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1.
J Fish Biol ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483972

RESUMO

Otoliths are inner-ear structures of all teleost fish with functional importance for hearing and balance. The otoliths usually consist of aragonite, a polymorph of calcium carbonate, but may also take the form partly or entirely of vaterite, a different polymorph of calcium carbonate. Vateritic otoliths occur sporadically in wild fish, but with a higher frequency in hatchery-reared fish. Abnormal otoliths have direct consequences for the inner-ear functions of fish and may be a symptom of environmental stress. In this study, the authors assess the differences in the frequency of abnormal otoliths and degree of abnormality (% vaterite) for different groups of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolt and adults. The groups differed in parental broodstock origin (number of generations in hatchery) and treatment temperature. Smolt from the same groups were also released to complete their ocean migration. The otoliths of the returning and recaptured adults were subsequently extracted to assess the difference in frequency and degree of abnormality between the adults and the smolt from corresponding groups. Return rate varied among groups (0.2%-2.6%). The frequency of vateritic otoliths was high (11.4%-64.4%) and differed among smolt groups. The lowest return rates corresponded with the highest frequency of abnormal otoliths for the groups, suggesting that abnormal otoliths may have negative consequences for marine survival. Furthermore, indications of an effect of fast growth on the formation of abnormal otoliths were found for only one of the experimental groups, and for none of the groups after correcting for Type 1 error. This contradicts previous reports, suggesting rapid growth as the main cause of abnormal otoliths. Adult return rates were generally low, but abnormal otoliths were common, with high coverage (% vaterite).

2.
BMC Ecol ; 20(1): 70, 2020 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Earlier breeding is one of the strongest responses to global change in birds and is a key factor determining reproductive success. In most studies of climate effects, the focus has been on large-scale environmental indices or temperature averaged over large geographical areas, neglecting that animals are affected by the local conditions in their home ranges. In riverine ecosystems, climate change is altering the flow regime, in addition to changes resulting from the increasing demand for renewable and clean hydropower. Together with increasing temperatures, this can lead to shifts in the time window available for successful breeding of birds associated with the riverine habitat. Here, we investigated specifically how the environmental conditions at the territory level influence timing of breeding in a passerine bird with an aquatic lifestyle, the white-throated dipper Cinclus cinclus. We relate daily river discharge and other important hydrological parameters, to a long-term dataset of breeding phenology (1978-2015) in a natural river system. RESULTS: Dippers bred earlier when winter river discharge and groundwater levels in the weeks prior to breeding were high, and when there was little snow in the catchment area. Breeding was also earlier at lower altitudes, although the effect dramatically declined over the period. This suggests that territories at higher altitudes had more open water in winter later in the study period, which permitted early breeding also here. Unexpectedly, the largest effect inducing earlier breeding time was territory river discharge during the winter months and not immediately prior to breeding. The territory river discharge also increased during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: The observed earlier breeding can thus be interpreted as a response to climate change. Measuring environmental variation at the scale of the territory thus provides detailed information about the interactions between organisms and the abiotic environment.


Assuntos
Hidrologia , Passeriformes , Animais , Cruzamento , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema
3.
Epigenetics ; : 1-18, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660325

RESUMO

Temperature is a key environmental parameter affecting both the phenotypes and distributions of organisms, particularly ectotherms. Rapid organismal responses to thermal environmental changes have been described for several ectotherms; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms often remain unclear. Here, we studied whole genome cytosine methylation patterns of European grayling (Thymallus thymallus) embryos from five populations with contemporary adaptations of early life history traits at either 'colder' or 'warmer' spawning grounds. We reared fish embryos in a common garden experiment using two temperatures that resembled the 'colder' and 'warmer' conditions of the natal natural environments. Genome-wide methylation patterns were similar in populations originating from colder thermal origin subpopulations, whereas single nucleotide polymorphisms uncovered from the same data identified strong population structure among isolated populations, but limited structure among interconnected populations. This was surprising because the previously studied gene expression response among populations was mostly plastic, and mainly influenced by the developmental temperature. These findings support the hypothesis of the magnified role of epigenetic mechanisms in modulating plasticity. The abundance of consistently changing methylation loci between two warmer-to-colder thermal origin population pairs suggests that local adaptation has shaped the observed methylation patterns. The dynamic nature of the methylomes was further highlighted by genome-wide and site-specific plastic responses. Our findings support both the presence of a plastic response in a subset of CpG loci, and the evolutionary role of methylation divergence between populations adapting to contrasting thermal environments.

4.
Biodivers Data J ; 8: e52157, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32547304

RESUMO

Background: Long-term data from marked animals provide a wealth of opportunities for studies with high relevance to both basic ecological understanding and successful management in a changing world. The key strength of such data is that they allow us to quantify individual variation in vital rates (e.g. survival, growth, reproduction) and then link it mechanistically to dynamics at the population level. However, maintaining the collection of individual-based data over long time periods comes with large logistic efforts and costs and studies spanning over decades are therefore rare. This is the case particularly for migratory aquatic species, many of which are in decline despite their high ecological, cultural and economical value. New information: This paper describes two unique publicly available time series of individual-based data originating from a 51-year mark-recapture study of a land-locked population of large-sized migratory brown trout (Salmo trutta) in Norway: the Hunder trout. In the period 1966-2015, nearly 14,000 adult Hunder trout have been captured and individually marked during their spawning migration from Lake Mjøsa to the river Gubrandsdalslågen. Almost a third of those individuals were later recaptured alive during a later spawning run and/or captured by fishermen and reported dead or alive. This has resulted in the first data series: a mark-recapture-recovery dataset spanning half a century and more than 18,000 capture records. The second data series consists of additional data on juvenile and adult growth and life-history schedules from half of the marked individuals, obtained by means of scale-sample analysis. The two datasets offer a rare long-term perspective on individuals and population dynamics and provide unique opportunities to gain insights into questions surrounding management, conservation and restoration of migratory salmonid populations and freshwater ecosystems.

5.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 127, 2019 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studying variation in life-history traits and correlated behaviours, such as boldness and foraging (i.e., pace-of-life syndrome), allows us to better understand how these traits evolve in a changing environment. In fish, it is particularly relevant studying the interplay of resource abundance and size-selection. These are two environmental stressors affecting fish in natural conditions, but also associated with human-induced environmental change. For instance, fishing, one of the most important threats for freshwater and marine populations, results in both higher mortality on large-sized fish and reduced population density. RESULTS: Medaka, Oryzias latipes, from lines selected for large or small size over ten generations, were exposed individually to high or low food availability from birth to adulthood. Maturation schedules, reproductive investment, growth, boldness and feeding were assessed to evaluate the effect of size-selection on the pace of life, and whether it differed between food contexts (high and low). Different food abundance and size-selection resulted in diverse life histories associated with different feeding and boldness behaviour, thus showing different pace-of-life-syndromes. High availability of food favoured faster growth, earlier maturation and increased shyness. Selection for small size led to slower growth in both males and females. But, the life-history trajectory to reach such growth was sex- and food-specific. Under low food conditions, females selected for small size showed earlier maturation, which led to slower adult growth and subsequent low willingness to feed, compared to females selected for large size. No line differences were found in females at high food conditions. In contrast, males exposed to selection for small size grew slower both as juvenile and adult, and were bolder under both feeding regimes. Therefore, the response to size-selection was more sensitive to food availability in females than in males. CONCLUSIONS: We showed that size-selection (over ten generations) and resource abundance (over developmental time) led to changes in life history and behaviour. However, the effect of size-selection was sex- and context-specific, calling for precaution when drawing general conclusions on the population-level effects (or lack of them) of size-selective fishing. Conservation and management plans should consider this sex- and context-specificity.


Assuntos
Oryzias/genética , Oryzias/fisiologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Tamanho Corporal , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Feminino , Masculino , Fenótipo , Reprodução , Caracteres Sexuais
6.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 9(5): 1283-1294, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833292

RESUMO

Salmonids represent an intriguing taxonomical group for investigating genome evolution in vertebrates due to their relatively recent last common whole genome duplication event, which occurred between 80 and 100 million years ago. Here, we report on the chromosome-level genome assembly of European grayling (Thymallus thymallus), which represents one of the earliest diverged salmonid subfamilies. To achieve this, we first generated relatively long genomic scaffolds by using a previously published draft genome assembly along with long-read sequencing data and a linkage map. We then merged those scaffolds by applying synteny evidence from the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) genome. Comparisons of the European grayling genome assembly to the genomes of Atlantic salmon and Northern pike (Esox lucius), the latter used as a nonduplicated outgroup, detailed aspects of the characteristic chromosome evolution process that has taken place in European grayling. While Atlantic salmon and other salmonid genomes are portrayed by the typical occurrence of numerous chromosomal fusions, European grayling chromosomes were confirmed to be fusion-free and were characterized by a relatively large proportion of paracentric and pericentric inversions. We further reported on transposable elements specific to either the European grayling or Atlantic salmon genome, on the male-specific sdY gene in the European grayling chromosome 11A, and on regions under residual tetrasomy in the homeologous European grayling chromosome pairs 9A-9B and 25A-25B. The same chromosome pairs have been observed under residual tetrasomy in Atlantic salmon and in other salmonids, suggesting that this feature has been conserved since the subfamily split.


Assuntos
Cromossomos , Evolução Molecular , Genoma , Genômica , Salmo salar/genética , Animais , Centrômero/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Feminino , Ligação Genética , Genômica/métodos , Masculino , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico
7.
Ecol Evol ; 8(8): 4065-4073, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29721280

RESUMO

Interactions between birds and fish are often overlooked in aquatic ecosystems. We studied the influence of Atlantic salmon and brown trout on the breeding population size and reproductive output of the white-throated dipper in a Norwegian river. Acidic precipitation led to the extinction of salmon, but salmon recolonized after liming was initiated in 1991. We compared the dipper population size and reproductive output before (1978-1992) and after (1993-2014) salmon recolonization. Despite a rapid and substantial increase in juvenile salmon, the breeding dipper population size and reproductive output were not influenced by juvenile salmon, trout, or total salmonid density. This might be due to different feeding strategies in salmonids and dippers, where salmonids are mainly feeding on drift, while the dipper is a benthic feeder. The correlation between the size of the dipper population upstream and downstream of a salmonid migratory barrier was similar before and after recolonization, indicating that the downstream territories were not less attractive after the recolonization of salmon. Upstream dipper breeding success rates declined before the recolonization event and increased after, indicating improved water quality due to liming, and increasing invertebrate prey abundances and biodiversity. Surprisingly, upstream the migratory barrier, juvenile trout had a weak positive effect on the dipper population size, indicating that dippers may prey upon small trout. It is possible that wider downstream reaches might have higher abundances of alternative food, rending juvenile trout unimportant as prey. Abiotic factors such as winter temperatures and acidic precipitation with subsequent liming, potentially mediated by prey abundance, seem to play the most important role in the life history of the dipper.

8.
Ecol Evol ; 6(8): 2414-25, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27110352

RESUMO

Habitat fragmentation is a growing problem worldwide. Particularly in river systems, numerous dams and weirs hamper the movement of a wide variety of species. With the aim to preserve connectivity for fish, many barriers in river systems are equipped with fishways (also called fish passages or fish ladders). However, few fishways provide full connectivity. Here we hypothesized that restricted seasonal opening times of fishways can importantly reduce their effectiveness by interfering with the timing of fish migration, for both spring- and autumn-spawning species. We empirically tested our hypothesis, and discuss the possible eco-evolutionary consequences of affected migration timing. We analyzed movements of two salmonid fishes, spring-spawning European grayling (Thymallus thymallus) and autumn-spawning brown trout (Salmo trutta), in Norway's two largest river systems. We compared their timing of upstream passage through four fishways collected over 28 years with the timing of fish movements in unfragmented river sections as monitored by radiotelemetry. Confirming our hypothesis, late opening of fishways delayed the migration of European grayling in spring, and early closure of fishways blocked migration for brown trout on their way to spawning locations during late autumn. We show in a theoretical framework how restricted opening times of fishways can induce shifts from migratory to resident behavior in potamodromous partial migration systems, and propose that this can induce density-dependent effects among fish accumulating in lower regions of rivers. Hence, fragmentation may not only directly affect the migratory individuals in the population, but may also have effects that cascade downstream and alter circumstances for resident fish. Fishway functionality is inadequate if there is a mismatch between natural fish movements and fishway opening times in the same river system, with ecological and possibly evolutionary consequences for fish populations.

9.
J Environ Manage ; 176: 139-48, 2016 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27054530

RESUMO

Fishing regulations such as harvest restrictions are implemented to limit the exploitation of many fish stocks and ensure the sustainability of fisheries. In Norway, inland recreational fisheries are co-managed by the government and by local riparian rights holders, meaning that Atlantic salmon Salmo salar harvest restrictions differ somewhat among rivers. Data from Norwegian rivers from 2009 to 2013 were used to test for variation in the proportion of salmon released by anglers and the relative size of salmon harvested and released by anglers in rivers that had varying harvest restrictions in terms of quotas, size restrictions, and/or female harvest restrictions. The proportion of the catch released by anglers was higher in rivers where there were harvest restrictions (proportion released = 0.09-0.24) than in rivers with no such restrictions (proportion released = 0.01). On average, salmon released in rivers with size restrictions larger (average mass difference between harvested and released salmon = -1.25 kg) than those released in rivers without harvest restrictions (difference = 0.60 kg). The proportion of the catch released was larger in rivers with seasonal quotas (0.29) than in rivers with daily (0.07) or collective (i.e. total catch for the river; 0.06) quotas. Rivers with low daily (one salmon per angler per day) or seasonal (<5 salmon per angler per year) quotas had a larger proportion of salmon released (0.23, 0.38, respectively) than rivers with moderate (0.10, 0.21) or high (0.07, 0.16) quotas. High seasonal quotas resulted in larger individuals harvested than released (difference = 1.16 kg), on average, compared to moderate (1.22 kg) and high seasonal quotas (-0.30 kg). We conclude that harvest restrictions influenced the extent to which fish were released and thus the stock composition (i.e. size distribution) escaping the recreational fishery with the potential to spawn.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Tamanho Corporal , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Pesqueiros , Recreação , Salmo salar , Animais , Feminino , Noruega , Rios
10.
Proc Biol Sci ; 281(1793)2014 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25165767

RESUMO

Climate-induced shifts in the timing of life-history events are a worldwide phenomenon, and these shifts can de-synchronize species interactions such as predator-prey relationships. In order to understand the ecological implications of altered seasonality, we need to consider how shifts in phenology interact with other agents of environmental change such as exploitation and disease spread, which commonly act to erode the demographic structure of wild populations. Using long-term observational data on the phenology and dynamics of a model predator-prey system (fish and zooplankton in Windermere, UK), we show that age-size truncation of the predator population alters the consequences of phenological mismatch for offspring survival and population abundance. Specifically, age-size truncation reduces intraspecific density regulation due to competition and cannibalism, and thereby amplifies the population sensitivity to climate-induced predator-prey asynchrony, which increases variability in predator abundance. High population variability poses major ecological and economic challenges as it can diminish sustainable harvest rates and increase the risk of population collapse. Our results stress the importance of maintaining within-population age-size diversity in order to buffer populations against phenological asynchrony, and highlight the need to consider interactive effects of environmental impacts if we are to understand and project complex ecological outcomes.


Assuntos
Cladóceros/fisiologia , Clima , Cadeia Alimentar , Percas/fisiologia , Animais , Cladóceros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Inglaterra , Lagos , Modelos Biológicos , Percas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dinâmica Populacional , Estações do Ano , Zooplâncton
11.
Nat Commun ; 5: 4071, 2014 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24892934

RESUMO

Understanding the factors that shape the evolution of gene expression is a central goal in biology, but the molecular mechanisms behind this remain controversial. A related major goal is ascertaining how such factors may affect the adaptive potential of a species or population. Here we demonstrate that temperature-driven gene expression changes in fish adapted to differing thermal environments are constrained by the level of gene pleiotropy estimated by either the number of protein interactions or gene biological processes. Genes with low pleiotropy levels were the main drivers of both plastic and evolutionary global expression profile changes, while highly pleiotropic genes had limited expression response to temperature treatment. Our study provides critical insights into the molecular mechanisms by which natural populations can adapt to changing environments. In addition to having important implications for climate change adaptation, these results suggest that gene pleiotropy should be considered more carefully when interpreting expression profiling data.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Pleiotropia Genética , Salmonidae , Temperatura , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Mudança Climática , Evolução Molecular , Análise de Componente Principal
12.
Am Nat ; 183(2): 243-56, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24464198

RESUMO

Predicted universal responses of ectotherms to climate warming include increased maximum population growth rate and changes in body size through the temperature-size rule. However, the mechanisms that would underlie these predicted responses are not clear. Many studies have focused on proximate mechanisms of physiological processes affecting individual growth. One can also consider ultimate mechanisms involving adaptive explanations by evaluating temperature effects on different vital rates across the life history and using the information in a population dynamical model. Here, we combine long-term data for a top predator in freshwater ecosystems (pike; Esox lucius) with a stochastic integral projection model to analyze concurrent effects of temperature on vital rates, body size, and population dynamics. As predicted, the net effect of warming on population growth rate (fitness) is positive, but the thermal sensitivity of this rate is highly size- and vital rate-dependent. These results are not sensitive to increasing variability in temperature. Somatic growth follows the temperature-size rule, and our results support an adaptive explanation for this response. The stable length structure of the population shifts with warming toward an increased proportion of medium-sized but a reduced proportion of small and large individuals. This study highlights how demographic approaches can help reveal complex underlying mechanisms for population responses to warming.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Esocidae/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Ecossistema , Feminino , Fertilidade , Lagos , Dinâmica Populacional , Temperatura , Reino Unido
13.
PLoS One ; 8(3): e59212, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23554997

RESUMO

European eel migrate from freshwater or coastal habitats throughout Europe to their spawning grounds in the Sargasso Sea. However, their route (~ 6000 km) and orientation mechanisms are unknown. Several attempts have been made to prove the existence of magnetoreception in Anguilla sp., but none of these studies have demonstrated magnetic compass orientation in earth-strength magnetic field intensities. We tested eels in four altered magnetic field conditions where magnetic North was set at geographic North, South, East, or West. Eels oriented in a manner that was related to the tank in which they were housed before the test. At lower temperature (under 12°C), their orientation relative to magnetic North corresponded to the direction of their displacement from the holding tank. At higher temperatures (12-17°C), eels showed bimodal orientation along an axis perpendicular to the axis of their displacement. These temperature-related shifts in orientation may be linked to the changes in behavior that occur between the warm season (during which eels are foraging) and the colder fall and winter (during which eels undertake their migrations). These observations support the conclusion that 1. eels have a magnetic compass, and 2. they use this sense to orient in a direction that they have registered moments before they are displaced. The adaptive advantage of having a magnetic compass and learning the direction in which they have been displaced becomes clear when set in the context of the eel's seaward migration. For example, if their migration is halted or blocked, as it is the case when environmental conditions become unfavorable or when they encounter a barrier, eels would be able to resume their movements along their old bearing when conditions become favorable again or when they pass by the barrier.


Assuntos
Migração Animal/fisiologia , Enguias/fisiologia , Orientação/fisiologia , Animais , Planeta Terra , Europa (Continente) , Campos Magnéticos , Oceanos e Mares , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
14.
Am Nat ; 180(6): 791-801, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23149403

RESUMO

Ecological interactions determine the structure and dynamics of communities and their responses to the environment. Understanding the community-level effects of ecological interactions, such as intra- and interspecifc competition, predation, and cannibalism, is therefore central to ecological theory and ecosystem management. Here, we investigate the community-level consequences of cannibalism in populations with density-dependent maturation and reproduction. We model a stage-structured consumer population with an ontogenetic diet shift to analyze how cannibalism alters the conditions for the invasion and persistence of stage-specific predators and competitors. Our results demonstrate that cannibalistic interactions can facilitate coexistence with other species at both trophic levels. This effect of cannibalism critically depends on the food dependence of the demographic processes. The underlying mechanism is a cannibalism-induced shift in the biomass distribution between the consumer life stages. These findings suggest that cannibalism may alter the structure of ecological communities through its effects on species coexistence.


Assuntos
Canibalismo , Dieta , Cadeia Alimentar , Distribuição por Idade , Animais , Modelos Biológicos , Densidade Demográfica , Reprodução , Especificidade da Espécie
15.
Genetics ; 191(2): 579-92, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22466040

RESUMO

The effective population size (N(e)) is notoriously difficult to accurately estimate in wild populations as it is influenced by a number of parameters that are difficult to delineate in natural systems. The different methods that are used to estimate N(e) are affected variously by different processes at the population level, such as the life-history characteristics of the organism, gene flow, and population substructure, as well as by the frequency patterns of genetic markers used and the sampling design. Here, we compare N(e) estimates obtained by different genetic methods and from demographic data and elucidate how the estimates are affected by various factors in an exhaustively sampled and comprehensively described natural brown trout (Salmo trutta) system. In general, the methods yielded rather congruent estimates, and we ascribe that to the adequate genotyping and exhaustive sampling. Effects of violating the assumptions of the different methods were nevertheless apparent. In accordance with theoretical studies, skewed allele frequencies would underestimate temporal allele frequency changes and thereby upwardly bias N(e) if not accounted for. Overlapping generations and iteroparity would also upwardly bias N(e) when applied to temporal samples taken over short time spans. Gene flow from a genetically not very dissimilar source population decreases temporal allele frequency changes and thereby acts to increase estimates of N(e). Our study reiterates the importance of adequate sampling, quantification of life-history parameters and gene flow, and incorporating these data into the N(e) estimation.


Assuntos
Truta/genética , Alelos , Animais , Fluxo Gênico , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Repetições de Microssatélites , Noruega , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional , Fatores de Tempo
16.
BMC Evol Biol ; 11: 360, 2011 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22166134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following colonization of new habitats and subsequent selection, adaptation to environmental conditions might be expected to be rapid. In a mountain lake in Norway, Lesjaskogsvatnet, more than 20 distinct spawning demes of grayling have been established since the lake was colonized, some 20-25 generations ago. The demes spawn in tributaries consistently exhibiting either colder or warmer temperature conditions during spawning in spring and subsequent early development during early summer. In order to explore the degree of temperature-related divergence in early development, a multi-temperature common-garden experiment was performed on embryos from four different demes experiencing different spring temperatures. RESULTS: Early developmental characters were measured to test if individuals from the four demes respond differently to the treatment temperatures. There was clear evidence of among-deme differences (genotype - environment interactions) in larval growth and yolk-to-body-size conversion efficiency. Under the cold treatment regime, larval growth rates were highest for individuals belonging to cold streams. Individuals from warm streams had the highest yolk-consumption rate under cold conditions. As a consequence, yolk-to-body-mass conversion efficiency was highest for cold-deme individuals under cold conditions. As we observed response parallelism between individuals from demes belonging to similar thermal groups for these traits, some of the differentiation seems likely to result from local adaptation CONCLUSION: The observed differences in length at age during early larval development most likely have a genetic component, even though both directional and random processes are likely to have influenced evolutionary change in the demes under study.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Ecossistema , Salmonidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salmonidae/genética , Animais , Lagos , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Noruega , Salmonidae/fisiologia , Saco Vitelino/fisiologia
17.
Mol Ecol ; 20(12): 2483-93, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21443674

RESUMO

Measuring the strength of natural selection is tremendously important in evolutionary biology, but remains a challenging task. In this work, we analyse the characteristics of selection for a morphological change (lateral-plate reduction) in the threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus. Adaptation to freshwater, leading with the reduction or loss of the bony lateral armour, has occurred in parallel on numerous occasions in this species. Completely-plated and low-plated sticklebacks were introduced into a pond, and the phenotypic changes were tracked for 20 years. Fish from the last generation were genotyped for the Ectodysplasin-A (Eda) locus, the major gene involved in armour development. We found a strong fitness advantage for the freshwater-type fish (on average, 20% fitness advantage for the freshwater morph, and 92% for the freshwater genotype). The trend is best explained by assuming that this fitness advantage is maximum at the beginning of the invasion and decreases with time. Such fitness differences provide a quantifiable example of rapid selection-driven phenotypic evolution associated with environmental change in a natural population.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Ectodisplasinas/genética , Seleção Genética , Smegmamorpha/anatomia & histologia , Adaptação Biológica , Alaska , Animais , Intervalos de Confiança , Água Doce , Aptidão Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Genética Populacional , Genótipo , Funções Verossimilhança , Modelos Genéticos , Noruega , Fenótipo , Dinâmica Populacional , Água do Mar , Smegmamorpha/genética , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Proc Biol Sci ; 278(1704): 464-73, 2011 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20798112

RESUMO

The European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) is distributed in coastal and inland habitats all over Europe, but spawns in the Sargasso Sea and is thus affected by both continental and oceanic factors. Since the 1980s a steady decline has been observed in the recruitment of glass eels to freshwater and in total eel landings. The eel is considered as critically endangered on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources Red List of species. The Skagerrak beach seine survey from Norway constitutes the longest fishery-independent dataset on yellow/silver eels (starting in 1904). The Skagerrak coastal region receives larvae born in the Sargasso Sea spawning areas that have followed the Gulf Stream/North Atlantic Drift before they penetrate far into the North Sea. The Skagerrak coastal time series is therefore particularly valuable for exploring the impacts of oceanic factors on fluctuations in eel recruitment abundance. Analyses showed that Sargasso Sea surface temperature was negatively correlated with eel abundance, with a lag of 12 years revealing a cyclic and detrimental effect of high temperatures on the newly hatched larvae. The North Atlantic Oscillation index and inflow of North Atlantic water into the North Sea were negatively correlated with eel abundance, with a lag of 11 years. Increased currents towards the North Atlantic during high North Atlantic Oscillation years may send larvae into the subpolar gyre before they are ready to metamorphose and settle, resulting in low recruitment in the northern part of the distribution area for these years. The Skagerrak time series was compared with glass eel recruitment to freshwater in the Netherlands (Den Oever glass eel time series), and similar patterns were found revealing a cycle linked to changes in oceanic factors affecting glass eel recruitment. The recent decline of eels in the Skagerrak also coincided with previously documented shifts in environmental conditions of the North Sea ecosystem.


Assuntos
Anguilla/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Noruega , Temperatura , Movimentos da Água
19.
Ecology ; 92(12): 2175-82, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22352155

RESUMO

Recently developed theoretical models of stage-structured consumer-resource systems have shown that stage-specific biomass overcompensation can arise in response to increased mortality rates. We parameterized a stage-structured population model to simulate the effects of increased adult mortality caused by a pathogen outbreak in the perch (Perca fluviatilis) population of Windermere (UK) in 1976. The model predicts biomass overcompensation by juveniles in response to increased adult mortality due to a shift in food-dependent growth and reproduction rates. Considering cannibalism between life stages in the model reinforces this compensatory response due to the release from predation on juveniles at high mortality rates. These model predictions are matched by our analysis of a 60-year time series of scientific monitoring of Windermere perch, which shows that the pathogen outbreak induced a strong decrease in adult biomass and a corresponding increase in juvenile biomass. Age-specific adult fecundity and size at age were higher after than before the disease outbreak, suggesting that the pathogen-induced mortality released adult perch from competition, thereby increasing somatic and reproductive growth. Higher juvenile survival after the pathogen outbreak due to a release from cannibalism likely contributed to the observed biomass overcompensation. Our findings have general implications for predicting population- and community-level responses to increased size-selective mortality caused by exploitation or disease outbreaks.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Doenças dos Peixes/mortalidade , Modelos Biológicos , Percas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Reino Unido
20.
BMC Evol Biol ; 10: 350, 2010 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21070638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evaluating the limits of adaptation to temperature is important given the IPCC-predicted rise in global temperatures. The rate and scope of evolutionary adaptation can be limited by low genetic diversity, gene flow, and costs associated with adaptive change. Freshwater organisms are physically confined to lakes and rivers, and must therefore deal directly with climate variation and change. In this study, we take advantage of a system characterised by low genetic variation, small population size, gene flow and between-trait trade-offs to study how such conditions affect the ability of a freshwater fish to adapt to climate change. We test for genetically-based differences in developmental traits indicating local adaptation, by conducting a common-garden experiment using embryos and larvae from replicate pairs of sympatric grayling demes that spawn and develop in natural cold and warm water, respectively. These demes have common ancestors from a colonization event 22 generations ago. Consequently, we explore if diversification may occur under severely constraining conditions. RESULTS: We found evidence for divergence in ontogenetic rates. The divergence pattern followed adaptation predictions as cold-deme individuals displayed higher growth rates and yolk conversion efficiency than warm-deme individuals at the same temperature. The cold-deme embryos had a higher rate of muscle mass development. Most of the growth- and development differences occurred prior to hatch. The divergence was probably not caused by genetic drift as there was a strong degree of parallelism in the divergence pattern and because phenotypic differentiation (Q(ST)) was larger than estimated genetic drift levels (microsatellite F(ST)) between demes from different temperature groups. We also document that these particular grayling populations cannot develop successfully at temperatures above 12°C, whereas other European populations can, and that increasing the muscle mass development rate comes at the cost of some skeletal trait development rates. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that genetically based phenotypic divergence can prevail even under conditions of low genetic variation and ongoing gene flow. Furthermore, population-specific maximum development temperatures along with musculoskeletal developmental trade-offs may constrain adaptation.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Deriva Genética , Salmonidae/genética , Temperatura , Animais , Feminino , Fluxo Gênico , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Masculino , Fenótipo , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Salmonidae/embriologia
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