group (91·9 per 1000 person-years) had a confirmed case of herpes zoster. The estimated vaccine efficacy was 63·8% (95% CI 48·4-74·6), meeting the pre-specified success criterion. For the combined vaccine groups versus the placebo group, the proportion of patients with serious adverse events (216 [33%] of 657 vs 181 [33%] of 554; risk difference 0·2%, 95% CI -5·1 to 5·5) and serious vaccine-related adverse events (five [1%] vs five [1%]; risk difference 0·1%, -1·4 to 1·1) were similar. Vaccine-related injection-site adverse events occurred more frequently in participants given vaccine than those given placebo (191 [29%] vs 36 [7%]; risk difference 22·6%, 95% CI 18·5-26·6; p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: This study shows for the first time in a large phase 3 trial that early vaccination of auto-HSCT recipients during the peri-transplant period can be effective for the prevention of an opportunistic infection like herpes zoster and that the vaccine is well tolerated. FUNDING: Merck & Co., Inc.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Vacina contra Herpes Zoster , Herpes Zoster/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia/terapia , Linfoma/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Transplante Autólogo , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados , Adulto Jovem
4.
Infectio ; 20(4): 211-217, jul.-dic. 2016. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-953965

RESUMO

Resumen Más de la mitad de los pacientes con infección por virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) pueden tener compromiso pulmonar en el transcurso de su vida. Este puede ser multicausal y las infecciones oportunistas son las principales, sin embargo, las causas no infecciosas no son menos importantes. Objetivo: Describir las características del compromiso pulmonar en pacientes hospitalizados con infección por VIH. Metodología: Estudio descriptivo observacional. Resultados: Se incluyó a 63 pacientes, el 85,7% fueron hombres. La edad promedio fue 40,6 ± 12 años. El 21,4% tuvieron antecedente de promiscuidad sexual y 28,6% fueron hombres con sexo con hombres. Se identificó tabaquismo en 60,3%, alcoholismo en 52,4% y consumo de drogas en 20,6%. El 23,8% tuvo historia de tuberculosis. Al ingreso, el 79,4% tenía sida, el recuento promedio de CD4 fue 138,5 ± 17,7 células/mm3 y el 49,2% tenía CD4 < 100 células/mm3. Las principales comorbilidades fueron: enfermedad neoplásica 20,6%, diarrea crónica 19%, EPOC 6,3% y diabetes mellitus 3,2%. Los principales síntomas al ingreso fueron: respiratorios 66,7%, gastrointestinales 47,6% y neurológicos 34,9%. Los principales oportunistas documentados fueron Mycobacterium spp, H. capsulatum y P. jirovecii. El sarcoma de Kaposi, la enfermedad lifoproliferativa y la EPOC fueron causas de compromiso no infeccioso. Los principales hallazgos radiográficos fueron: infiltrados intersticiales (42,9%), compromiso pleural (23,8%) y lesiones cavitarias (7,9%). El compromiso multilobar fue evidente en el 15,9%. Las principales complicaciones fueron falla respiratoria, disfunción orgánica múltiple y falla renal aguda. El 19% requirió ingreso a UCI y, de estos, el 83,3% necesitó ventilación mecánica. La estancia hospitalariapromedio fue de 18 ± 20 días y la mortalidad del 17,5%. Discusión: Las infecciones por oportunistas son las principales causas de compromiso pulmonar y, dentro de estas, las causadas por micobacterias. Puede ocurrir más de una infección oportunista simultáneamente, pero en nuestra población fueron infrecuentes. Las causas noinfecciosas también son importantes.


Abstract More than a half of patients with HIV infection have pulmonary involvement throug-hout their lives. Opportunistic infections are the main cause; however, many patients havenoninfectious pulmonary involvement. Objective: To describe the characteristics of pulmonary involvement in inpatients with HIVinfection.Methods: Descriptive observational study. Results: A total of 63 patients were included, and 85.7% were men. The average age was40.6 ± 12 years. Some 21.4% had a history of sexual promiscuity and 28.6% were men whohad sex with men. Smoking was found in 60.3%, alcoholism in 52.4% and drug abuse in 20.6%.A tuberculosis history was documented in 23.8% of patients. At admission, 79.4% had AIDS, themean CD4 count was 138.5 ± 17.7 cells/mm3and 49.2% had CD4 counts < 100 cells/mm3. Majorcomorbidities included neoplastic disease in 20.6%, chronic diarrhea in 19%, COPD in 6.3% anddiabetes in 3.2%. Major opportunistic agents were Mycobacterium spp, H. capsulatum and P.jirovecii. Kaposi's sarcoma, lymphoproliferative disease and COPD were causes of noninfectiouspulmonary involvement. The main radiographic findings included interstitial infiltrates in 42.9%,pleural involvement in 23.8%, alveolar infiltrates in 7.9% and cavitary lesions in 7.9%. Multilobarcompromise was evident in 15.9% of the patients. The major complications were respiratoryfailure, multiple organ dysfunction and acute renal failure. Some 19% required care in the ICUand 83.3% of these required mechanical ventilation. The mean stay was 18 ± 20 days and themortality was 17.5%. Discussion: Opportunistic infections are the main causes of lung involvement and mycobacterialdiseases were most frequent. Mycobacterial diseases can occur simultaneously with an oppor-tunistic infection, but in our series this was infrequent. Non-infectious diseases are importantbut are less common.

6.
J Clin Rheumatol ; 19(3): 126-8, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23519188

RESUMO

Diabetic muscle infarction is a rare complication of diabetes. We describe 2 cases of diabetic muscle infarction, each one of them with a particular form of clinical presentation: recurrence, bilateral engagement, and unilateral compromise. Both cases had history of poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy. The diagnosis was based on clinical, imaging, and anatomopathological features. The treatment was with a close control of diabetes mellitus, analgesics, short-term immobilization, and physical therapy.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Infarto/diagnóstico , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Complicações do Diabetes/patologia , Complicações do Diabetes/terapia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/complicações , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Infarto/patologia , Infarto/terapia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Restrição Física , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 84(2 Suppl): 4-11, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21292872

RESUMO

A safe and reproducible Plasmodium vivax infectious challenge method is required to evaluate the efficacy of malaria vaccine candidates. Seventeen healthy Duffy (+) and five Duffy (-) subjects were randomly allocated into three (A-C) groups and were exposed to the bites of 2-4 Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes infected with Plasmodium vivax derived from three donors. Duffy (-) subjects were included as controls for each group. Clinical manifestations of malaria and parasitemia were monitored beginning 7 days post-challenge. All Duffy (+) volunteers developed patent malaria infection within 16 days after challenge. Prepatent period determined by thick smear, was longer for Group A (median 14.5 d) than for Groups B and C (median 10 d/each). Infected volunteers recovered rapidly after treatment with no serious adverse events. The bite of as low as two P. vivax-infected mosquitoes provides safe and reliable infections in malaria-naive volunteers, suitable for assessing antimalarial and vaccine efficacy trials.


Assuntos
Malária Vivax/transmissão , Plasmodium vivax/imunologia , Plasmodium vivax/fisiologia , Esporozoítos/imunologia , Adulto , Animais , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo Duffy , Feminino , Febre , Humanos , Malária Vivax/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parasitemia , Primaquina/uso terapêutico , Distribuição Aleatória , Esporozoítos/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 81(5): 740-6, 2009 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19861603

RESUMO

Successful establishment of a Plasmodium vivax sporozoite challenge model in humans is described. Eighteen healthy adult, malaria-naïve volunteers were randomly allocated to Groups A-C and exposed to 3 +/- 1, 6 +/- 1, and 9 +/- 1 bites of Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes infected with P. vivax, respectively. Seventeen volunteers developed signs and symptoms consistent with malaria, and geometric mean prepatent periods of 11.1 days (9.3-11) for Group A; 10.8 days (9.8-11.9) for Group B; and 10.6 days (8.7-12.4) for Group C, with no statistically significant difference among groups (Kruskal-Wallis, P = 0.70). One volunteer exposed to eight mosquito bites did not develop a parasitemia. No differences in parasite density were observed and all individuals successfully recovered after anti-malarial treatment. None of the volunteers developed parasite relapses within an 18-month follow-up. In conclusion, malaria-naive volunteers can be safely and reproducibly infected with bites of 2-10 An. albimanus mosquitoes carrying P. vivax sporozoites. This challenge method is suitable for vaccine and anti-malarial drug testing.


Assuntos
Malária Vivax/transmissão , Plasmodium vivax , Adulto , Animais , Anopheles , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Malária Vivax/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
9.
Rev. colomb. psiquiatr ; 37(1): 29-39, mar. 2008. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-636400

RESUMO

Introduction: Better understanding of psychosocial and health care needs of complex HIV/AIDS patients may facilitate disease management and virologic control. Objectives: To examine the behavioral, psychosocial, and co-morbid characteristics of HIV/AIDS illness in men and women being followed at a tertiary health care center in Colombia. Methods: A sample of HIV+ patients, 114 men and 29 women, was selected for review of clinical records. Results: Men were older (40 vs. 32 yrs.) and more likely to be employed (83 vs. 50%). Of those reporting sexual preference, 33% of men and 100% of women indicated being heterosexual. A higher percentage of men (34%) had CD4 count < 200 cells/mm2 when compared with the women (21%). More men than women had opportunistic infections (75 vs. 48%) and more men tended to be on complex medication regimens (68 vs. 48%). Viral load data was available for 53% of the cases, half of which had > 400 copies/ml. Only 40% of patients attended every scheduled 3-month visit. Less than one-quarter (22%) of the sample was diagnosed by a psychiatrist with a mental disorder and only a small proportion (one-fifth) had a psychiatric follow-up. Conclusions: Our study reveals several important findings among this sample of HIV patients attending a tertiary care private hospital in Cali: (1) the epidemic is rising among women, (2) undetected and under-treated psychiatric illness is highly prevalent, and (3) adherence to scheduled clinical visits is low among patients with a viral load >400 copies/ml. Thus, integrating psychosocial care with behavioral interventions to improve adherence is warranted to counteract these critical issues. An important weakness of this study was that clinical records did not include complete documentation of all variables...


Introducción: Una mejor comprensión de las necesidades psicosociales y de salud de pacientes con VIH/sida de mayor complejidad puede facilitar su manejo y control virológico. Objetivo: Estudiar las características de comportamiento, psicosociales y de comorbilidad en la enfermedad por VIH/sida en hombres y mujeres de un centro de atención nivel tres en Colombia. Método: Revisión de una muestra de pacientes con VIH+ de 114 hombres y 29 mujeres y de sus historias clínicas. Resultados: Los hombres eran de mayor edad (40 vs. 32 años) y estaban empleados (83% vs. 50%). En los que reportaron preferencia sexual, 33% de los hombres y 100% de las mujeres refirieron heterosexualidad. Un mayor porcentaje de hombres (34%) que de mujeres (21%) tuvo un recuento de CD4 <200 células/mm2. Más hombres tenían infecciones oportunistas (75% vs. 48%) y estaban en tratamientos médicos de mayor complejidad (68% vs. 48%). Datos de carga viral estaban disponibles en el 53% de los casos. Solamente 40% asistieron a cada una de las citas trimestrales. El 22% tenía un diagnóstico de enfermedad mental realizado por un psiquiatra, y sólo una quinta parte, seguimiento por psiquiatra. Conclusiones: Nuestro estudio revela tres hallazgos importantes para la población que acude a un hospital privado de nivel tres en la ciudad de Cali: (i) la epidemia está aumentando en mujeres, (ii) la enfermedad psiquiátrica no detectada y no tratada es altamente prevalente y (iii) la adherencia a las visitas programadas fue baja en los pacientes con carga viral >400 copias/ml. Por lo tanto, para mejorar adherencia es prioritario integrar el cuidado psicosocial con las intervenciones sobre el comportamiento y así controlar estos críticos aspectos...


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , HIV , Epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais , Medicina Psicossomática
11.
Rev. colomb. reumatol ; 9(4): 312-315, dic. 2002. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-346511

RESUMO

Presentamos el caso clínico de una paciente de 28 años de edad con Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico (LES), con compromiso a nivel neurológico central, riñon y sistema hematológico, con tratamiento crónico de esferoides y desnutrición avanzada, quien desarrolla sepsis por Salmonella enteritidis, germen aislado en muestras tomadas en lavado bronco alveolar, sangre y materia fecal. Presentó un absceso pulmonar izquierdo y severa dificultad respiratoria. Recibió tratamiento con Ciprofloxacina con mejoría favorable. Pocas semanas después fallece en sepsis y con deterioro de su estado general. Se realiza una discusión en relación con la asociación de LES e infecciones por salmonelas, sus factores predisponentes y su papel en la mortalidad en este tipo de casos


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/microbiologia , Salmonella enteritidis
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