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1.
Gynecol Oncol ; 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence on the incidence and risk factors for lower limb lymphedema (LLL) associated with endometrial cancer is limited. Our objective was to use data from a prospective, longitudinal gynecological cancer cohort study to determine LLL incidence up to 24 months post-diagnosis of endometrial cancer and to explore the relationship between personal and treatment-related factors and risk of developing LLL. METHODS: Women recently diagnosed with endometrial cancer (n = 235) were evaluated at regular intervals post-diagnosis (up to 3-monthly) using bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) and self-reported leg swelling (SRLS). RESULTS: Incidence of LLL at 24 months post-diagnosis was 33% and 45% according to BIS and SRLS, respectively. When analyses were restricted to obese women, incidence at 24 months post-diagnosis increased to 67% (BIS) and 54% (SRLS). Following adjusted analyses, higher body mass index was associated with higher odds of baseline lymphedema (BIS: OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.47-2.49, p < .01; SRLS: OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.00-1.12, p < .01) and LLL incidence by 24 months post-diagnosis (BIS: OR 1.29, 95% CI: 0.99-1.68, p = .055; SRLS: OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.11, p = .008). According to SRLS, presence of comorbidities was also associated with baseline lymphedema (OR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.15-1.78, p = .001), and more extensive lymph node dissection (OR 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01-1.12, p = .026) and receipt of chemotherapy (OR: 2.65, 95% CI: 1.12-6.29, p = .027) were identified as risk factors for lymphedema incidence. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that LLL following endometrial cancer is common, particularly in women with high body mass index, or comorbidities, and those requiring more extensive lymph node dissection or chemotherapy. Future studies should examine the potential of weight loss intervention as a strategy to reduce LLL incidence.

3.
Dermatology ; 236(2): 90-96, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous cross-sectional research indicates high acceptance of mobile teledermoscopy-enhanced skin self-examination (SSE) by consumers based on the technology acceptance model (TAM) domains: perceived usefulness, ease of use, compatibility, attitude and intention, subjective norms, facilitator, and trust. However, no study has assessed this outcome longitudinally among people who actually used the technology in their own homes. METHODS: Participants were living in Brisbane, Australia, aged 18 years or older, and at high risk of skin cancer. Participants randomly assigned to the intervention group (n = 98) completed a self-administered questionnaire on mobile teledermoscopy acceptance for skin cancer detection both before use and after performing mobile teledermoscopy-enhanced SSE in their homes. The survey included a 25-item scale assessing seven TAM domains. Item scores ranged from 5 (strongly agree) to 1 (strongly disagree). Participants also answered survey questions on satisfaction with use of teledermoscopy, and a 9-item "thoughts about melanoma" scale that measures cancer worry. RESULTS: Participants were 19-73 years old, had high skin cancer risk, blue or grey eyes (53.1%), fair or very fair skin (88.8%), and previous skin cancer treatments (61.2%). Participants were more accepting of mobile teledermoscopy at baseline: mean TAM score of 4.15 (SE 0.05); their level of acceptance decreased significantly after teledermoscopy use: mean score 3.94 (SE 0.05; p = 0.001). In linear regression analysis, the decrease in TAM scores was similar across demographic and skin cancer risk categories. Ninety-two percent (n = 90) of participants agreed that mobile teledermoscopy was easy to use. The mean score of the "thoughts about melanoma" scale did not change significantly from baseline to follow-up. CONCLUSION: Consumers had high TAM scores before they used mobile teledermoscopy within a randomised control trial. At the end of the intervention period, TAM scores decreased, although participants' average score still indicated "agreement" that mobile teledermoscopy was acceptable.

4.
Telemed J E Health ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058835

RESUMO

Background: Technological advances have given rise to virtual health care services, resulting in a shift in how traditional health care services are being delivered. Consumers are increasingly demanding efficient access to health care information and services irrespective of time and distance, which is further driving the digitization of health care. This digital economy has created new opportunities for innovative new business models to meet the needs of these new markets. This study explores several in-use business models of virtual health care service platforms that incorporate mobile teledermoscopy (MTD) technologies. By comparing the different building blocks of these commercial ventures, we provide insights on business model choices and discuss the elements that contribute to economically sustainable and viable service offerings incorporating MTD applications. Materials and Methods: We searched the literature on teledermatology, complemented by searches using Google and other mobile app store platforms, and identified seven commercial ventures using teledermoscopy. We analyzed the building blocks of each business model by using an adapted version of Ash Maurya's Lean Canvas and Alexander Osterwalder's Business Model Canvas. Results: We identified three business elements that support the viability, sustainability, and growth of online dermatology services: developing key partnerships, clinician involvement in the design and implementation process, and managing the medico-legal risks and liabilities that are relevant for each country. Conclusions: Leveraging mobile technologies to deliver virtual health care present new business opportunities for health care providers. A better understanding of the business features associated with existing commercial ventures may increase uptake and improve financial viability of MTD applications as a complementary tool to traditional patient care models.

5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD012988, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Survival for stage I to III, hormone receptor-positive, breast cancer has substantially improved over time due to advances in screening, surgery and adjuvant therapy. However many adjuvant therapies have significant treatment-related toxicities, which worsen quality of life for breast cancer survivors. Postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer are now prescribed aromatase inhibitors (AI) as standard, with longer durations of therapy, up to 10 years, being considered for certain women. AI treatment is associated with a high incidence of AI-induced musculoskeletal symptoms (AIMSS), often described as symmetrical pain and soreness in the joints, musculoskeletal pain and joint stiffness. AIMSS reduces compliance with AI therapy in up to one half of women undergoing adjuvant AI therapy, potentially compromising breast cancer outcomes. Exercise has been investigated for the prevention and treatment of AIMSS but the effect of this intervention remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of exercise therapies on the prevention or management of aromatase inhibitor-induced musculoskeletal symptoms (AIMSS) in women with stage I to III hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane Breast Cancer's Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and CINAHL databases up to 13 December 2018. We also searched two conference proceedings portals and two clinical trials registries for ongoing studies or unpublished trials, or both, in August 2019. We also reviewed reference lists of the included studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials that compared exercise versus a comparator arm. We did not impose any restriction on the comparator arm, which could include an alternative type of exercise, no exercise or a waiting list control. Both published and non-peer-reviewed studies were eligible. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data, assessed risk of bias and certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. The outcomes investigated were pain, joint stiffness, grip strength, health-related quality of life, cancer-specific quality of life, adherence to AI therapy, adverse events, incidence of AIMSS, breast cancer-specific survival and overall survival. For continuous outcomes that were assessed with the same instrument, we used the mean difference (MD); for those outcomes that used different instruments, we used the standardised mean difference (SMD) for the analysis. For dichotomous outcomes, we reported outcomes as an odds ratio (OR). MAIN RESULTS: We included seven studies with 400 randomised participants; one study assessed exercise for preventing AIMSS and six studies assessed treating AIMSS. For preventing AIMSS, the single study reported no difference in pain scores, grip strength or compliance to taking AI medication between groups. Data values were not provided in the study and no other outcomes were reported. For managing AIMSS, we found that the evidence for the effect of exercise therapies on overall change in worst pain scores was very uncertain (SMD -0.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.78 to 0.32; 4 studies, 284 women; very low-certainty evidence). The evidence suggested that exercise therapies result in little to no difference in overall change in stiffness scores (Western Ontario McMasters Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) stiffness score MD -0.76, 95% CI -1.67 to 0.15 and Visual Analogues Scale (VAS) stiffness score MD -0.42, 95% CI -2.10 to 1.26; 1 study, 53 women; low-certainty evidence). The evidence was very uncertain for the outcomes of overall change in grip strength (MD 0.30, 95% CI -0.55 to 1.15; 1 study, 83 women; very low-certainty evidence); overall change in health-related quality of life (subscales of SF-36 tool ranged from least benefit of MD 1.88, 95% CI -2.69 to 6.45 to most benefit of MD 9.70, 95% CI 1.67 to 17.73; 2 studies, 123 women, very low-certainty evidence); overall change in cancer-specific quality of life (MD 4.58, 95% CI -0.61 to 9.78; 2 studies, 136 women; very low-certainty evidence); and adherence to aromatase inhibitors (OR 2.43, 95% CI 0.41 to 14.63; 2 studies, 224 women; very low-certainty evidence). There were no adverse events identified across four studies in either arm (0 events reported; 4 studies; 331 participants; low-certainty evidence). There were no data reported on incidence of AIMSS, breast cancer-specific survival or overall survival. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Given the wide-ranging benefits of exercise for people affected by cancer, it was surprising that this review provided no clear evidence of benefit for exercise therapies in women with early breast cancer with AIMSS. This review only yielded seven eligible studies with 400 participants, which is likely to have underpowered the findings. The meta-analysis was challenging due to the considerable heterogeneity amongst the trials, with a wide range of exercise regimens and follow-up periods. Despite these inconclusive findings, exercise needs to be part of routine care for women with breast cancer due to its wide-ranging benefits. Future research in this area would be enhanced with further understanding of the mechanism of AIMSS, a single clear definition of the condition, and phase III randomised controlled trials that are adequately powered to test targeted exercise interventions on the key clinical outcomes in this condition.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Aromatase/efeitos adversos , Terapia por Exercício , Dor Musculoesquelética/induzido quimicamente , Dor Musculoesquelética/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Aromatase/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
6.
Lymphat Res Biol ; 18(2): 101-109, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486709

RESUMO

Background: This study aimed at testing whether arm-to-leg ratios of extracellular water (ECW) and ECW normalized to intracellular water (ICW), measured by bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS), can accurately detect bilateral, lower-limb lymphedema, and whether accounting for sex, age, and body mass index (BMI) improves the diagnostic performance of cut-offs. Methods and Results: We conducted a dual-approach, case-control study consisting of cases of bilateral, lower-limb lymphedema and healthy controls who self-reported absence of lymphedema. The diagnostic performance using normative data-derived cut-offs (i.e., mean + 0.5 standard deviation [SD] to mean + 3 SD; n = 136, 66% controls) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve-derived cut-offs (n = 746, 94% controls) was assessed. The impact of sex, age, and BMI was investigated by comparing stratified and nonstratified normative data-derived cut-offs, and ROC curves generated from adjusted and unadjusted logistic regression models. Arm-to-leg ratios of ECW between mean + 0.5 SD and mean + 1 SD showed fair to good sensitivity (0.73-0.84) and poor to good specificity (0.64 to 0.84). Arm-to-leg ratios of ECW/ICW failed to detect lymphedema (sensitivity <0.5). Stratification by sex, or by sex and age, yielded similar results to nonstratified cut-offs. Cut-offs derived from adjusted ROC curves showed both good sensitivity (0.83-0.89) and specificity (0.8-0.84). Conclusion: These findings represent new BIS criteria for diagnosing lower-limb lymphedema that do not rely on comparison to baseline measures or the presence of a nonaffected, contralateral limb.

7.
Burns Trauma ; 7: 33, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696127

RESUMO

Background: Mixed partial thickness burns are the most common depth of burn injury managed at a large Australian paediatric hospital specialty burns unit. Prolonged time until re-epithelialisation is associated with increased burn depth and scar formation. Whilst current wound management approaches have benefits such as anti-microbial cover, these are not without inherent limitations including multiple dressing changes. The Biobrane® RECELL® Autologous skin Cell suspension and Silver dressings (BRACS) trial aims to identify the most effective wound management approach for mixed partial thickness injuries in children. Methods: All children presenting with an acute burn injury to the study site will be screened for eligibility. This is a single-centre, three-arm, parallel group, randomised trial. Children younger than 16 years, with burns ≥ 5% total body surface area involving any anatomical location, up to 48 h after the burn injury, and of a superficial partial to mid-dermal depth, will be included. A sample size of 84 participants will be randomised to standard silver dressing or a Regenerative Epithelial Suspension (RES™) with Biobrane® or Biobrane® alone. The first dressing will be applied under general anaesthesia and subsequent dressings will be changed every 3 to 5 days until the wound is ≥ 95% re-epithelialised, with re-epithelialisation time the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes of acute pain, acute itch, scar severity, health-related quality of life, treatment satisfaction, dressing application ease and healthcare resource use will be assessed at each dressing change and 3, 6 and 12 months post-burn injury. Discussion: The findings of this study can potentially change the wound management approach for superficial partial to mid-dermal burns in children locally and worldwide. Trial registration: The Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12618000245291) approved prospective registration on 15 February 2018. Registration details can be viewed at https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=374272&isReview=true.

8.
Digit Health ; 5: 2055207619828225, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30792879

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of the study is to evaluate healthcare practitioners' views on and satisfaction with (i) digital image acquisition and storage and (ii) store-and-forward teledermoscopy services for the diagnosis of skin cancer in their clinical practice. Methods: An online survey was conducted among 59 healthcare practitioners (GPs (n=17), dermatologists (n=22), dermatology registrars (n=18), a dermatology research fellow (n=1) and a plastic surgeon (n=1)) to assess usability of digital image acquisition and storage for when the imaging process is conducted by the healthcare practitioners themselves, or by their patients. The study identifies the enablers and barriers of this emerging mode of medical practice. A thematic analysis was used to extract key themes from open-ended responses, which involved identifying themes and patterns within and across participants. Results: Thirty-four healthcare practitioners (58%) had previously used a mobile dermatoscope within their practice. Participants most appreciated its use in their practice for lesion monitoring (59%) and record keeping (39%). Challenges reported were the increased time to support the additional workload (45%), technical issues (33%) and cost of equipment (27%). Practitioners were unsure (36%) or did not advocate teledermoscopy for direct-to-consumer use (41%). Only 23% supported the use of direct-to-consumer teledermoscopy. Conclusion: While most practitioners are receptive to mobile teledermoscopy, there was less support for patient-initiated use, whereby the patient controls the imaging process. As technology improves rapidly it is important to evaluate practitioners' acceptance and satisfaction of evolving telehealth services, moving forward with models of practice where healthcare practitioners and other healthcare providers will feel comfortable engaging in telehealth services.

9.
Dermatology ; 235(1): 4-10, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30404081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mobile teledermoscopy may facilitate skin self-examinations (SSEs) and further improve monitoring and detection of melanoma. OBJECTIVE: To assess consumer acceptability and expectations of a mobile health app used to: (i) instruct SSE and (ii) conduct consumer-performed mobile teledermoscopy. METHODS: People aged 18 years and above were invited to participate in either (i) an online survey or (ii) focus group in Brisbane, Australia. Participants were asked about their SSE practices, mobile teledermoscopy acceptance, and app design and functionality. The online survey responses and focus group discussions were coded by two researchers who conducted thematic analysis. RESULTS: Four focus groups were held with a total of 28 participants; 88 participants completed the online survey. The mean ages of participants in the focus group and online survey were 46 and 38 years, respectively. There were more males in the focus groups (61%, 17/28) compared to the online survey (19%, 17/88). Regular SSEs were conducted by 56 (64%) of the online survey participants. Barriers to SSE were forgetfulness (44%), low self-perceived risk of melanoma (25%) and low confidence in conducting SSEs (25%). The large majority of online survey participants (95%) would consider sending photos of their skin lesions to a medical practitioner via an app. Focus group participants reported that they would accept using mobile teledermoscopy; however, they would prefer to use it to monitor lesions between face-to-face consultations. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, participants had positive views on using mobile teledermoscopy to send images of skin lesions to a dermatologist or other medical practitioner.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Aplicativos Móveis , Fotografação , Autoexame/psicologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Telemedicina/métodos , Adulto , Dermoscopia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Exame Físico/métodos , Consulta Remota/métodos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/psicologia
10.
Dermatology ; 235(1): 11-18, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30404085

RESUMO

Patients often detect melanoma themselves; therefore, regular skin self-examinations (SSEs) play an important role in the early detection and prompt treatment of melanoma. Mobile teledermoscopy is a technology that may facilitate consumer SSEs and rapid communication with a dermatologist. This paper describes the planned randomised controlled trial of an intervention to determine whether mobile technologies can help improve the precision of SSE in consumers. A randomised controlled trial will be conducted to evaluate mobile teledermoscopy-enhanced SSE versus naked-eye SSE. Participants in each group will conduct three home whole-body SSEs at baseline, 1 and 2 months, then present for a clinical skin examination (CSE) by a doctor after the 2-month SSE. Specifically, participants will identify skin lesions that meet the AC (asymmetry and colour) rule for detecting a suspicious skin spot. The primary outcomes are sensitivity and specificity of the skin lesions selected by the participants as needing attention by a doctor, compared to the clinical diagnosis by the dermatologist that will serve as the reference standard for this analysis. For the mobile teledermoscopy-enhanced SSE group, researchers will assess the number, location and type of lesions (1) sent by the participant via mobile teledermoscopy, (2) found at CSE or (3) missed by the participant. For the naked-eye SSE group, researchers will assess the number, location and type of lesions (1) recorded on their body chart by the participant, (2) found at CSE or (3) missed by the participant. Secondary outcomes are based on participants' self-reported data via online questionnaires.


Assuntos
Dermoscopia/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Autoexame/métodos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Telemedicina , Protocolos Clínicos , Humanos , Aplicativos Móveis , Autorrelato
11.
Front Pediatr ; 6: 379, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30560110

RESUMO

Introduction: Acute respiratory infections with cough (ARIwC) contribute considerably to childhood morbidity, yet few studies have examined the cost of these illnesses among Australian children. Moreover, of the few studies that have, none are inclusive of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander children, despite this population experiencing a greater burden of respiratory illnesses. This study aimed to determine the costs of ARIwC among urban Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander children from the perspective of caretakers, the public healthcare system, and employers. Methods: This cost of illness study used data collected from Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander children aged <5 years enrolled in a 12 month prospective cohort study conducted through an urban primary healthcare clinic in Queensland, Australia. Illness-related resource use was collected for each episode of ARIwC reported, and costed at market rates. Linear regression was used to (a) examine cost per episode by season of illness onset and cough duration and (b) examine cost per month of observation by baseline child and family characteristics. Results: During the study period, a total of 264 episodes of ARIwC were reported among 138 children. The total mean cost was estimated to be $AU252 per non-hospitalized episode (95%CI 169-334). Caretakers, the public healthcare system and employers incurred 44, 39, and 17% of costs per episode, respectively. After accounting for months of completed follow-ups, the total mean cost per child per year was estimated to be $991 (95%CI 514-1468). Winter episodes and episodes resulting in chronic cough were associated with significantly higher costs per episode. A prior history of wheezing, connections to traditional lands and parent/guardian belief that antibiotics should be given until symptoms resolved were associated with significantly higher cost per child month of observation. Conclusion: The cost of ARIwC in this predominantly disadvantaged population is substantial, particularly for caretakers and this needs to be considered in both clinical management and public health initiatives. The importance of cultural factors on health and burden of illness should not be overlooked. Further research into the prevention of chronic cough may play an important role in reducing the economic burden of pediatric respiratory infections.

12.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 6(11): e199, 2018 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30487115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skin cancer is the most prevalent and most preventable cancer in Australia. Despite Australia's long-running public health campaigns, young Australian adults continue to report high levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure and frequent sunburns. Young people are now increasingly turning away from traditional media, such as newspapers and TV, favoring Web-based streaming, which is challenging the health care sector to develop new ways to reach this group with targeted, personalized health promotion messages. Advances in technology have enabled delivery of time- and context-relevant health interventions. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this randomized controlled trial was to test the effect of UVR feedback from a smartphone app or a UVR dosimeter feedback device on sun protection habits, sun exposure behaviors, sunburn, and physical activity levels in young adults. METHODS: Young adults aged 18-35 years (n=124) were recruited from Queensland, Australia, between September 2015 and April 2016, via social or traditional media campaigns and outreach activities in the local community. Participants were randomized into 3 groups for a 4-week intervention: (1) no intervention control group; (2) UVR monitor group, who were asked to wear a UVR dosimeter feedback device set to their skin type; and (3) a SunSmart app group, who were asked to download and use the SunSmart phone app. Data were self-assessed through Web-based surveys at baseline and 1 week and 3 months postintervention. RESULTS: Complete data were available for 86.2% (107/124) of participants (control group, n=36; UVR monitor group, n=36; and SunSmart app group, n=35). Intervention uptake in the UVR monitor group was high, with 94% (34/36) of participants using the device all or some of the time when outdoors. All SunSmart app group participants downloaded the app on their smartphone. There was no significant difference in the change in the sun protection habits (SPH) index (main outcome measure) across the 3 groups. However, compared with the control group, a significantly greater proportion of the participants in the UVR monitor group reduced their time unprotected and exposed to UVR on weekends during the intervention compared with the baseline (odds ratio [OR]: 2.706, 95% CI 1.047-6.992, P=.04). This significant effect was sustained with greater reductions observed up to 3 months postintervention (OR: 3.130, 95% CI 1.196-8.190, P=.02). There were no significant differences between the groups in weekday sun exposure, sunscreen use, sunburn, suntan, or physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Using technology such as apps and personal UVR monitoring devices may improve some sun exposure behaviors among young adults, but as the SPH index did not increase in this study, further research is required to achieve consistent uptake of sun protection in young people. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials register ACTRN12615001296527; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=368458 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/731somROx).

13.
Lymphat Res Biol ; 16(6): 559-566, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30280970

RESUMO

Background: Bioimpedance spectroscopy detects unilateral lymphedema if the ratio of extracellular fluid (ECF) between arms or between legs is outside three standard deviations (SDs) of the normative mean. Detection of bilateral lymphedema, common after bilateral breast or gynecological cancer, is complicated by the unavailability of an unaffected contralateral limb. The objectives of this work were to (1) present normative values for interarm, interleg, and arm-to-leg impedance ratios of ECF and ECF normalized to intracellular fluid (ECF/ICF); (2) evaluate the influence of sex, age, and body mass index on ratios; and (3) describe the normal change in ratios within healthy individuals over time. Methods: Data from five studies were combined to generate a normative data set (n = 808) from which mean and SD were calculated for interarm, interleg, and arm-to-leg ratios of ECF and ECF/ICF. The influence of sex, age, and body mass index was evaluated using multiple linear regression, and normative change was calculated for participants with repeated measures by subtracting their lowest ratio from their highest ratio. Results: Mean (SD) interarm, interleg, dominant arm-to-leg, and nondominant arm-to-leg ratios were 0.987 (0.067), 1.005 (0.072), 1.129 (0.160), and 1.165 (0.174) for ECF ratios; and 0.957 (0.188), 1.024 (0.183), 1.194 (0.453), and 1.117 (0.367) for ECF/ICF ratios, respectively. Arm-to-leg ratios were significantly affected by sex, age, and body mass index. Mean normative change ranged from 7.2% to 14.7% for ECF ratios and from 14.7% to 67.1% for ECF/ICF ratios. Conclusion: These findings provide the necessary platform for extending bioimpedance-based screening beyond unilateral lymphedema.

14.
Res Dev Disabil ; 81: 1-11, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29786528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of Multilevel Models (MLM) and Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) for analysing clustered data in the field of intellectual and developmental disability (IDD) research is still limited. METHOD: We present some important features of MLMs and GEEs: main function, assumptions, model specification and estimators, sample size and power. We provide an overview of the ways MLMs and GEEs have been used in IDD research. RESULTS: While MLMs and GEEs are both appropriate for longitudinal and/or clustered data, they differ in the assumptions they impose on the data, and the inferences made. Estimators in MLMs require appropriate model specification, while GEEs are more resilient to misspecification at the expense of model complexity. Studies on sample size seem to suggest that Level 1 coefficients are robust to small samples/clusters, with any higher-level coefficients less so. MLMs have been used more frequently than GEEs in IDD research, especially for fitting developmental trajectories. CONCLUSIONS: Clustered data from research in the IDD field can be analysed flexibly using MLMs and GEEs. These models would be more widely used if journals required the inclusion of technical specification detail, simulation studies examined power for IDD study characteristics, and researchers developed core skills during basic studies.


Assuntos
Análise por Conglomerados , Simulação por Computador/estatística & dados numéricos , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento , Deficiência Intelectual , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Modelos Estatísticos , Análise Multinível , Projetos de Pesquisa
15.
J Infect Dis ; 218(6): 979-990, 2018 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29471349

RESUMO

Background: Epidemiological studies point to the gut as a key reservoir of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli multilocus sequence type 131 (ST131), a globally dominant pathogenic clone causing urinary tract and bloodstream infections. Here we report a detailed investigation of its intestinal lifestyle. Methods: Clinical ST131 isolates and type 1 fimbriae null mutants were assessed for colonization of human intestinal epithelia and in mouse intestinal colonization models. Mouse gut tissue underwent histologic analysis for pathology and ST131 localization. Key findings were corroborated in mucus-producing human cell lines and intestinal biopsy specimens. Results: ST131 strains adhered to and invaded human intestinal epithelial cells more than probiotic and commensal strains. The reference ST131 strain EC958 established persistent intestinal colonization in mice, and expression of type 1 fimbriae mediated higher colonization levels. Bacterial loads were highest in the distal parts of the mouse intestine and did not cause any obvious pathology. Further analysis revealed that EC958 could bind to both mucus and underlying human intestinal epithelia. Conclusions: ST131 strains can efficiently colonize the mammalian gut and persist long term. Type 1 fimbriae enhance ST131 intestinal colonization, suggesting that mannosides, currently developed as therapeutics for bladder infections and Crohn's disease, could also be used to limit intestinal ST131 reservoirs.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Infecções por Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Intestinos/microbiologia , Animais , Aderência Bacteriana , Carga Bacteriana , Células CACO-2 , Linhagem Celular , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/classificação , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Feminino , Fímbrias Bacterianas/metabolismo , Humanos , Intestinos/citologia , Camundongos
16.
Qual Life Res ; 27(4): 891-903, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29357027

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs), and associated symptoms such as cough, are frequently experienced among children and impose a burden on families (e.g., use of medical resources and time off work/school). However, there are little data on changes in, and predictors of, quality of life (QoL) over the duration of an ARI with cough (ARIwC) episode. We therefore aimed to determine cough-specific QoL and identify its influencing factors among children with ARIwC, at the time of presentation to a pediatric emergency department (ED), and over the following 4 weeks. METHODS: Data from 283 children aged < 15 years were included in our analyses. We used the validated parent-proxy children's acute cough-specific QoL questionnaire (PAC-QoL) at each time-point. Linear regression and mixed effect modeling were used to identify factors influencing QoL at baseline and over the follow-up period. RESULTS: Median PAC-QoL at baseline was 2.7 (IQR 2.1-3.6) and significantly improved by Day-7 (4.9, IQR 3.8-6.1) and Day-14 (6.59, IQR 5.1-7.0), both p < 0.001. The improvements in median PAC-QoL between Days-14, -21, and -28 were not significant. Regression modeling identified that day-cough severity, night-cough severity, and financial concerns had the highest impact on both baseline, and follow-up, PAC-QoL scores. There were five additional independent significant factors at baseline and six at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Quality of life is considerably impaired at presentation to ED, but improves significantly by Days-7 and -14. As cough severity and financial concerns had the highest impact on QoL, effectively managing cough to reduce the clinical and financial burden on children and families is important.


Assuntos
Doença Aguda/psicologia , Tosse/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Infecções Respiratórias/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Antioxid Redox Signal ; 29(7): 653-666, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29237285

RESUMO

AIMS: DsbA catalyzes disulfide bond formation in secreted and outer membrane proteins in bacteria. In pathogens, DsbA is a major facilitator of virulence constituting a target for antivirulence antimicrobial development. However, many pathogens encode multiple and diverse DsbA enzymes for virulence factor folding during infection. The aim of this study was to determine whether our recently identified inhibitors of Escherichia coli K-12 DsbA can inhibit the diverse DsbA enzymes found in two important human pathogens and attenuate their virulence. RESULTS: DsbA inhibitors from two chemical classes (phenylthiophene and phenoxyphenyl derivatives) inhibited the virulence of uropathogenic E. coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, encoding two and three diverse DsbA homologues, respectively. Inhibitors blocked the virulence of dsbA null mutants complemented with structurally diverse DsbL and SrgA, suggesting that they were not selective for prototypical DsbA. Structural characterization of DsbA-inhibitor complexes showed that compounds from each class bind in a similar region of the hydrophobic groove adjacent to the Cys30-Pro31-His32-Cys33 (CPHC) active site. Modeling of DsbL- and SrgA-inhibitor interactions showed that these accessory enzymes could accommodate the inhibitors in their different hydrophobic grooves, supporting our in vivo findings. Further, we identified highly conserved residues surrounding the active site for 20 diverse bacterial DsbA enzymes, which could be exploited in developing inhibitors with a broad spectrum of activity. Innovation and Conclusion: We have developed tools to analyze the specificity of DsbA inhibitors in bacterial pathogens encoding multiple DsbA enzymes. This work demonstrates that DsbA inhibitors can be developed to target diverse homologues found in bacteria. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 29, 653-666.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli K12/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/antagonistas & inibidores , Isomerases de Dissulfetos de Proteínas/antagonistas & inibidores , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Escherichia coli K12/enzimologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/química , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Isomerases de Dissulfetos de Proteínas/química , Isomerases de Dissulfetos de Proteínas/metabolismo , Tiofenos/química
18.
Oncotarget ; 8(59): 99990-100001, 2017 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29245955

RESUMO

Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are a heterogeneous group of tumours that originate predominantly from the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx. Our aim was to determine whether salivary miRNA expression levels can diagnose these cancer subtypes. Saliva samples were collected from healthy controls (n=113, smoker and non-smokers), HPV-positive (n=54) and HPV-negative (n=47) HNSCC patients. The miRNA expression levels in saliva was quantified using qPCR. The potential of salivary miRNAs to discriminate these groups of patients was evaluated using multiple logistic regression with ROC analysis and a 10-fold cross-validation analysis. Salivary miRNA-9, -127, -134, -191, -222 and -455 were shown to discriminate a control group from a HPV-negative HNSCC patient group with a sensitivity of 60% and a specificity of 94%; whilst salivary miRNA-9,-134, -196b, -210, and -455 were the most parsimonious subset discriminating a control group from a HPV-positive HNSCC group, with a sensitivity of 65% and a specificity of 95%. Furthermore, miRNA-9, -134, -196b, -210 and -455 as a panel, was the most parsimonious subset to discriminate HPV-positive HNSCC patients from HPV-negative HNSCC patients. In addition, the expression levels of miRNA-9, -127, -196a, -196b, -210, -222 and -455 were significantly increased in the saliva collected from early stage HNSCC patients compared to controls. A future multi-centre confirmatory study is warranted to test the diagnostic performance of these salivary miRNA prior to clinical implementation.

19.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 10(4): 215-225, oct.-dic. 2017. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-166535

RESUMO

Purpose: To examine the diagnostic capability of the full retinal and inner retinal thickness measures in differentiating individuals with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) from those without neuropathy and non-diabetic controls. Methods: Individuals with (n=44) and without (n=107) diabetic neuropathy and non-diabetic control (n=42) participants underwent spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT). Retinal thickness in the central 1mm zone (including the fovea), parafovea and perifovea was assessed in addition to ganglion cell complex (GCC) global loss volume (GCC GLV) and focal loss volume (GCC FLV), and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness. Diabetic neuropathy was defined using a modified neuropathy disability score (NDS) recorded on a 0-10 scale, wherein, NDS ≥3 indicated neuropathy and NDS indicated <3 no neuropathy. Diagnostic performance was assessed by areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs), 95 per cent confidence intervals (CI), sensitivities at fixed specificities, positive likelihood ratio (+LR), negative likelihood ratio (-LR) and the cut-off points for the best AUCs obtained. Results: The AUC for GCC FLV was 0.732 (95% CI: 0.624-0.840, p<0.001) with a sensitivity of 53% and specificity of 80% for differentiating DPN from controls. Evaluation of the LRs showed that GCC FLV was associated with only small effects on the post-test probability of the disease. The cut-off point calculated using the Youden index was 0.48% (67% sensitivity and 73% specificity) for GCC FLV. For distinguishing those with neuropathy from those without neuropathy, the AUCs of retinal parameters ranged from 0.508 for the central zone to 0.690 for the inferior RNFL thickness. For distinguishing those with moderate or advanced neuropathy from those with mild or no neuropathy, the inferior RNFL thickness demonstrated the highest AUC of 0.820, (95% CI: 0.731-0.909, p<0.001) with a sensitivity of 69% and 80% specificity. The cut-off-point for the inferior RNFL thickness was 97μm, with 81% sensitivity and 72% specificity. Conclusions: The GCC FLV can differentiate individuals with diabetic neuropathy from healthy controls, while the inferior RNFL thickness is able to differentiate those with greater degrees of neuropathy from those with mild or no neuropathy, both with an acceptable level of accuracy. Optical coherence tomography represents a non-invasive technology that aids in detection of retinal structural changes in patients with established diabetic neuropathy. Further refinement of the technique and the analytical approaches may be required to identify patients with minimal neuropathy (AU)


Objetivo: Examinar la capacidad diagnóstica de las mediciones del grosor total e interno de la retina, con diferenciación entre individuos con neuropatía periférica diabética (DPN), aquellos que no la padecen, y controles no diabéticos. Métodos: Cuarenta y cuatro individuos con (n=44) y sin (n=107) neuropatía diabética y participantes de control no diabéticos (n=42) fueron sometidos a una tomografía de coherencia óptica de dominio espectral (SDOCT). Se evaluó el grosor de la retina en la zona central de 1mm (incluyendo la fóvea), parafóvea y perifóvea, además del complejo de células ganglionares (GCC), el volumen de pérdida global (GCC GLV) y el volumen de pérdida focal (GCC FLV), y el espesor de la capa de fibras nerviosas de la retina (RNFL). Se definió la neuropatía diabética utilizando la versión modificada del «Neuropathy Disability Score (NDS)», sobre una escala de 0 a 10, donde el valor de NDS ≥3 indicaba neuropatía y NDS <3 ausencia de la misma. El desempeño diagnóstico se evaluó mediante las áreas bajo las curvas características operativas del receptor (AUC), intervalos de confianza del 95% (IC), sensibilidades a especificidades fijas, cociente de probabilidad positiva (CP+), y cociente de probabilidad negativa (CP-) y los puntos de corte para los mejores AUC obtenidos. Resultados: El AUC para GCC FLV fue de 0,732, 95% IC: 0,624-0,840, p<0,001 con una sensibilidad del 53% y una especificidad del 80% para la diferenciación entre DPN y los controles. La evaluación de los CP reflejó que el GCC FLV se asociaba únicamente a unos pequeños efectos en la prueba posterior de probabilidad de la enfermedad. El punto de corte calculado utilizando el índice de Youden fue del 0,48% (67% de sensibilidad y 73% de especificidad) para GCC FLV. Para distinguir a aquellos individuos con neuropatía de los que no la padecían, las AUC de los parámetros retinianos oscilaron entre 0,508 para el grosor RNFL de la zona central y 0,690 para el de la zona inferior. Para distinguir a aquellas personas con neuropatía moderada o avanzada, de aquellas con neuropatía leve, o ausencia de ella, el grosor RNFL de la zona inferior reflejó una AUC superior de 0,820, 95% IC: 0,731-0,909, p<0,001, con una sensibilidad del 69% y una especificidad del 80%. El punto de corte para el grosor RNFL inferior fue de 97μm, con un 81% de sensibilidad y un 72% de especificidad. Conclusiones: El GCC FLV puede diferenciar entre aquellos individuos con neuropatía diabética y los controles sanos, mientras que el grosor RNFL de la zona inferior es capaz de diferenciar entre aquellas personas con grados superiores de neuropatía y aquellas con neuropatía leve o ausencia de neuropatía, en ambos casos con un nivel aceptable de precisión. La tomografía de coherencia óptica supone una tecnología no invasiva que ayuda a la detección de los cambios estructurales retinianos en pacientes con neuropatía diabética establecida. Se precisa un mayor refinamiento de esta técnica, así como enfoques analíticos, para identificar a aquellos pacientes con una neuropatía mínima (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Células Ganglionares da Retina/fisiologia , Área Sob a Curva , Fibras Nervosas , Intervalos de Confiança , Análise Estatística , Análise de Variância
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