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1.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 61, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34692385

RESUMO

More than twenty percent of all cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths are caused by air pollution - more than three million deaths every year - and these numbers will continue to rise unless the global community takes action. Nine out of ten people worldwide breathe polluted air, which disproportionately affects those living in low-resource settings. The World Heart Federation (WHF) is committed to reducing the impact of air pollution on people's health and has made this a priority area of its global advocacy efforts. In pursuit of this goal, WHF has formed an Air Pollution Expert Group to inform action on air pollution for CVD health and recommend changes to public health policy. This policy paper lays out the health impacts of air pollution, examines its position on the global policy agenda, demonstrates its relevance to the cardiovascular community, and proposes actionable policy measures to mitigate this deadly risk factor to health. The paper considers the important roles to be played by the Members of WHF, including scientific societies and the physicians that constitute them, heart health foundations, and patient advocacy groups. The paper concludes with a detailed table of recommendations for the various sub-target groups at the global, national, local, and patient level.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Cidades , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) trials have stringent in- and ex- clusion criteria, but limited data exists regarding generalisability of trials. We compared patient characteristics and outcomes between patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) in trials and observational registries. METHODS AND RESULTS: Individual patient data for 16922 patients from five randomised clinical trials and 46914 patients from two HF registries were included. The registry patients were categorised into trial-eligible and non-eligible groups using the most commonly used in- and ex-clusion criteria. A total of 26104 (56%) registry patients fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Unadjusted all-cause mortality rates at one year were lowest in the trial population (7%), followed by trial-eligible patients (12%) and trial-non-eligible registry patients (26%). After adjustment for age and sex, all-cause mortality rates were similar between trial participants and trial-eligible registry patients (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 0.97; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92 -1.03) but cardiovascular mortality was higher in trial participants (SMR 1.19; 1.12 -1.27). After full case-mix adjustment, the SMR for cardiovascular mortality remained higher in the trials at 1.28 (1.20- 1.37) compared to RCT-eligible registry patients. CONCLUSION: In contemporary HF registries, over half of HFrEF patients would have been eligible for trial enrolment. Crude clinical event rates were lower in the trials, but, after adjustment for case-mix, trial participants had similar rates of survival as registries. Despite this, they had about 30% higher cardiovascular mortality rates. Age and sex were the main drivers of differences in clinical outcomes between HF trials and observational HF registries.

3.
Brain Behav ; 11(10): e2340, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473425

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Psychosocial factors have been hypothesized to increase the risk of cancer. This study aims (1) to test whether psychosocial factors (depression, anxiety, recent loss events, subjective social support, relationship status, general distress, and neuroticism) are associated with the incidence of any cancer (any, breast, lung, prostate, colorectal, smoking-related, and alcohol-related); (2) to test the interaction between psychosocial factors and factors related to cancer risk (smoking, alcohol use, weight, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep, age, sex, education, hormone replacement therapy, and menopausal status) with regard to the incidence of cancer; and (3) to test the mediating role of health behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, weight, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep) in the relationship between psychosocial factors and the incidence of cancer. METHODS: The psychosocial factors and cancer incidence (PSY-CA) consortium was established involving experts in the field of (psycho-)oncology, methodology, and epidemiology. Using data collected in 18 cohorts (N = 617,355), a preplanned two-stage individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis is proposed. Standardized analyses will be conducted on harmonized datasets for each cohort (stage 1), and meta-analyses will be performed on the risk estimates (stage 2). CONCLUSION: PSY-CA aims to elucidate the relationship between psychosocial factors and cancer risk by addressing several shortcomings of prior meta-analyses.

4.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(8): e542-e552, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390672

RESUMO

Stroke is a leading cause of disability and the second most common cause of death worldwide. Increasing evidence suggests that air pollution is an emerging risk factor for stroke. Over the past decades, air pollution levels have continuously increased and are now estimated to be responsible for 14% of all stroke-associated deaths. Interpretation of previous literature is difficult because stroke was usually not distinguished as ischaemic or haemorrhagic, nor by cause. This Review summarises the evidence on the association between air pollution and the different causes of ischaemic stroke and haemorrhagic stroke, to clarify which people are most at risk. The risk for ischaemic stroke is increased after short-term or long-term exposure to air pollution. This effect is most pronounced in people with cardiovascular burden and stroke due to large artery disease or small vessel disease. Short-term exposure to air pollution increases the risk of intracerebral haemorrhage, a subtype of haemorrhagic stroke, whereas the effects of long-term exposure are less clear. Limitations of the current evidence are that studies are prone to misclassification of exposure, often rely on administrative data, and have insufficient clinical detail. In this Review, we provide an outlook on new research opportunities, such as those provided by the decreased levels of air pollution due to the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , AVC Hemorrágico , AVC Isquêmico , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19 , AVC Hemorrágico/epidemiologia , Humanos , AVC Isquêmico/epidemiologia , Risco
5.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 39, 2021 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211825

RESUMO

Background: Data on nationwide trends for stroke metrics are crucial to understand the extent of the disease burden to a country's health system. Yet, this information remains scarce in low- and middle-income countries. Objectives: This study investigated trends of stroke incidence and 28-day all-cause mortality after a stroke from 2008 to 2016 in Malaysia, through linkage across national data sources. Methods: Hospital admissions with a principal diagnosis of stroke or transient ischemic attack were included. Cases with first stroke were identified through linkage of hospital admission registers where age and sex-standardized trends of stroke incidence and its subtypes were calculated. By linking hospital registers to the National Death Register, the 28-day all-cause mortality rates after a stroke were estimated. Mann-Kendall's test was used for trend evaluation. Results: From 243,765 records, the trend of stroke incidence showed an increase of 4.9% in men and a drop of 3.8% among women. Incidences were higher in men, at 99.1 per 100,000 population in 2008 and 103.9 per 100,000 in 2016 than women (80.3 per 100,000 in 2008 and 77.2 per 100,000 in 2016). There was a substantial increase in stroke incidence among those below 65 years old, with the largest increase of 53.3% in men aged between 35-39 years and 50.4% in women of similar age group. The trend for 28-day all-cause mortality showed a decline for men at -13.1% and women, -10.6%. Women had higher mortality from stroke (22.0% in 2008 and 19.7% in 2016) than men (19.4% in 2008 to 17.2% in 2016). Conclusion: This first empirical study on stroke trends in Malaysia revealed a worrying increase in stroke incidence among the younger population. Despite a declining trend, mortality rates remained moderately high especially in women. Comprehensive strategies to strengthen the prevention and management of stroke care are warranted.


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adulto , Idoso , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
6.
Environ Res ; 202: 111710, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate associations between annual average air pollution exposures and health, most epidemiological studies rely on estimated residential exposures because information on actual time-activity patterns can only be collected for small populations and short periods of time due to costs and logistic constraints. In the current study, we aim to compare exposure assessment methodologies that use data on time-activity patterns of children with residence-based exposure assessment. We compare estimated exposures and associations with lung function for residential exposures and exposures accounting for time activity patterns. METHODS: We compared four annual average air pollution exposure assessment methodologies; two rely on residential exposures only, the other two incorporate estimated time activity patterns. The time-activity patterns were based on assumptions about the activity space and make use of available external data sources for the duration of each activity. Mapping of multiple air pollutants (NO2, NOX, PM2.5, PM2.5absorbance, PM10) at a fine resolution as input to exposure assessment was based on land use regression modelling. First, we assessed the correlations between the exposures from the four exposure methods. Second, we compared estimates of the cross-sectional associations between air pollution exposures and lung function at age 8 within the PIAMA birth cohort study for the four exposure assessment methodologies. RESULTS: The exposures derived from the four exposure assessment methodologies were highly correlated (R > 0.95) for all air pollutants. Similar statistically significant decreases in lung function were found for all four methods. For example, for NO2 the decrease in FEV1 was -1.40% (CI; -2.54, -0.24%) per IQR (9.14 µg/m3) for front door exposure, and -1.50% (CI; -2.68, -0.30%) for the methodology which incorporates time activity pattern and actual school addresses. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure estimates from methods based on the residential location only and methods including time activity patterns were highly correlated and associated with similar decreases in lung function. Our study illustrates that the annual average exposure to air pollution for 8-year-old children in the Netherlands is sufficiently captured by residential exposures.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pulmão/química , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade
7.
Nutr J ; 20(1): 56, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unhealthy food environments may contribute to unhealthy diets and risk of overweight and obesity through increased consumption of fast-food. Therefore, we aimed to study the association of relative exposure to fast-food restaurants (FFR) with overall diet quality and risk of overweight and obesity in a sample of older adults. METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional data of the EPIC-NL cohort (n = 8,231). Data on relative FFR exposure was obtained through linkage of home address in 2015 with a retail outlet database. We calculated relative exposure to FFR by dividing the densities of FFR in street-network buffers of 400, 1000, and 1500 m around the home of residence by the density of all food retailers in the corresponding buffer. We calculated scores on the Dutch Healthy Diet 2015 (DHD15) index using data from a validated food-frequency questionnaire. BMI was categorized into normal weight (BMI < 25), overweight (25 ≤ BMI < 30), and obesity (BMI ≥ 30). We used multivariable linear regression (DHD15-index) and multinomial logistic regression (weight status), using quartiles of relative FFR exposure as independent variable, adjusting for lifestyle and environmental characteristics. RESULTS: Relative FFR exposure was not significantly associated with DHD15-index scores in the 400, 1000, and 1500 m buffers (ßQ4vsQ1= -0.21 [95 %CI: -1.12; 0.70]; ßQ4vsQ1= -0.12 [95 %CI: -1.10; 0.87]; ßQ4vsQ1 = 0.37 [95 %CI: -0.67; 1.42], respectively). Relative FFR exposure was also not related to overweight in consecutive buffers (ORQ4vsQ1=1.10 [95 %CI: 0.97; 1.25]; ORQ4vsQ1=0.97 [95 %CI: 0.84; 1.11]; ORQ4vsQ1= 1.04 [95 %CI: 0.90-1.20]); estimates for obesity were similar to those of overweight. CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of FFR around the home of residence was not associated with diet quality or overweight and obesity in this large Dutch cohort of older adults. We conclude that although the food environment may be a determinant of food choice, this may not directly translate into effects on diet quality and weight status. Methodological improvements are warranted to provide more conclusive evidence.


Assuntos
Características de Residência , Restaurantes , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Humanos , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia
8.
JAMA Oncol ; 7(7): 1024-1032, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956083

RESUMO

Importance: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is common in patients treated for breast cancer, especially in patients treated with systemic treatment and radiotherapy and in those with preexisting CVD risk factors. Coronary artery calcium (CAC), a strong independent CVD risk factor, can be automatically quantified on radiotherapy planning computed tomography (CT) scans and may help identify patients at increased CVD risk. Objective: To evaluate the association of CAC with CVD and coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with breast cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this multicenter cohort study of 15 915 patients with breast cancer receiving radiotherapy between 2005 and 2016 who were followed until December 31, 2018, age, calendar year, and treatment-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the association of CAC with CVD and CAD. Exposures: Overall CAC scores were automatically extracted from planning CT scans using a deep learning algorithm. Patients were classified into Agatston risk categories (0, 1-10, 11-100, 101-399, >400 units). Main Outcomes and Measures: Occurrence of fatal and nonfatal CVD and CAD were obtained from national registries. Results: Of the 15 915 participants included in this study, the mean (SD) age at CT scan was 59.0 (11.2; range, 22-95) years, and 15 879 (99.8%) were women. Seventy percent (n = 11 179) had no CAC. Coronary artery calcium scores of 1 to 10, 11 to 100, 101 to 400, and greater than 400 were present in 10.0% (n = 1584), 11.5% (n = 1825), 5.2% (n = 830), and 3.1% (n = 497) respectively. After a median follow-up of 51.2 months, CVD risks increased from 5.2% in patients with no CAC to 28.2% in patients with CAC scores higher than 400. After adjustment, CVD risk increased with higher CAC score (hazard ratio [HR]CAC = 1-10 = 1.1; 95% CI, 0.9-1.4; HRCAC = 11-100 = 1.8; 95% CI, 1.5-2.1; HRCAC = 101-400 = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.7-2.6; and HRCAC>400 = 3.4; 95% CI, 2.8-4.2). Coronary artery calcium was particularly strongly associated with CAD (HRCAC>400 = 7.8; 95% CI, 5.5-11.2). The association between CAC and CVD was strongest in patients treated with anthracyclines (HRCAC>400 = 5.8; 95% CI, 3.0-11.4) and patients who received a radiation boost (HRCAC>400 = 6.1; 95% CI, 3.8-9.7). Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found that coronary artery calcium on breast cancer radiotherapy planning CT scan results was associated with CVD, especially CAD. Automated CAC scoring on radiotherapy planning CT scans may be used as a fast and low-cost tool to identify patients with breast cancer at increased risk of CVD, allowing implementing CVD risk-mitigating strategies with the aim to reduce the risk of CVD burden after breast cancer. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03206333.

9.
Public Health Nutr ; 24(15): 5101-5112, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947481

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to establish whether the neighbourhood food environment, characterised by the healthiness of food outlets, the diversity of food outlets and fast-food outlet density within a 500 m or 1000 m street network buffer around the home address, contributed to ethnic differences in diet quality. DESIGN: Cross-sectional cohort study. SETTING: Amsterdam, the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Data on adult participants of Dutch, South-Asian Surinamese, African Surinamese, Turkish and Moroccan descent (n total 4728) in the HELIUS study were analysed. RESULTS: The neighbourhood food environment of ethnic minority groups living in Amsterdam is less supportive of a healthy diet and of less diversity than that of participants of Dutch origin. For example, participants of Turkish, Moroccan and South-Asian Surinamese descent reside in a neighbourhood with a significantly higher fast-food outlet density (≤1000 m) than participants of Dutch descent. However, we found no evidence that neighbourhood food environment characteristics directly contributed to ethnic differences in diet quality. CONCLUSION: Although ethnic minority groups lived in less healthy food environments than participants of ethnic Dutch origin, this did not contribute to ethnic differences in diet quality. Future research should investigate other direct or indirect consequences of residing in less supportive food environments and gain a better understanding of how different ethnic groups make use of their neighbourhood food environment.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos , Grupos Minoritários , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Humanos , Países Baixos
10.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 23(6): 973-982, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779119

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to derive and validate clinically useful clusters of patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF; left ventricular ejection fraction ≥50%). METHODS AND RESULTS: We derived a cluster model from 6909 HFpEF patients from the Swedish Heart Failure Registry (SwedeHF) and externally validated this in 2153 patients from the Chronic Heart Failure ESC-guideline based Cardiology practice Quality project (CHECK-HF) registry. In SwedeHF, the median age was 80 [interquartile range 72-86] years, 52% of patients were female and most frequent comorbidities were hypertension (82%), atrial fibrillation (68%), and ischaemic heart disease (48%). Latent class analysis identified five distinct clusters: cluster 1 (10% of patients) were young patients with a low comorbidity burden and the highest proportion of implantable devices; cluster 2 (30%) patients had atrial fibrillation, hypertension without diabetes; cluster 3 (25%) patients were the oldest with many cardiovascular comorbidities and hypertension; cluster 4 (15%) patients had obesity, diabetes and hypertension; and cluster 5 (20%) patients were older with ischaemic heart disease, hypertension and renal failure and were most frequently prescribed diuretics. The clusters were reproduced in the CHECK-HF cohort. Patients in cluster 1 had the best prognosis, while patients in clusters 3 and 5 had the worst age- and sex-adjusted prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: Five distinct clusters of HFpEF patients were identified that differed in clinical characteristics, heart failure drug therapy and prognosis. These results confirm the heterogeneity of HFpEF and form a basis for tailoring trial design to individualized drug therapy in HFpEF patients.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
11.
BMJ Open ; 11(3): e043290, 2021 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653753

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We examined temporal heart failure (HF) prescription patterns in a large representative sample of real-world patients in the UK, using electronic health records (EHR). METHODS: From primary and secondary care EHR, we identified 85 732 patients with a HF diagnosis between 2002 and 2015. Almost 50% of patients with HF were women and the median age was 79.1 (IQR 70.2-85.7) years, with age at diagnosis increasing over time. RESULTS: We found several trends in pharmacological HF management, including increased beta blocker prescriptions over time (29% in 2002-2005 and 54% in 2013-2015), which was not observed for mineralocorticoid receptor-antagonists (MR-antagonists) (18% in 2002-2005 and 18% in 2013-2015); higher prescription rates of loop diuretics in women and elderly patients together with lower prescription rates of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and/or angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta blockers or MR-antagonists in these patients; little change in medication prescription rates occurred after 6 months of HF diagnosis and, finally, patients hospitalised for HF who had no recorded follow-up in primary care had considerably lower prescription rates compared with patients with a HF diagnosis in primary care with or without HF hospitalisation. CONCLUSION: In the general population, the use of MR-antagonists for HF remained low and did not change throughout 13 years of follow-up. For most patients, few changes were seen in pharmacological management of HF in the 6 months following diagnosis.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico
12.
Int J Health Geogr ; 20(1): 7, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the past two decades, the built environment emerged as a conceptually important determinant of obesity. As a result, an abundance of studies aiming to link environmental characteristics to weight-related outcomes have been published, and multiple reviews have attempted to summarise these studies under different scopes and domains. We set out to summarise the accumulated evidence across domains by conducting a review of systematic reviews on associations between any aspect of the built environment and overweight or obesity. METHODS: Seven databases were searched for eligible publications from the year 2000 onwards. We included systematic literature reviews, meta-analyses and pooled analyses of observational studies in the form of cross-sectional, case-control, longitudinal cohort, ecological, descriptive, intervention studies and natural experiments. We assessed risk of bias and summarised results structured by built environmental themes such as food environment, physical activity environment, urban-rural disparity, socioeconomic status and air pollution. RESULTS: From 1850 initial hits, 32 systematic reviews were included, most of which reported equivocal evidence for associations. For food- and physical activity environments, associations were generally very small or absent, although some characteristics within these domains were consistently associated with weight status such as fast-food exposure, urbanisation, land use mix and urban sprawl. Risks of bias were predominantly high. CONCLUSIONS: Thus far, while most studies have not been able to confirm the assumed influence of built environments on weight, there is evidence for some obesogenic environmental characteristics. Registration: This umbrella review was registered on PROSPERO under ID CRD42019135857.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído , Obesidade , Estudos Transversais , Planejamento Ambiental , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Sobrepeso , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
13.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245448, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Risk of readmissions is an important quality indicator for stroke care. Such information is limited among low- and middle-income countries. We assessed the trends for 28-day readmissions after a stroke in Malaysia from 2008 to 2015 and evaluated the causes and factors associated with readmissions in 2015. METHODS: Using the national hospital admission records database, we included all stroke patients who were discharged alive between 2008 and 2015 for this secondary data analysis. The risk of readmissions was described in proportion and trends. Reasons were coded according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Edition. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with readmissions. RESULTS: Among 151729 patients, 11 to 13% were readmitted within 28 days post-discharge from their stroke events each year. The trend was constant for ischemic stroke but decreasing for hemorrhagic stroke. The leading causes for readmissions were recurrent stroke (32.1%), pneumonia (13.0%) and sepsis (4.8%). The risk of 28-day readmission was higher among those with stroke of hemorrhagic (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.52) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (AOR: 2.56) subtypes, and length of index admission >3 days (AOR: 1.48), but lower among younger age groups of 35-64 (AORs: 0.61-0.75), p values <0.001. CONCLUSION: The risk of 28-day readmission remained constant from 2008 to 2015, where one in eight stroke patients required readmission, mainly attributable to preventable causes. Age, ethnicity, stroke subtypes and duration of the index admission influenced the risk of readmission. Efforts should focus on minimizing potentially preventable admissions, especially among those at higher risk.


Assuntos
Readmissão do Paciente , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Alta do Paciente , Pneumonia/complicações , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/complicações , Adulto Jovem
14.
Int J Health Geogr ; 19(1): 49, 2020 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187515

RESUMO

Environmental exposures are increasingly investigated as possible drivers of health behaviours and disease outcomes. So-called exposome studies that aim to identify and better understand the effects of exposures on behaviours and disease risk across the life course require high-quality environmental exposure data. The Netherlands has a great variety of environmental data available, including high spatial and often temporal resolution information on urban infrastructure, physico-chemical exposures, presence and availability of community services, and others. Until recently, these environmental data were scattered and measured at varying spatial scales, impeding linkage to individual-level (cohort) data as they were not operationalised as personal exposures, that is, the exposure to a certain environmental characteristic specific for a person. Within the Geoscience and hEalth Cohort COnsortium (GECCO) and with support of the Global Geo Health Data Center (GGHDC), a platform has been set up in The Netherlands where environmental variables are centralised, operationalised as personal exposures, and used to enrich 23 cohort studies and provided to researchers upon request. We here present and detail a series of personal exposure data sets that are available within GECCO to date, covering personal exposures of all residents of The Netherlands (currently about 17 M) over the full land surface of the country, and discuss challenges and opportunities for its use now and in the near future.


Assuntos
Expossoma , Estudos de Coortes , Ciências da Terra , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Países Baixos/epidemiologia
15.
Glob Heart ; 15(1): 53, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923347

RESUMO

Background: This paper presents a feasibility study of data linkage between global air pollution data and clinical medical data to assess the associations of PM2.5 with cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: Cardiovascular risk factor data were obtained from the SUrvey of Risk Factors (SURF) for coronary heart disease (CHD) patients from 10 countries in Europe, Asia, and the Middle-East. Annual average PM2.5 concentrations were estimated using recent global WHO PM2.5 maps combining satellite and surface monitoring data for the location of the 71 participating centers. Associations of PM2.5 with risk factors were assessed by mixed-effect generalized estimation equation models adjusted by sex, age, exercise, body mass index, and smoking. In the final model there was further adjustment for country. Results: Linkage between cardiovascular risk factor data and PM2.5 via the postal address of participating hospitals was shown to be feasible, however with several limitations noted.Eight thousand three hundred and ninety two patients (30% women) were included. Globally, an increase of 10 µg/m3 in PM2.5 was significantly associated with decreased BP and increased glucose. After controlling for country, an increase of 10 µg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with decreased BP and increased LDL (SBP: -0.45 mmHg [95% CI: -0.85, -0.06]; DBP: -0.47 mmHg [-0.73, -0.20]; LDL: 0.04 mmol/L [0.01, 0.08]). The association with glucose attenuated (0.08 mmol/L [-0.23, 0.16]). Conclusion: It is feasible to link PM2.5 and cardiovascular risk factors but it is still challenging to interpret these observed associations due to unavailability of potential confounders. After country adjustment, PM2.5 was associated with small increases in LDL and small decreases in BP. Highlights: - There are limited studies on the association between air pollution and cardiovascular risk factors for patients with established coronary heart disease in low- and middle-income countries;- Data linkage is an efficient and cost-effective method to maximize the use of existing data to investigate more health related research questions;- It is feasible to determine global associations of air pollution and cardiovascular risk factors by data linkage but it is still challenging in terms of interpretation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade/tendências , Fatores de Risco
16.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(5): 387-395, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The P-wave duration (PWD) is an electrocardiographic measurement that represents cardiac conduction in the atria. Shortened or prolonged PWD is associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). We used exome-chip data to examine the associations between common and rare variants with PWD. METHODS: Fifteen studies comprising 64 440 individuals (56 943 European, 5681 African, 1186 Hispanic, 630 Asian) and ≈230 000 variants were used to examine associations with maximum PWD across the 12-lead ECG. Meta-analyses summarized association results for common variants; gene-based burden and sequence kernel association tests examined low-frequency variant-PWD associations. Additionally, we examined the associations between PWD loci and AF using previous AF genome-wide association studies. RESULTS: We identified 21 common and low-frequency genetic loci (14 novel) associated with maximum PWD, including several AF loci (TTN, CAND2, SCN10A, PITX2, CAV1, SYNPO2L, SOX5, TBX5, MYH6, RPL3L). The top variants at known sarcomere genes (TTN, MYH6) were associated with longer PWD and increased AF risk. However, top variants at other loci (eg, PITX2 and SCN10A) were associated with longer PWD but lower AF risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight multiple novel genetic loci associated with PWD, and underscore the shared mechanisms of atrial conduction and AF. Prolonged PWD may be an endophenotype for several different genetic mechanisms of AF.

17.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(5): 2388-2397, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32548911

RESUMO

AIMS: Left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) is required to categorize heart failure (HF) [i.e. HF with preserved (HFpEF), mid-range (HFmrEF), and reduced (HFrEF) EF] but is often not captured in population-based cohorts or non-HF registries. The aim was to create an algorithm that identifies EF subphenotypes for research purposes. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 42 061 HF patients from the Swedish Heart Failure Registry. As primary analysis, we performed two logistic regression models including 22 variables to predict (i) EF≥ vs. <50% and (ii) EF≥ vs. <40%. In the secondary analysis, we performed a multivariable multinomial analysis with 22 variables to create a model for all three separate EF subphenotypes: HFrEF vs. HFmrEF vs. HFpEF. The models were validated in the database from the CHECK-HF study, a cross-sectional survey of 10 627 patients from the Netherlands. The C-statistic (discrimination) was 0.78 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77-0.78] for EF ≥50% and 0.76 (95% CI 0.75-0.76) for EF ≥40%. Similar results were achieved for HFrEF and HFpEF in the multinomial model, but the C-statistic for HFmrEF was lower: 0.63 (95% CI 0.63-0.64). The external validation showed similar discriminative ability to the development cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Routine clinical characteristics could potentially be used to identify different EF subphenotypes in databases where EF is not readily available. Accuracy was good for the prediction of HFpEF and HFrEF but lower for HFmrEF. The proposed algorithm enables more effective research on HF in the big data setting.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Algoritmos , Estudos Transversais , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Países Baixos , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Volume Sistólico , Suécia/epidemiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda
18.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(11): e014742, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32431190

RESUMO

Background Sex differences in the management of cardiovascular disease have been reported in secondary care. We conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis of systematically investigated sex differences in cardiovascular medication prescription among patients at high risk or with established cardiovascular disease in primary care. Methods and Results PubMed and Embase were searched between 2000 and 2019 for observational studies reporting on the sex-specific prevalence of aspirin, statins, and antihypertensive medication prescription, including beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and diuretics, in primary care. Random effects meta-analysis was used to obtain pooled women-to-men prevalence ratios for each cardiovascular medication prescription. Metaregression models assessed the impact of age and year on the findings. A total of 43 studies were included, involving 2 264 600 participants (28% women) worldwide. Participants' mean age ranged from 51 to 76 years. The pooled prevalence of cardiovascular medication prescription for women was 41% for aspirin, 60% for statins, and 68% for any antihypertensive medications. Corresponding rates for men were 56%, 63%, and 69% respectively. The pooled women-to-men prevalence ratios were 0.81 (95% CI, 0.72-0.92) for aspirin, 0.90 (95% CI, 0.85-0.95) for statins, and 1.01 (95% CI, 0.95-1.08) for any antihypertensive medications. Women were less likely to be prescribed angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (0.85; 95% CI, 0.81-0.89) but more likely with diuretics (1.27; 95% CI, 1.17-1.37). Mean age, mean age difference between the sexes, and year of study had no significant impact on findings. Conclusions Sex differences in the prescription of cardiovascular medication exist among patients at high risk or with established cardiovascular disease in primary care, with a lower prevalence of aspirin, statins, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors prescription in women and a lower prevalence of diuretics prescription in men.


Assuntos
Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Padrões de Prática Médica , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Idoso , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Uso de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
19.
Age Ageing ; 49(3): 361-367, 2020 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147680

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to develop a model to predict one- and three-year mortality in patients with dementia attending a hospital, through hospital admission or day/memory clinic. DESIGN: we constructed a cohort of dementia patients through data linkage of three Dutch national registers: the hospital discharge register (HDR), the population register and the national cause of death register. SUBJECTS: patients with dementia in the HDR aged between 60 and 100 years registered between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2010. METHODS: logistic regression analysis techniques were used to predict one- and three-year mortality after a first hospitalisation with dementia. The performance was assessed using the c-statistic and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. Internal validation was performed using bootstrap resampling. RESULTS: 50,993 patients were included in the cohort. Two models were constructed, which included age, sex, setting of care (hospitalised versus day clinic) and the presence of comorbidity using the Charlson comorbidity index. One model predicted one-year mortality and the other three-year mortality. Model discrimination according to the c-statistic for the models was 0.71 (95% CI 0.71-0.72) and 0.72 (95% CI 0.72-0.73), respectively. CONCLUSION: both models display acceptable ability to predict mortality. An important advantage is that they are easy to apply in daily practise and thus are helpful for individual decision-making regarding diagnostic/therapeutic interventions and advance care planning.


Assuntos
Demência , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/terapia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitais , Humanos , Países Baixos/epidemiologia
20.
Radiother Oncol ; 146: 110-117, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Breast cancer patients treated with radiotherapy are at increased risk of subsequent acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We aimed to study if radiotherapy also influences the prognosis of these ACS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included all 398 patients diagnosed with ACS following radiotherapy from our hospital-based cohort of early breast cancer patients aged <71 years, treated 1970-2009. Cardiovascular disease incidence and cause of death were acquired through questionnaires to general practitioners and cardiologists. Internal mammary chain (IMC) irradiation delivers the highest heart doses in breast cancer radiotherapy. Hence, we compared ACS prognosis between patients treated with/without IMC-irradiation. ACS prognosis was assessed through cardiac death, death due to ACS and cardiovascular disease incidence, using multivariable Cox proportional hazard models and by estimating cumulative incidence. RESULTS: In total, 62% of patients with ACS had received IMC-irradiation and 38% did not (median age at ACS diagnosis, 67 years). Median time between breast cancer and ACS was 15 years. After ACS, ten-year cumulative risk of cardiac death was 35% for patients who had IMC-irradiation (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 29-41) compared to 24% (95%CI 17-31) for patients without IMC-irradiation (p = 0.04). After correction for confounders, IMC-irradiation remained associated with a less favourable prognosis of ACS compared to no IMC-irradiation (hazard ratio cardiac death = 1.7, 95%CI 1.1-2.5). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that radiotherapy, in case of substantial heart doses,may worsen ACS prognosis. This is an important, novel finding that may impact upon the risk-based care for breast cancer survivors with ACS.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Neoplasias da Mama , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/etiologia , Idoso , Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Humanos , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
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