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1.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(10): 107005, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women and children are especially vulnerable to exposures to food contaminants, and a balanced diet during these periods is critical for optimal nutritional status. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to study the association between diet and measured blood and urinary levels of environmental contaminants in mother-child pairs from six European birth cohorts (n=818 mothers and 1,288 children). METHODS: We assessed the consumption of seven food groups and the blood levels of organochlorine pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), and heavy metals and urinary levels of phthalate metabolites, phenolic compounds, and organophosphate pesticide (OP) metabolites. Organic food consumption during childhood was also studied. We applied multivariable linear regressions and targeted maximum likelihood based estimation (TMLE). RESULTS: Maternal high (≥4 times/week) versus low (<2 times/week) fish consumption was associated with 15% higher PCBs [geometric mean (GM) ratio=1.15; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 1.29], 42% higher perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA) (GM ratio=1.42; 95% CI: 1.20, 1.68), 89% higher mercury (Hg) (GM ratio=1.89; 95% CI: 1.47, 2.41) and a 487% increase in arsenic (As) (GM ratio=4.87; 95% CI: 2.57, 9.23) levels. In children, high (≥3 times/week) versus low (<1.5 times/week) fish consumption was associated with 23% higher perfluorononanoate (PFNA) (GM ratio=1.23; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.40), 36% higher PFUnDA (GM ratio=1.36; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.64), 37% higher perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (GM ratio=1.37; 95% CI: 1.22, 1.54), and >200% higher Hg and As [GM ratio=3.87 (95% CI: 1.91, 4.31) and GM ratio=2.68 (95% CI: 2.23, 3.21)] concentrations. Using TMLE analysis, we estimated that fish consumption within the recommended 2-3 times/week resulted in lower PFAS, Hg, and As compared with higher consumption. Fruit consumption was positively associated with OP metabolites. Organic food consumption was negatively associated with OP metabolites. DISCUSSION: Fish consumption is related to higher PFAS, Hg, and As exposures. In addition, fruit consumption is a source of exposure to OPs. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP5324.

2.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(10): 1693-1702, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479200

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Leptin is critical for central nervous system development and maturation. This study aimed to evaluate the potential regulatory role of cord leptin in the neuropsychomotor development of children ages 18 months to 6 years. METHODS: This study included 424 children from a prospective mother-child cohort (Rhea Study; Crete, Greece) with available cord leptin levels and data on neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 months (Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition), 4 years (McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities), and 6 years (Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices and Trail Making Test). Multivariable linear regression models were used to explore the associations. RESULTS: Each 10-ng/mL increase in the cord leptin level was associated with increased scores on the gross motor scale at 18 months (ß coefficient: 3.8; 95% CI: 0.0-7.5), with decreased scores in the general cognitive performance (ß coefficient: -3.0; 95% CI: -5.5 to -0.4), perceptual performance (ß coefficient: -3.4; 95% CI: -6.0 to -9.9), working memory (ß coefficient: -3.1; 95% CI: -5.7 to -0.4), executive function (ß coefficient -3.1; 95% CI: -5.7 to -0.5), and functions of the posterior cortex (ß coefficient: -2.7; 95% CI: -5.2 to -0.1) scales at 4 years, and with a 3.7-unit decrease in the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices score at 6 years (ß coefficient: -3.7; 95% CI: -6.9 to -0.5). CONCLUSIONS: Increased cord leptin levels are associated with enhanced gross motor development at 18 months but decreased cognitive performance in early and middle childhood.

3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(10): 1317-1328, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growing evidence exists about the fetal and environmental origins of hypertension, but mainly limited to single-exposure studies. The exposome has been proposed as a more holistic approach by studying many exposures simultaneously. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to evaluate the association between a wide range of prenatal and postnatal exposures and blood pressure (BP) in children. METHODS: Systolic and diastolic BP were measured among 1,277 children from the European HELIX (Human Early-Life Exposome) cohort aged 6 to 11 years. Prenatal (n = 89) and postnatal (n = 128) exposures include air pollution, built environment, meteorology, natural spaces, traffic, noise, chemicals, and lifestyles. Two methods adjusted for confounders were applied: an exposome-wide association study considering the exposures independently, and the deletion-substitution-addition algorithm considering all the exposures simultaneously. RESULTS: Decreases in systolic BP were observed with facility density (ß change for an interquartile-range increase in exposure: -1.7 mm Hg [95% confidence interval (CI): -2.5 to -0.8 mm Hg]), maternal concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl 118 (-1.4 mm Hg [95% CI: -2.6 to -0.2 mm Hg]) and child concentrations of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE: -1.6 mm Hg [95% CI: -2.4 to -0.7 mm Hg]), hexachlorobenzene (-1.5 mm Hg [95% CI: -2.4 to -0.6 mm Hg]), and mono-benzyl phthalate (-0.7 mm Hg [95% CI: -1.3 to -0.1 mm Hg]), whereas increases in systolic BP were observed with outdoor temperature during pregnancy (1.6 mm Hg [95% CI: 0.2 to 2.9 mm Hg]), high fish intake during pregnancy (2.0 mm Hg [95% CI: 0.4 to 3.5 mm Hg]), maternal cotinine concentrations (1.2 mm Hg [95% CI: -0.3 to 2.8 mm Hg]), and child perfluorooctanoate concentrations (0.9 mm Hg [95% CI: 0.1 to 1.6 mm Hg]). Decreases in diastolic BP were observed with outdoor temperature at examination (-1.4 mm Hg [95% CI: -2.3 to -0.5 mm Hg]) and child DDE concentrations (-1.1 mm Hg [95% CI: -1.9 to -0.3 mm Hg]), whereas increases in diastolic BP were observed with maternal bisphenol-A concentrations (0.7 mm Hg [95% CI: 0.1 to 1.4 mm Hg]), high fish intake during pregnancy (1.2 mm Hg [95% CI: -0.2 to 2.7 mm Hg]), and child copper concentrations (0.9 mm Hg [95% CI: 0.3 to 1.6 mm Hg]). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that early-life exposure to several chemicals, as well as built environment and meteorological factors, may affect BP in children.

5.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(8): 87001, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telomere length is a molecular marker of biological aging. OBJECTIVE: Here we investigated whether early-life exposure to residential air pollution was associated with leukocyte telomere length (LTL) at 8 y of age. METHODS: In a multicenter European birth cohort study, HELIX (Human Early Life Exposome) ([Formula: see text]), we estimated prenatal and 1-y childhood exposure to nitrogen dioxide ([Formula: see text]), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]), and proximity to major roads. Average relative LTL was measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Effect estimates of the association between LTL and prenatal, 1-y childhood air pollution, and proximity to major roads were calculated using multiple linear mixed models with a random cohort effect and adjusted for relevant covariates. RESULTS: LTL was inversely associated with prenatal and 1-y childhood [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] exposures levels. Each standard deviation (SD) increase in prenatal [Formula: see text] was associated with a [Formula: see text] (95% CI: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) change in LTL. Prenatal [Formula: see text] was nonsignificantly associated with LTL ([Formula: see text] per SD increase; 95% CI: [Formula: see text], 0.6). For each SD increment in 1-y childhood [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] exposure, LTL shortened by [Formula: see text] (95% CI: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) and [Formula: see text] (95% CI: [Formula: see text], 0.1), respectively. Each doubling in residential distance to nearest major road during childhood was associated with a 1.6% (95% CI: 0.02, 3.1) lengthening in LTL. CONCLUSION: Lower exposures to air pollution during pregnancy and childhood were associated with longer telomeres in European children at 8 y of age. These results suggest that reductions in traffic-related air pollution may promote molecular longevity, as exemplified by telomere length, from early life onward. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4148.

6.
JAMA ; 322(7): 632-641, 2019 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429897

RESUMO

Importance: Maternal hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are risk factors for preterm birth. Milder thyroid function test abnormalities and thyroid autoimmunity are more prevalent, but it remains controversial if these are associated with preterm birth. Objective: To study if maternal thyroid function test abnormalities and thyroid autoimmunity are risk factors for preterm birth. Data Sources and Study Selection: Studies were identified through a search of the Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Google Scholar databases from inception to March 18, 2018, and by publishing open invitations in relevant journals. Data sets from published and unpublished prospective cohort studies with data on thyroid function tests (thyrotropin [often referred to as thyroid-stimulating hormone or TSH] and free thyroxine [FT4] concentrations) or thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibody measurements and gestational age at birth were screened for eligibility by 2 independent reviewers. Studies in which participants received treatment based on abnormal thyroid function tests were excluded. Data Extraction and Synthesis: The primary authors provided individual participant data that were analyzed using mixed-effects models. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was preterm birth (<37 weeks' gestational age). Results: From 2526 published reports, 35 cohorts were invited to participate. After the addition of 5 unpublished data sets, a total of 19 cohorts were included. The study population included 47 045 pregnant women (mean age, 29 years; median gestational age at blood sampling, 12.9 weeks), of whom 1234 (3.1%) had subclinical hypothyroidism (increased thyrotropin concentration with normal FT4 concentration), 904 (2.2%) had isolated hypothyroxinemia (decreased FT4 concentration with normal thyrotropin concentration), and 3043 (7.5%) were TPO antibody positive; 2357 (5.0%) had a preterm birth. The risk of preterm birth was higher for women with subclinical hypothyroidism than euthyroid women (6.1% vs 5.0%, respectively; absolute risk difference, 1.4% [95% CI, 0%-3.2%]; odds ratio [OR], 1.29 [95% CI, 1.01-1.64]). Among women with isolated hypothyroxinemia, the risk of preterm birth was 7.1% vs 5.0% in euthyroid women (absolute risk difference, 2.3% [95% CI, 0.6%-4.5%]; OR, 1.46 [95% CI, 1.12-1.90]). In continuous analyses, each 1-SD higher maternal thyrotropin concentration was associated with a higher risk of preterm birth (absolute risk difference, 0.2% [95% CI, 0%-0.4%] per 1 SD; OR, 1.04 [95% CI, 1.00-1.09] per 1 SD). Thyroid peroxidase antibody-positive women had a higher risk of preterm birth vs TPO antibody-negative women (6.6% vs 4.9%, respectively; absolute risk difference, 1.6% [95% CI, 0.7%-2.8%]; OR, 1.33 [95% CI, 1.15-1.56]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among pregnant women without overt thyroid disease, subclinical hypothyroidism, isolated hypothyroxinemia, and TPO antibody positivity were significantly associated with higher risk of preterm birth. These results provide insights toward optimizing clinical decision-making strategies that should consider the potential harms and benefits of screening programs and levothyroxine treatment during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/diagnóstico , Iodeto Peroxidase/imunologia , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Testes de Função Tireóidea , Adulto , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Doenças Autoimunes/sangue , Doenças Autoimunes/complicações , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/complicações , Hipotireoidismo/diagnóstico , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/sangue , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/sangue , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/complicações , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue
7.
Environ Res ; 174: 95-104, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055170

RESUMO

The human exposome affects child development and health later in life, but its personal external levels, variability, and correlations are largely unknown. We characterized the personal external exposome of pregnant women and children in eight European cities. Panel studies included 167 pregnant women and 183 children (aged 6-11 years). A personal exposure monitoring kit composed of smartphone, accelerometer, ultraviolet (UV) dosimeter, and two air pollution monitors were used to monitor physical activity (PA), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon, traffic-related noise, UV-B radiation, and natural outdoor environments (NOE). 77% of women performed the adult recommendation of ≥150 min/week of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), while only 3% of children achieved the childhood recommendation of ≥60 min/day MVPA. 11% of women and 17% of children were exposed to daily PM2.5 levels higher than recommended (≥25µg/m3). Mean exposure to noise ranged from Lden 51.1 dB in Kaunas to Lden 65.2 dB in Barcelona. 4% of women and 23% of children exceeded the recommended maximum of 2 Standard-Erythemal-Dose of UV-B at least once a week. 33% of women and 43% of children never reached the minimum NOE contact recommendation of ≥30 min/week. The variations in air and noise pollution exposure were dominated by between-city variability, while most of the variation observed for NOE contact and PA was between-participants. The correlations between all personal exposures ranged from very low to low (Rho < 0.30). The levels of personal external exposures in both pregnant women and children are above the health recommendations, and there is little correlation between the different exposures. The assessment of the personal external exposome is feasible but sampling requires from one day to more than one year depending on exposure due to high variability between and within cities and participants.

8.
Environ Int ; 123: 189-200, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30530161

RESUMO

Characterization of the "exposome", the set of all environmental factors that one is exposed to from conception onwards, has been advocated to better understand the role of environmental factors on chronic diseases. Here, we aimed to describe the early-life exposome. Specifically, we focused on the correlations between multiple environmental exposures, their patterns and their variability across European regions and across time (pregnancy and childhood periods). We relied on the Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX) project, in which 87 environmental exposures during pregnancy and 122 during the childhood period (grouped in 19 exposure groups) were assessed in 1301 pregnant mothers and their children at 6-11 years in 6 European birth cohorts. Some correlations between exposures in the same exposure group reached high values above 0.8. The median correlation within exposure groups was >0.3 for many exposure groups, reaching 0.69 for water disinfection by products in pregnancy and 0.67 for the meteorological group in childhood. Median correlations between different exposure groups rarely reached 0.3. Some correlations were driven by cohort-level associations (e.g. air pollution and chemicals). Ten principal components explained 45% and 39% of the total variance in the pregnancy and childhood exposome, respectively, while 65 and 90 components were required to explain 95% of the exposome variability. Correlations between maternal (pregnancy) and childhood exposures were high (>0.6) for most exposures modeled at the residential address (e.g. air pollution), but were much lower and even close to zero for some chemical exposures. In conclusion, the early life exposome was high dimensional, meaning that it cannot easily be measured by or reduced to fewer components. Correlations between exposures from different exposure groups were much lower than within exposure groups, which have important implications for co-exposure confounding in multiple exposure studies. Also, we observed the early life exposome to be variable over time and to vary by cohort, so measurements at one time point or one place will not capture its complexities.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Poluição do Ar , Criança , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Mães , Gravidez , Purificação da Água
9.
BMC Med ; 16(1): 202, 2018 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30404627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Environment and diet in early life can affect development and health throughout the life course. Metabolic phenotyping of urine and serum represents a complementary systems-wide approach to elucidate environment-health interactions. However, large-scale metabolome studies in children combining analyses of these biological fluids are lacking. Here, we sought to characterise the major determinants of the child metabolome and to define metabolite associations with age, sex, BMI and dietary habits in European children, by exploiting a unique biobank established as part of the Human Early-Life Exposome project ( http://www.projecthelix.eu ). METHODS: Metabolic phenotypes of matched urine and serum samples from 1192 children (aged 6-11) recruited from birth cohorts in six European countries were measured using high-throughput 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and a targeted LC-MS/MS metabolomic assay (Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ p180 kit). RESULTS: We identified both urinary and serum creatinine to be positively associated with age. Metabolic associations to BMI z-score included a novel association with urinary 4-deoxyerythreonic acid in addition to valine, serum carnitine, short-chain acylcarnitines (C3, C5), glutamate, BCAAs, lysophosphatidylcholines (lysoPC a C14:0, lysoPC a C16:1, lysoPC a C18:1, lysoPC a C18:2) and sphingolipids (SM C16:0, SM C16:1, SM C18:1). Dietary-metabolite associations included urinary creatine and serum phosphatidylcholines (4) with meat intake, serum phosphatidylcholines (12) with fish, urinary hippurate with vegetables, and urinary proline betaine and hippurate with fruit intake. Population-specific variance (age, sex, BMI, ethnicity, dietary and country of origin) was better captured in the serum than in the urine profile; these factors explained a median of 9.0% variance amongst serum metabolites versus a median of 5.1% amongst urinary metabolites. Metabolic pathway correlations were identified, and concentrations of corresponding metabolites were significantly correlated (r > 0.18) between urine and serum. CONCLUSIONS: We have established a pan-European reference metabolome for urine and serum of healthy children and gathered critical resources not previously available for future investigations into the influence of the metabolome on child health. The six European cohort populations studied share common metabolic associations with age, sex, BMI z-score and main dietary habits. Furthermore, we have identified a novel metabolic association between threonine catabolism and BMI of children.

10.
Environ Int ; 121(Pt 1): 751-763, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30326459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Harmonized data describing simultaneous exposure to a large number of environmental contaminants in-utero and during childhood is currently very limited. OBJECTIVES: To characterize concentrations of a large number of environmental contaminants in pregnant women from Europe and their children, based on chemical analysis of biological samples from mother-child pairs. METHODS: We relied on the Early-Life Exposome project, HELIX, a collaborative project across six established population-based birth cohort studies in Europe. In 1301 subjects, biomarkers of exposure to 45 contaminants (i.e. organochlorine compounds, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, toxic and essential elements, phthalate metabolites, environmental phenols, organophosphate pesticide metabolites and cotinine) were measured in biological samples from children (6-12 years) and their mothers during pregnancy, using highly sensitive biomonitoring methods. RESULTS: Most of the exposure biomarkers had high detection frequencies in mothers (35 out of 45 biomarkers with >90% detected) and children (33 out of 45 biomarkers with >90% detected). Concentrations were significantly different between cohorts for all compounds, and were generally higher in maternal compared to children samples. For most of the persistent compounds the correlations between maternal and child concentrations were moderate to high (Spearman Rho > 0.35), while for most non-persistent compounds correlations were considerably lower (Spearman Rho < 0.15). For mercury, PFOS and PFOA a considerable proportion of the samples of both mothers and their children exceeded the HBM I value established by The Human Biomonitoring Commission of the German Federal Environment Agency. DISCUSSION: Although not based on a representative sample, our study suggests that children across Europe are exposed to a wide range of environmental contaminants in fetal life and childhood including many with potential adverse effects. For values exceeding the HBM I value identification of specific sources of exposure and reducing exposure in an adequate way is recommended. Considerable variability in this "chemical exposome" was seen between cohorts, showing that place of residence is a strong determinant of one's personal exposome. This extensive dataset comprising >100,000 concentrations of environmental contaminants in mother-child pairs forms a unique possibility for conducting epidemiological studies using an exposome approach.

11.
Environ Int ; 121(Pt 1): 561-573, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30300814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposome studies are challenged by exposure misclassification for non-persistent chemicals, whose temporal variability contributes to bias in dose-response functions. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the variability of urinary concentrations of 24 non-persistent chemicals: 10 phthalate metabolites, 7 phenols, 6 organophosphate (OP) pesticide metabolites, and cotinine, between weeks from different pregnancy trimesters in pregnant women, and between days and between seasons in children. METHODS: 154 pregnant women and 152 children from six European countries were enrolled in 2014-2015. Pregnant women provided three urine samples over a day (morning, midday, and night), for one week in the 2nd and 3rd pregnancy trimesters. Children provided two urines a day (morning and night), over two one-week periods, six months apart. We pooled all samples for a given subject that were collected within a week. In children, we also made four daily pools (combining morning and night voids) during the last four days of the first follow-up week. Pools were analyzed for all 24 metabolites of interest. We calculated intraclass-correlation coefficients (ICC) and estimated the number of pools needed to obtain an ICC above 0.80. RESULTS: All phthalate metabolites and phenols were detected in >90% of pools whereas certain OP pesticide metabolites and cotinine were detected in <43% of pools. We observed fair (ICC = 0.40-0.59) to good (0.60-0.74) between-day reliability of the pools of two samples in children for all chemicals. Reliability was poor (<0.40) to fair between trimesters in pregnant women and between seasons in children. For most chemicals, three daily pools of two urines each (for weekly exposure windows) and four weekly pools of 15-20 urines each would be necessary to obtain an ICC above 0.80. CONCLUSIONS: This quantification of the variability of biomarker measurements of many non-persistent chemicals during several time windows shows that for many of these compounds a few dozen samples are required to accurately assess exposure over periods encompassing several trimesters or months.

12.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2018 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30252047

RESUMO

Prenatal cadmium exposure has been associated with impaired fetal growth, much less is known about the impact during later childhood on growth and cardiometabolic traits. To elucidate the impact of prenatal cadmium exposure on child growth, adiposity and cardiometabolic traits in 515 mother-child pairs in the "Rhea" cohort (Heraklion-Greece, 2007-2012), we measured urinary cadmium concentrations during early pregnancy, and assessed associations with repeated weight and height measurements from birth through childhood, and waist circumference, skinfold thicknesses, blood pressure, serum levels of lipids, leptin, and C-reactive protein at 4-years. Adjusted regression and mixed models were used, with interactions term for child sex and maternal smoking added. Elevated prenatal cadmium levels [third vs. first and second tertile of urinary cadmium (µg/L)] were significantly associated with slower weight trajectory (per standard deviation score) in all children (ß; 95% confidence interval: -0.17; -0.32, -0.02), and slower height trajectory in girls (-0.30; -0.5,-0.09, Pinteraction = 0.025) and in children born to mothers who smoked during pregnancy (-0.48; -0.83, -1.13, Pinteraction = 0.027). To conclude, prenatal cadmium exposure was associated with delayed growth in early childhood. Further research is needed to understand cadmium-related sex differences and the role of co-exposure to maternal smoking during early pregnancy.

13.
BMJ Open ; 8(9): e021311, 2018 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30206078

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Essential to exposome research is the collection of data on many environmental exposures from different domains in the same subjects. The aim of the Human Early Life Exposome (HELIX) study was to measure and describe multiple environmental exposures during early life (pregnancy and childhood) in a prospective cohort and associate these exposures with molecular omics signatures and child health outcomes. Here, we describe recruitment, measurements available and baseline data of the HELIX study populations. PARTICIPANTS: The HELIX study represents a collaborative project across six established and ongoing longitudinal population-based birth cohort studies in six European countries (France, Greece, Lithuania, Norway, Spain and the UK). HELIX used a multilevel study design with the entire study population totalling 31 472 mother-child pairs, recruited during pregnancy, in the six existing cohorts (first level); a subcohort of 1301 mother-child pairs where biomarkers, omics signatures and child health outcomes were measured at age 6-11 years (second level) and repeat-sampling panel studies with around 150 children and 150 pregnant women aimed at collecting personal exposure data (third level). FINDINGS TO DATE: Cohort data include urban environment, hazardous substances and lifestyle-related exposures for women during pregnancy and their offspring from birth until 6-11 years. Common, standardised protocols were used to collect biological samples, measure exposure biomarkers and omics signatures and assess child health across the six cohorts. Baseline data of the cohort show substantial variation in health outcomes and determinants between the six countries, for example, in family affluence levels, tobacco smoking, physical activity, dietary habits and prevalence of childhood obesity, asthma, allergies and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. FUTURE PLANS: HELIX study results will inform on the early life exposome and its association with molecular omics signatures and child health outcomes. Cohort data are accessible for future research involving researchers external to the project.

14.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2018 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29765163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status during pregnancy has been suggested to influence offspring obesity and cardiometabolic health. We assessed whether prenatal PUFA exposure is associated with rapid infant growth, childhood BMI, and cardiometabolic profile. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In the Dutch MEFAB (n = 266) and Greek RHEA (n = 263) cohorts, we measured n-3 and n-6 PUFA concentrations in cord blood phospholipids, which reflect fetal exposure in late pregnancy. We defined rapid infant growth from birth to 6 months of age as an increase in weight z-score >0.67. We analyzed body mass index (BMI) as continuous and in categories of overweight/obesity at 4 and 6 years. We computed a cardiometabolic risk score at 6-7 years as the sum of waist circumference, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and blood pressure z-scores. Associations of PUFAs with child health outcomes were assessed using generalized linear models for binary outcomes and linear regression models for continuous ones after adjusting for important covariates, and for the pooled estimates, a cohort indicator. RESULTS: In pooled analyses, we found no association of PUFA levels with rapid infant growth, childhood BMI (ß per SD increase in the total n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio = -0.04 SD; 99% CI: -0.15, 0.06; P = 0.65 at 4 years, and -0.05 SD; 99% CI: -0.18, 0.08; P = 0.78 at 6 years), and overweight/obesity. We also found no associations for clustered cardiometabolic risk and its individual components. The results were similar across cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that PUFA concentrations at birth are not associated with later obesity development and cardiometabolic risk in childhood.

16.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 42(9): 1590-1601, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29445241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence for an infectious origin of obesity is emerging. We explored whether common viruses were associated with obesity and metabolic traits. METHODS: We used cross-sectional (n = 674) and prospective (n = 440) data from children participating at the 4 and 6 years of age follow-up in the Rhea birth cohort. Presence of IgG antibodies to ten polyomaviruses (BKPyV, JCPyV, KIPyV, WUPyV, HPyV6, HPyV7, TSPyV, MCPyV, HPyV9, and HPyV10) and four herpesviruses (EBV, CMV, HSV-1, and HSV-2) were measured at age 4. Body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfold thickness were measured at age 4 and 6. Data on serum lipids, leptin, and adiponectin were also available. Multivariable linear regression models were used to explore the associations. RESULTS: At 4 years of age, seroprevalence to polyomaviruses ranged from 21.0% for HPyV9 to 82.0% for HPyV10. Seroprevalence for EBV, CMV, HSV-1, and HSV-2 was 53.0%, 26.0%, 3.6%, and 1.5% respectively. BKPyV seropositivity was associated with lower BMI SD score at age 4 [-0.21 (95% CI: -0.39, -0.03)] and 6 [-0.27 (95% CI:-0.48, -0.05)], waist circumference at age 4 [-1.12 cm (95% CI: -2.10, -0.15)] and 6 [-1.73 cm (95% CI: -3.33, -0.12)], sum of four skinfolds [-2.97 mm (95% CI: -5.70, -0.24)], and leptin levels at age 4 [ratio of geometric means, 0.83 (95% CI: 0.70, 0.98)]. CMV seropositivity was associated with higher BMI SD score at age 4 [0.28 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.45)] and 6 [0.24 (95% CI: 0.03, 0.45)] and sum of four skinfolds at age 6 [4.75 mm (95% CI: 0.67, 8.83)]. Having "2-3 herpesviruses infections" (versus "0 herpesvirus infections") was associated with higher BMI SD score [0.32, (95% CI: 0.12, 0.53)], waist circumference [1.22 cm (95% CI: 0.13, 2.31)], and sum of four skinfolds [3.26 mm (95% CI: 0.18, 6.35)] at age 4. Polyomaviruses burden was not associated with outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: A higher herpesviruses burden and CMV seropositivity were associated with obesity traits in childhood.

17.
Br J Nutr ; 119(2): 202-210, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29359683

RESUMO

Lower prenatal exposure to n-3 PUFA relative to n-6 PUFA has been hypothesised to influence allergy development, but evidence remains largely inconsistent. In the Dutch Maastricht Essential Fatty Acid Birth (MEFAB) (n 293) and Greek RHEA Mother-Child (n 213) cohorts, we investigated whether cord blood phospholipid PUFA concentrations are associated with symptoms of wheeze, asthma, rhinitis and eczema at the age of 6-7 years. Information on allergy-related phenotypes was collected using validated questionnaires. We estimated relative risks (RR) and 95 % CI for associations of PUFA with child outcomes using multivariable generalised linear regression models. In pooled analyses, higher concentration of the n-3 long-chain EPA and DHA and a higher total n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio were associated with lower risk of current wheeze (RR 0·61; 95 % CI 0·45, 0·82 per sd increase in EPA+DHA and 0·54; 95 % CI 0·39, 0·75 per unit increase in the n-3:n-6 ratio) and reduced asthma risk (RR 0·50; 95 % CI 0·31, 0·79 for EPA+DHA and 0·43; 95 % CI 0·26, 0·70 for the n-3:n-6 ratio). No associations were observed for other allergy-related phenotypes. The results were similar across cohorts. In conclusion, higher EPA and DHA concentrations and a higher n-3:n-6 fatty acid ratio at birth were associated with lower risk of child wheeze and asthma. Our findings suggest that dietary interventions resulting in a marked increase in the n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio, and mainly in n-3 long-chain PUFA intake in late gestation, may reduce the risk of asthma symptoms in mid-childhood.

18.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 27(1): 79-88, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28685401

RESUMO

Animal studies suggest that prenatal vitamin D status may affect fetal brain growth. However, human studies are scarce with conflicting results. We aimed to investigate the association of maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] levels with multiple neurodevelopmental outcomes at 4 years of age. We included 487 mother-child pairs from the prospective pregnancy cohort, "Rhea" in Crete, Greece. Maternal serum 25(OH) D concentrations were measured at the first prenatal visit (13 ± 2.4 weeks). Cognitive functions at 4 years were assessed by means of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities. Behavioral difficulties were assessed by means of Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Test. Children of women in the high 25(OH) D tertile (>50.7 nmol/l) had 37% decreased number of hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms (IRR 0.63, 95% CI 0.39, 0.99, p trend = 0.05) and 40% decreased number of total ADHD-like symptoms (IRR 0.60, 95% CI 0.37, 0.95, p trend = 0.03) at 4 years of age, compared to children of women in the low 25(OH) D tertile (<38.4 nmol/l), after adjustment for several confounders. Similar associations were found with the hyperactivity/inattention score of the SDQ questionnaire. Children of mothers with high 25(OH) D levels had also fewer total behavioral difficulties (beta-coeff: -1.25, 95% CI -2.32, -0.19) and externalizing symptoms (beta-coeff: -0.87, 95% CI -1.58, -0.15) at preschool age. The observed associations were stronger in girls than in boys (p for interaction < 0.1). No association was observed between maternal 25(OH) D concentrations and cognitive function in preschoolers. Our results suggest that high maternal vitamin D levels in early pregnancy may protect against behavioral difficulties, especially ADHD-like symptoms at preschool age.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Mães/psicologia , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 26(6): 703-714, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28050707

RESUMO

Studies have suggested an association between maternal obesity pre-pregnancy and gestational diabetes (GDM) with impaired offspring neurodevelopment, but it is not clear if these associations are explained by shared familiar characteristics. We aimed to assess the associations of maternal and paternal obesity, maternal glucose intolerance in early pregnancy and GDM, with offspring neurodevelopment at 4 years of age. We included 772 mother-child pairs from the "Rhea" Mother-Child cohort in Crete, Greece. Data on maternal/paternal body mass index (BMI) and maternal fasting serum samples for glucose and insulin measurements were collected at 12 weeks of gestation. GDM screening was performed at 24-28 weeks. Neurodevelopment at 4 years was assessed using the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities. Behavioral difficulties were assessed by Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Test. Multivariate linear regression analyses showed that maternal obesity was associated with a significant score reduction in general cognitive ability (ß-coeff -4.03, 95% CI: -7.08, -0.97), perceptual performance (ß-coeff -4.60, 95% CI: -7.74, -1.47), quantitative ability (ß-coeff -4.43, 95% CI: -7.68, -1.18), and executive functions (ß-coeff -4.92, 95% CI: -8.06, -1.78) at 4 years of age, after adjustment for several confounders and paternal BMI. Maternal obesity was also associated with increased behavioral difficulties (ß-coeff 1.22, 95% CI: 0.09, 2.34) and ADHD symptoms (ß-coeff 4.28, 95% CI: 1.20, 7.36) at preschool age. Paternal obesity maternal glucose intolerance in early pregnancy and GDM was not associated with child neurodevelopment. These findings suggest that maternal obesity may impair optimal child neurodevelopment at preschool age independently of family shared characteristics.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/psicologia , Obesidade/complicações , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
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