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1.
Pediatr Obes ; 17(1): e12843, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early-life antibiotic use has been hypothesized to promote weight gain and increase the risk of childhood obesity. OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations of prenatal and infant antibiotics with childhood growth, adiposity and cardiometabolic traits in the Greek Rhea cohort. METHODS: We used data from 747 mother-child pairs with anthropometric measurements drawn from medical records or measured at 4 and 6 years of age. Antibiotic exposure was assessed by maternal report during pregnancy and at the first year of life. Children were classified as exposed to antibiotics prenatally if the mother received at least one course of oral antibiotics during pregnancy and postnatally if the mother reported that the child received at least one oral antibiotic treatment during the first year of life. Outcomes included repeated weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, body fat (%), total cholesterol and blood pressure. We applied mixed effects, linear and log-binomial regression models after adjusting for important covariates. RESULTS: Around 14.6% of the participating children were prenatally exposed to antibiotics and 32.4% received antibiotics during the first year of life. Prenatal exposure to antibiotics was associated with a twofold increase in the risk for obesity (risk ratio [RR]; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.09 [1.58, 2.76]) and abdominal obesity (RR [95% CI]: 2.56 [1.89, 3.47]) at 6 years. Postnatal exposure to antibiotics was associated with increased weight (beta [95% CI]: 00.25 [0.06, 0.44]) and BMI (beta [95% CI]: 0.23 [0.003, 0.45]) SD scores from 2 to 7 years of life. CONCLUSION: Early-life antibiotic use was associated with accelerated childhood growth and higher adiposity.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Reiformes , Animais , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Relações Mãe-Filho , Obesidade Pediátrica/induzido quimicamente , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
2.
J Dev Orig Health Dis ; : 1-9, 2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34859763

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence suggests that in utero exposures can influence the development of the immune system. Few studies have investigated whether prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is associated with allergy-related phenotypes in childhood, nor explored sex differences. We examined the association between prenatal exposure to POPs and offspring allergic outcomes in early and mid-childhood. We included 682 mother-child pairs from the prospective birth cohort Rhea. We measured dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and 6 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in maternal first trimester serum. Parents completed the questionnaires adapted from the International Study on Asthma and Allergy in Childhood (ISAAC) for allergy-related phenotypes when their children were 4 and 6 years old. We used Poisson regression models to estimate Risk Ratios. Prenatal HCB was associated with increased risk for rhinoconjunctivitis at 6 years (RR (95% CI): 2.5; (1.3, 4.8) for a doubling in the exposure). Among girls, prenatal DDE was associated with increased risk for current wheeze, current asthma and current rhinoconjunctivitis at 4 years (RR (95%CI): 1.4 (0.8, 2.6), 1.6 (1.1, 2.4) and 1.8 (1.0, 3.3) and p-interaction = 0.035, 0.027 and 0.059, respectively), with increased risk for current rhinoconjunctivitis at 6 years (RR (95%CI): 1.7 (0.7, 3.8) and p-interaction = 0.028) and total PCBs were associated with increased risk for current eczema at 4 years (RR (95%CI): 2.1 (1.1, 4.2) and p-interaction = 0.028). In boys, prenatal DDE was associated with decreased risk for current wheeze and current asthma at 4 years. Our findings suggest that even low levels of exposure to POPs prenatally may affect the development of childhood allergy-related outcomes in a sex and age-specific manner.

3.
J Epidemiol ; 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34776498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The EU LifeCycle Project was launched in 2017 to combine, harmonise, and analyse data from more than 250,000 participants across Europe and Australia, involving cohorts participating in the EU-funded LifeCycle Project. The purpose of this cohort description is to provide a detailed overview over the major measures within mental health domains that are available in 17 European and Australian cohorts participating in the LifeCycle Project. METHODS: Data on cognitive, behavioural and psychological development has been collected on participants from birth until adulthood through questionnaire and medical data. We developed an inventory of the available data by mapping individual instruments, domain types, and age groups, providing the basis for statistical harmonization across mental health measures. RESULTS: The mental health data in LifeCycle contain longitudinal and cross-sectional data for ages 0-18+ years, covering domains across a wide range of behavioural and psychopathology indicators and outcomes (including executive function, depression, ADHD and cognition). These data span a unique combination of qualitative data collected through behavioural/cognitive/mental health questionnaires and examination, as well as data from biological samples and indices in the form of brain imaging (MRI, foetal ultrasound) and DNA methylation data. Harmonized variables on a subset of mental health domains have been developed, providing statistical equivalence of measures required for longitudinal meta-analyses across instruments and cohorts. CONCLUSION: Mental health data harmonized through the LifeCycle project can be used to study life course trajectories and exposure-outcome models that examine early life risk factors for mental illness and develop predictive markers for later-life disease.

4.
Environ Int ; 158: 106933, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The urban environment may influence neurodevelopment from conception onwards, but there is no evaluation of the impact of multiple groups of exposures simultaneously. We investigated the association between early-life urban environment and cognitive and motor function in children. METHODS: We used data from 5403 mother-child pairs from four population-based birth-cohorts (UK, France, Spain, and Greece). We estimated thirteen urban home exposures during pregnancy and childhood, including: built environment, natural spaces, and air pollution. Verbal, non-verbal, gross motor, and fine motor functions were assessed using validated tests at five years old. We ran adjusted multi-exposure models using the Deletion-Substitution-Addition algorithm. RESULTS: Higher greenness exposure within 300 m during pregnancy was associated with higher verbal abilities (1.5 points (95% confidence interval 0.4, 2.7) per 0.20 unit increase in greenness). Higher connectivity density within 100 m and land use diversity during pregnancy were related to lower verbal abilities. Childhood exposure to PM2.5 mediated 74% of the association between greenness during childhood and verbal abilities. Higher exposure to PM2.5 during pregnancy was related to lower fine motor function (-1.2 points (-2.1, -0.4) per 3.2 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5). No associations were found with non-verbal abilities and gross motor function. DISCUSSION: This study suggests that built environment, greenness, and air pollution may impact child cognitive and motor function at five years old. This study adds evidence that well-designed urban planning may benefit children's cognitive and motor development.

5.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt B): 112093, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562483

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg) is a ubiquitous heavy metal that originates from both natural and anthropogenic sources and is transformed in the environment to its most toxicant form, methylmercury (MeHg). Recent studies suggest that MeHg exposure can alter epigenetic modifications during embryogenesis. In this study, we examined associations between prenatal MeHg exposure and levels of cord blood DNA methylation (DNAm) by meta-analysis in up to seven independent studies (n = 1462) as well as persistence of those relationships in blood from 7 to 8 year-old children (n = 794). In cord blood, we found limited evidence of differential DNAm at cg24184221 in MED31 (ß = 2.28 × 10-4, p-value = 5.87 × 10-5) in relation to prenatal MeHg exposure. In child blood, we identified differential DNAm at cg15288800 (ß = 0.004, p-value = 4.97 × 10-5), also located in MED31. This repeated link to MED31, a gene involved in lipid metabolism and RNA Polymerase II transcription function, may suggest a DNAm perturbation related to MeHg exposure that persists into early childhood. Further, we found evidence for association between prenatal MeHg exposure and child blood DNAm levels at two additional CpGs: cg12204245 (ß = 0.002, p-value = 4.81 × 10-7) in GRK1 and cg02212000 (ß = -0.001, p-value = 8.13 × 10-7) in GGH. Prenatal MeHg exposure was associated with DNAm modifications that may influence health outcomes, such as cognitive or anthropometric development, in different populations.

6.
Environ Int ; 157: 106853, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500361

RESUMO

Developing children are particularly vulnerable to the effects of exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), a group of endocrine disrupting chemicals. We hypothesized that early life exposure to PFASs is associated with poor metabolic health in children. We studied the association between prenatal and postnatal PFASs mixture exposure and cardiometabolic health in children, and the role of inflammatory proteins. In 1,101 mothers-child pairs from the Human Early Life Exposome project, we measured the concentrations of PFAS in blood collected in pregnancy and at 8 years (range = 6-12 years). We applied Bayesian Kernel Machine regression (BKMR) to estimate the associations between exposure to PFAS mixture and the cardiometabolic factors as age and sex- specific z-scores of waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic blood pressures (BP), and concentrations of triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) cholesterol. We measured thirty six inflammatory biomarkers in child plasma and examined the underlying role of inflammatory status for the exposure-outcome association by integrating the three panels into a network. Exposure to the PFAS mixture was positively associated with HDL-C and systolic BP, and negatively associated with WC, LDL-C and TG. When we examined the independent effects of the individual chemicals in the mixture, prenatal PFHxS was negatively associated with HDL-C and prenatal PFNA was positively associated with WC and these were opposing directions from the overall mixture. Further, the network consisted of five distinct communities connected with positive and negative correlations. The selected inflammatory biomarkers were positively, while the postnatal PFAS were negatively related with the included cardiometabolic factors, and only prenatal PFOA was positively related with the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1beta and WC. Our study supports that prenatal, rather than postnatal, PFAS exposure might contribute to an unfavorable lipidemic profile and adiposity in childhood.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Teorema de Bayes , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Gravidez
7.
Environ Pollut ; 289: 117905, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371266

RESUMO

Maintaining thyroid homeostasis during pregnancy is vital for fetal development. The few studies that have investigated associations between metal exposure and gestational thyroid function have yielded mixed findings. To evaluate the association of exposure to a mixture of toxic metals with thyroid parameters in 824 pregnant women from the Rhea birth cohort in Crete, Greece. Concentrations of three toxic metals [cadmium (Cd), antimony (Sb), lead (Pb)] and iodine were measured in urine using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and thyroid hormones [Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), and free triiodothyronine (fT3)] were measured in serum in early pregnancy. Associations of individual metals with thyroid parameters were assessed using adjusted regression models, while associations of the metal mixture with thyroid parameters were assessed using Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression (BKMR).Women with high (3rd tertile) concentrations of urinary Cd, Sb and Pb, respectively, had 13.3 % (95%CI: 2.0 %, 23.2 %), 12.5 % (95%CI: 1.8 %, 22.0 %) and 16.0 % (95%CI: 5.7 %, 25.2 %) lower TSH compared to women with low concentrations (2nd and 1st tertile). In addition, women with high urinary Cd had 2.2 % (95%CI: 0.0 %, 4.4 %) higher fT4 and 4.0 % (95%CI: -0.1 %, 8.1 %) higher fT3 levels, and women with high urinary Pb had 4 % (95%CI: 0.2 %, 8.0 %) higher fT3 levels compared to women with low exposure. The negative association of Cd with TSH persisted only when iodine sufficiency was unfavorable. BKMR attested that simultaneous exposure to toxic metals was associated with decreased TSH and increased fT3 and revealed a potential synergistic interaction of Cd and Pb in association with TSH. The present results suggest that exposure to toxic metals even at low levels can alter gestational thyroid homeostasis.


Assuntos
Antimônio , Cádmio , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Homeostase , Humanos , Gravidez , Glândula Tireoide , Tireotropina , Tiroxina
8.
Environ Epidemiol ; 5(3): e153, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131614

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the most prevalent pediatric chronic liver disease. Experimental studies suggest effects of air pollution and traffic exposure on liver injury. We present the first large-scale human study to evaluate associations of prenatal and childhood air pollution and traffic exposure with liver injury. Methods: Study population included 1,102 children from the Human Early Life Exposome project. Established liver injury biomarkers, including alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and cytokeratin-18, were measured in serum between ages 6-10 years. Air pollutant exposures included nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter <10 µm (PM10), and <2.5 µm. Traffic measures included traffic density on nearest road, traffic load in 100-m buffer, and inverse distance to nearest road. Exposure assignments were made to residential address during pregnancy (prenatal) and residential and school addresses in year preceding follow-up (childhood). Childhood indoor air pollutant exposures were also examined. Generalized additive models were fitted adjusting for confounders. Interactions by sex and overweight/obese status were examined. Results: Prenatal and childhood exposures to air pollution and traffic were not associated with child liver injury biomarkers. There was a significant interaction between prenatal ambient PM10 and overweight/obese status for alanine aminotransferase, with stronger associations among children who were overweight/obese. There was no evidence of interaction with sex. Conclusion: This study found no evidence for associations between prenatal or childhood air pollution or traffic exposure with liver injury biomarkers in children. Findings suggest PM10 associations maybe higher in children who are overweight/obese, consistent with the multiple-hits hypothesis for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease pathogenesis.

9.
Environ Int ; 155: 106683, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144479

RESUMO

The early-life exposome influences future health and accelerated biological aging has been proposed as one of the underlying biological mechanisms. We investigated the association between more than 100 exposures assessed during pregnancy and in childhood (including indoor and outdoor air pollutants, built environment, green environments, tobacco smoking, lifestyle exposures, and biomarkers of chemical pollutants), and epigenetic age acceleration in 1,173 children aged 7 years old from the Human Early-Life Exposome project. Age acceleration was calculated based on Horvath's Skin and Blood clock using child blood DNA methylation measured by Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. We performed an exposure-wide association study between prenatal and childhood exposome and age acceleration. Maternal tobacco smoking during pregnancy was nominally associated with increased age acceleration. For childhood exposures, indoor particulate matter absorbance (PMabs) and parental smoking were nominally associated with an increase in age acceleration. Exposure to the organic pesticide dimethyl dithiophosphate and the persistent pollutant polychlorinated biphenyl-138 (inversely associated with child body mass index) were protective for age acceleration. None of the associations remained significant after multiple-testing correction. Pregnancy and childhood exposure to tobacco smoke and childhood exposure to indoor PMabs may accelerate epigenetic aging from an early age.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Expossoma , Aceleração , Criança , Metilação de DNA , Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
10.
Environ Pollut ; 284: 117404, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077897

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies mostly focus on single environmental exposures. This study aims to systematically assess associations between a wide range of prenatal and childhood environmental exposures and cognition. The study sample included data of 1298 mother-child pairs, children were 6-11 years-old, from six European birth cohorts. We measured 87 exposures during pregnancy and 122 cross-sectionally during childhood, including air pollution, built environment, meteorology, natural spaces, traffic, noise, chemicals and life styles. The measured cognitive domains were fluid intelligence (Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices test, CPM), attention (Attention Network Test, ANT) and working memory (N-Back task). We used two statistical approaches to assess associations between exposure and child cognition: the exposome-wide association study (ExWAS) considering each exposure independently, and the deletion-substitution-addition algorithm (DSA) considering all exposures simultaneously to build a final multiexposure model. Based on this multiexposure model that included the exposure variables selected by ExWAS and DSA models, child organic food intake was associated with higher fluid intelligence (CPM) scores (beta = 1.18; 95% CI = 0.50, 1.87) and higher working memory (N-Back) scores (0.23; 0.05, 0.41), and child fast food intake (-1.25; -2.10, -0.40), house crowding (-0.39; -0.62, -0.16), and child environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) (-0.89; -1.42, -0.35), were all associated with lower CPM scores. Indoor PM2.5 exposure was associated with lower N-Back scores (-0.09; -0.16, -0.02). Additional associations in the unexpected direction were found: Higher prenatal mercury levels, maternal alcohol consumption and child higher perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) levels were associated with better cognitive performance; and higher green exposure during pregnancy with lower cognitive performance. This first comprehensive and systematic study of many prenatal and childhood environmental risk factors suggests that unfavourable child nutrition, family crowdedness and child indoor air pollution and ETS exposures adversely and cross-sectionally associate with cognitive function. Unexpected associations were also observed and maybe due to confounding and reverse causality.


Assuntos
Expossoma , Criança , Cognição , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
11.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 127(2): 191-199.e3, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests a complex interplay between infections and allergic diseases. OBJECTIVE: To explore the association of 14 common viruses with eczema, asthma, and rhinoconjunctivitis in childhood. METHODS: We used cross-sectional (n = 686) and prospective (n = 440) data from children participating in the Rhea birth cohort. Immunoglobulin G to polyomaviruses (BK polyomavirus, JC polyomavirus, KI polyomavirus [KIPyV], WU polyomavirus [WUPyV], human polyomavirus 6, human polyomavirus 7, Trichodysplasia spinulosa polyomavirus, Merkel cell polyomavirus, human polyomavirus 9, and human polyomavirus 10) and herpesviruses (Epstein-Barr virus, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex virus-1, Herpes simplex virus-2) were measured at age 4 years by fluorescent bead-based multiplex serology. Definitions of eczema, asthma, and rhinoconjunctivitis at ages 4 and 6 years were based on questionnaires. Mediation of the associations by immune biomarkers was tested. RESULTS: Less likely to have eczema at age 4 years were KIPyV-seropositive (odds ratio [OR], 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27-0.82) and human polyomavirus 6 (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.26-0.73) compared with their seronegative counterparts. Seropositivity to Epstein-Barr virus was negatively associated with eczema at age 4 years (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.22-0.67) and 6 years (OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.25-0.99). Children with a higher burden of herpesviruses or of skin polyomaviruses had the lowest odds of eczema at age 4 years. Higher odds for asthma at age 4 years were found for WUPyV-seropositive children (OR, 3.98; 95% CI, 1.38-11.51), and for children seropositive to both respiratory polyomaviruses (KIPyV and WUPyV) (OR, 7.35; 95% CI, 1.66-32.59) compared with children seronegative to both. No associations were observed for rhinoconjunctivitis. There was no evidence of mediation by immune biomarkers. CONCLUSION: A heterogeneous pattern of infections and allergic diseases was observed with common infections associated with a decreased eczema risk and an increased asthma risk in children.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Eczema/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/epidemiologia , Infecções por Polyomavirus/epidemiologia , Asma/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eczema/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/imunologia , Humanos , Polyomavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Polyomavirus/imunologia
12.
Hepatology ; 74(3): 1546-1559, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent cause of liver disease in children. Mercury (Hg), a ubiquitous toxic metal, has been proposed as an environmental factor contributing to toxicant-associated fatty liver disease. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We investigated the effect of prenatal exposure to Hg on childhood liver injury by combining epidemiological results from a multicenter mother-child cohort with complementary in vitro experiments on monocyte cells that are known to play a key role in liver immune homeostasis and NAFLD. We used data from 872 mothers and their children (median age, 8.1 years; interquartile range [IQR], 6.5-8.7) from the European Human Early-Life Exposome cohort. We measured Hg concentration in maternal blood during pregnancy (median, 2.0 µg/L; IQR, 1.1-3.6). We also assessed serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), a common screening tool for pediatric NAFLD, and plasma concentrations of inflammation-related cytokines in children. We found that prenatal Hg exposure was associated with a phenotype in children that was characterized by elevated ALT (≥22.1 U/L for females and ≥25.8 U/L for males) and increased concentrations of circulating IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α. Consistently, inflammatory monocytes exposed in vitro to a physiologically relevant dose of Hg demonstrated significant up-regulation of genes encoding these four cytokines and increased concentrations of IL-8 and TNF-α in the supernatants. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that developmental exposure to Hg can contribute to inflammation and increased NAFLD risk in early life.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599859

RESUMO

Previous evidence suggests a link between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and disordered eating behaviours; however, the direction of the causal association remains unclear. Building on our previous research, we aimed to examine the longitudinal association between eating behaviours at 4 years, ADHD symptoms at 6 years of age, and the role of body mass index (BMI). We included children from the RHEA mother-child cohort in Greece, followed up at 4 and 6 years (n = 926). Parents completed the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) to assess children's eating behaviour at 4 years and the ADHD Test (ADHDT) and Child Behaviour Checklist for ages 6-18 (CBCL/6-18) to evaluate ADHD symptoms at 4 and 6 years, respectively, as well as measures of BMI. Longitudinal structural equation modeling (SEM) was carried out to evaluate the associations of all variables between 4 and 6 years. Food responsiveness at 4 years was positively associated with hyperactivity at age 6, whereas emotional overeating was negatively associated with hyperactivity. There was no evidence of an association between eating behaviours of preschoolers and BMI at 6 years, or BMI at 4 years and later ADHD symptoms and vice versa. Findings suggest that food responsiveness is an early marker of ADHD symptoms at 6 years of age. In contrast to our hypothesis there was no significant association between ADHD at age 4 and BMI at age 6.

14.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 1, 2021 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Child blood pressure (BP) is predictive of future cardiovascular risk. Prenatal exposure to metals has been associated with higher BP in childhood, but most studies have evaluated elements individually and measured BP at a single time point. We investigated impacts of prenatal metal mixture exposures on longitudinal changes in BP during childhood and elevated BP at 11 years of age. METHODS: The current study included 176 mother-child pairs from the Rhea Study in Heraklion, Greece and focused on eight elements (antimony, arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, lead, magnesium, molybdenum, selenium) measured in maternal urine samples collected during pregnancy (median gestational age at collection: 12 weeks). BP was measured at approximately 4, 6, and 11 years of age. Covariate-adjusted Bayesian Varying Coefficient Kernel Machine Regression and Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression (BKMR) were used to evaluate metal mixture impacts on baseline and longitudinal changes in BP (from ages 4 to 11) and the development of elevated BP at age 11, respectively. BKMR results were compared using static versus percentile-based cutoffs to define elevated BP. RESULTS: Molybdenum and lead were the mixture components most consistently associated with BP. J-shaped relationships were observed between molybdenum and both systolic and diastolic BP at age 4. Similar associations were identified for both molybdenum and lead in relation to elevated BP at age 11. For molybdenum concentrations above the inflection points (~ 40-80 µg/L), positive associations with BP at age 4 were stronger at high levels of lead. Lead was positively associated with BP measures at age 4, but only at high levels of molybdenum. Potential interactions between molybdenum and lead were also identified for BP at age 11, but were sensitive to the cutoffs used to define elevated BP. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal exposure to high levels of molybdenum and lead, particularly in combination, may contribute to higher BP at age 4. These early effects appear to persist throughout childhood, contributing to elevated BP in adolescence. Future studies are needed to identify the major sources of molybdenum and lead in this population.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Adulto , Arsênio/urina , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Interações Medicamentosas , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Feminino , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Troca Materno-Fetal , Metais Pesados/urina , Mães , Gravidez , Selênio/urina
15.
Mol Psychiatry ; 26(6): 2148-2162, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420481

RESUMO

DNA methylation profiles of aggressive behavior may capture lifetime cumulative effects of genetic, stochastic, and environmental influences associated with aggression. Here, we report the first large meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) of aggressive behavior (N = 15,324 participants). In peripheral blood samples of 14,434 participants from 18 cohorts with mean ages ranging from 7 to 68 years, 13 methylation sites were significantly associated with aggression (alpha = 1.2 × 10-7; Bonferroni correction). In cord blood samples of 2425 children from five cohorts with aggression assessed at mean ages ranging from 4 to 7 years, 83% of these sites showed the same direction of association with childhood aggression (r = 0.74, p = 0.006) but no epigenome-wide significant sites were found. Top-sites (48 at a false discovery rate of 5% in the peripheral blood meta-analysis or in a combined meta-analysis of peripheral blood and cord blood) have been associated with chemical exposures, smoking, cognition, metabolic traits, and genetic variation (mQTLs). Three genes whose expression levels were associated with top-sites were previously linked to schizophrenia and general risk tolerance. At six CpGs, DNA methylation variation in blood mirrors variation in the brain. On average 44% (range = 3-82%) of the aggression-methylation association was explained by current and former smoking and BMI. These findings point at loci that are sensitive to chemical exposures with potential implications for neuronal functions. We hope these results to be a starting point for studies leading to applications as peripheral biomarkers and to reveal causal relationships with aggression and related traits.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigenoma , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Agressão , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Longevidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 763: 144115, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies looking at associations between environmental chemicals and child behaviour usually consider only one exposure or family of exposures. OBJECTIVE: This study explores associations between prenatal exposure to a wide range of environmental chemicals and child behaviour. METHODS: We studied 708 mother-child pairs from five European cohorts recruited in 2003-2009. We assessed 47 exposure biomarkers from eight chemical exposure families in maternal blood or urine collected during pregnancy. We used the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) to evaluate child behaviour between three and seven years of age. We assessed associations of SDQ scores with exposures using an adjusted least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) considering all exposures simultaneously and an adjusted exposome-wide association study (ExWAS) considering each exposure independently. RESULTS: LASSO selected only copper (Cu) as associated with externalizing behaviour. In the ExWAS, bisphenol A [BPA, incidence rate ratio (IRR): 1.06, 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 1.01;1.12] and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP, IRR: 1.06, 95%CI: 1.00;1.13) were associated with greater risk of externalizing behaviour problems. Cu (IRR: 0.90, 95%CI: 0.82;0.98), perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA, IRR: 0.92, 95%CI: 0.84;0.99) and organochlorine compounds (OCs) were associated with lower risk of externalizing behaviour problems, however the associations with OCs were mainly seen among women with insufficient weight gain during pregnancy. Internalizing score worsen in association with exposure to diethyl thiophosphate (DETP, IRR: 1.11, 95%CI: 1.00;1.24) but the effect was driven by the smallest cohort. Internalizing score improved with increased concentration of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, IRR: 0.92, 95%CI: 0.85;1.00), however the association was driven by the two smallest cohorts with the lowest PFOS concentrations. DISCUSSION: This study added evidence on deleterious effects of prenatal exposure to BPA and MnBP on child behaviour. Other associations should be interpreted cautiously since they were not consistent with previous studies or they have not been studied extensively.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental , Expossoma , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia
17.
Hum Mol Genet ; 29(23): 3830-3844, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283231

RESUMO

Human metabolism is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Previous studies have identified over 23 loci associated with more than 26 urine metabolites levels in adults, which are known as urinary metabolite quantitative trait loci (metabQTLs). The aim of the present study is the identification for the first time of urinary metabQTLs in children and their interaction with dietary patterns. Association between genome-wide genotyping data and 44 urine metabolite levels measured by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was tested in 996 children from the Human Early Life Exposome project. Twelve statistically significant urine metabQTLs were identified, involving 11 unique loci and 10 different metabolites. Comparison with previous findings in adults revealed that six metabQTLs were already known, and one had been described in serum and three were involved the same locus as other reported metabQTLs but had different urinary metabolites. The remaining two metabQTLs represent novel urine metabolite-locus associations, which are reported for the first time in this study [single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs12575496 for taurine, and the missense SNP rs2274870 for 3-hydroxyisobutyrate]. Moreover, it was found that urinary taurine levels were affected by the combined action of genetic variation and dietary patterns of meat intake as well as by the interaction of this SNP with beverage intake dietary patterns. Overall, we identified 12 urinary metabQTLs in children, including two novel associations. While a substantial part of the identified loci affected urinary metabolite levels both in children and in adults, the metabQTL for taurine seemed to be specific to children and interacted with dietary patterns.


Assuntos
Dieta , Metaboloma , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Urinálise/métodos , Criança , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino
18.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 75(1): 29-35, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal thyroid hormones' supply is crucial for fetal neurodevelopment; however, the role of maternal mild thyroid dysfunction is not clear. We aimed to assess the association of maternal mild thyroid dysfunction with child neuropsychological development from infancy to early childhood. METHODS: We included 757 mother-child pairs from the prospective 'Rhea' cohort on Crete, Greece. Maternal thyroid functioning was assessed by quantitative analysis of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, thyroid peroxidase antibodies and thyroglobulin antibodies at early gestation (mean=14 weeks). Neuropsychological assessment was based on Bayley Scales of Infant Development (18 months of age), McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (4 years of age), Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, Trail Making Test and Finger Tapping Test (6 years of age). RESULTS: In multivariate adjusted linear regression analyses, maternal hypothyroxinemia was associated with decreased verbal scores at 4 years and reduced motor speed at 6 years of age. Maternal thyroid autoimmunity was associated with decreased child perceptual and motor ability at 4 years of age. Four trajectories of longitudinal non-verbal cognitive development were identified and children exposed to maternal thyroid autoimmunity had increased risk for belonging to an adverse trajectory ('low': adjusted relative risk ratio (RRR) = 2.7 95% CI: (1.4, 5.2), 'high-decreasing': adjusted RRR = 2.2 95% CI: (1.2, 4.0), 'low-increasing': adjusted RRR = 1.8 95% CI: (1.0, 3.2)). CONCLUSION: Maternal hypothyroxinemia is associated with reduced offspring verbal and motor ability. Maternal thyroid autoimmunity is associated with decreased offspring perceptual performance and motor ability and increased risk for adverse non-verbal cognitive development from infancy to childhood.


Assuntos
Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Reiformes , Animais , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Relações Mãe-Filho , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Glândula Tireoide
19.
Hepatology ; 72(5): 1758-1770, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are widespread and persistent pollutants that have been shown to have hepatotoxic effects in animal models. However, human evidence is scarce. We evaluated how prenatal exposure to PFAS associates with established serum biomarkers of liver injury and alterations in serum metabolome in children. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We used data from 1,105 mothers and their children (median age, 8.2 years; interquartile range, 6.6-9.1) from the European Human Early-Life Exposome cohort (consisting of six existing population-based birth cohorts in France, Greece, Lithuania, Norway, Spain, and the United Kingdom). We measured concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoate, perfluorononanoate, perfluorohexane sulfonate, and perfluoroundecanoate in maternal blood. We assessed concentrations of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase in child serum. Using Bayesian kernel machine regression, we found that higher exposure to PFAS during pregnancy was associated with higher liver enzyme levels in children. We also measured child serum metabolomics through a targeted assay and found significant perturbations in amino acid and glycerophospholipid metabolism associated with prenatal PFAS. A latent variable analysis identified a profile of children at high risk of liver injury (odds ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.92) that was characterized by high prenatal exposure to PFAS and increased serum levels of branched-chain amino acids (valine, leucine, and isoleucine), aromatic amino acids (tryptophan and phenylalanine), and glycerophospholipids (phosphatidylcholine [PC] aa C36:1 and Lyso-PC a C18:1). CONCLUSIONS: Developmental exposure to PFAS can contribute to pediatric liver injury.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Fluorcarbonetos/efeitos adversos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Aminoácidos/sangue , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Criança , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/etiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Glicerofosfolipídeos/sangue , Glicerofosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Humanos , Testes de Função Hepática , Estudos Longitudinais , Idade Materna , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Metabolômica , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 243, 2020 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The adverse health effects of early life exposure to tobacco smoking have been widely reported. In spite of this, the underlying molecular mechanisms of in utero and postnatal exposure to tobacco smoke are only partially understood. Here, we aimed to identify multi-layer molecular signatures associated with exposure to tobacco smoke in these two exposure windows. METHODS: We investigated the associations of maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure with molecular features measured in 1203 European children (mean age 8.1 years) from the Human Early Life Exposome (HELIX) project. Molecular features, covering 4 layers, included blood DNA methylation and gene and miRNA transcription, plasma proteins, and sera and urinary metabolites. RESULTS: Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with DNA methylation changes at 18 loci in child blood. DNA methylation at 5 of these loci was related to expression of the nearby genes. However, the expression of these genes themselves was only weakly associated with maternal smoking. Conversely, childhood SHS was not associated with blood DNA methylation or transcription patterns, but with reduced levels of several serum metabolites and with increased plasma PAI1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1), a protein that inhibits fibrinolysis. Some of the in utero and childhood smoking-related molecular marks showed dose-response trends, with stronger effects with higher dose or longer duration of the exposure. CONCLUSION: In this first study covering multi-layer molecular features, pregnancy and childhood exposure to tobacco smoke were associated with distinct molecular phenotypes in children. The persistent and dose-dependent changes in the methylome make CpGs good candidates to develop biomarkers of past exposure. Moreover, compared to methylation, the weak association of maternal smoking in pregnancy with gene expression suggests different reversal rates and a methylation-based memory to past exposures. Finally, certain metabolites and protein markers evidenced potential early biological effects of postnatal SHS, such as fibrinolysis.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Metilação de DNA/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez
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