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2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5120, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719529

RESUMO

Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a rare inflammatory disease of unknown cause. 30% of patients have anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) specific for myeloperoxidase (MPO). Here, we describe a genome-wide association study in 676 EGPA cases and 6809 controls, that identifies 4 EGPA-associated loci through conventional case-control analysis, and 4 additional associations through a conditional false discovery rate approach. Many variants are also associated with asthma and six are associated with eosinophil count in the general population. Through Mendelian randomisation, we show that a primary tendency to eosinophilia contributes to EGPA susceptibility. Stratification by ANCA reveals that EGPA comprises two genetically and clinically distinct syndromes. MPO+ ANCA EGPA is an eosinophilic autoimmune disease sharing certain clinical features and an HLA-DQ association with MPO+ ANCA-associated vasculitis, while ANCA-negative EGPA may instead have a mucosal/barrier dysfunction origin. Four candidate genes are targets of therapies in development, supporting their exploration in EGPA.

4.
Intern Emerg Med ; 14(8): 1193-1197, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388893

RESUMO

The European Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (EGPA) study group first gathered in Firenze in December 2018. The discussion was centred around the clinical and therapeutic needs in EGPA which still remain unmet. Indeed, EGPA is a puzzling and rare disease which shares clinical features with other anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAVs) and hypereosinophilic syndromes (HESs). Some of the recommendations published in 2015 are based on data derived from EGPA-related diseases, rather than from EGPA itself, and therefore need to be updated. Thus, the aim of the meeting was to stimulate ongoing research, to promote collaborative European studies and to define the main issues on which future studies should be focused. Current fields of research on EGPA include potential serological biomarkers of disease activity and of specific organ involvement, possible links between different genetic variants and clinical phenotypes, and new therapeutic perspectives. Herein, we give an overview of the meeting with the goal to stimulate an international collaboration and new points of discussion.

5.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1405, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297110

RESUMO

Proteinuria has been identified as prognosticator of renal outcome in patients with ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis, but whether proteinuria is related to podocyte abnormalities in these patients is largely unknown. We here investigate podocyte foot process width and number of podocytes positive for the podocyte marker WT-1 in diagnostic renal biopsies of 25 Caucasian patients with ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis in relation to proteinuria. Control tissue was used from pre-transplantation donor kidney biopsies. Proteinuria at 10 weeks follow-up correlated significantly with foot process width (P = 0.04). Biopsies with foot process width ≥600 nm belonged more often to the crescentic or mixed class, whereas biopsies with a foot process width <600 nm were most often categorized as focal class (P = 0.03). The mean number of podocytes based upon expression of WT-1 was significantly lower in patients compared to controls (15 vs. 34 podocytes per glomerulus; P < 0.0001). The significant decrease in expression of the podocyte WT-1 marker in ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis is considered indicative of actual podocyte loss or at least, of a loss of functionality. Furthermore, our study indicates that podocyte foot process width at baseline could be indicative for proteinuria at short term follow up. For prognostic purposes, we therefore suggest to include a description of the foot process width in the diagnostic report of a biopsy with ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis.

6.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(11): 1913-1922, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233292

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Chronic periaortitis (CP) is a rare disease characterized by periaortic and periiliac fibroinflammatory tissue. The pathogenic mechanisms leading to tissue accumulation and activation of fibroblasts are unclear. This study was undertaken to explore the role of fibrocytes, circulating precursors of tissue fibroblasts, in patients with CP. METHODS: We studied 44 patients with newly diagnosed CP and 30 healthy controls. Circulating fibrocytes were identified as Col1+CD45+ cells using flow cytometry. Retroperitoneal tissue biopsy samples from 9 CP patients were stained with anti-type I procollagen, anti-CXCR4, and anti-CD45 antibodies and analyzed by confocal microscopy to detect tissue-infiltrating fibrocytes. Circulating levels and tissue expression of CXCL12, a CXCR4 ligand that promotes fibrocyte homing, were investigated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemistry, respectively. We also characterized T helper polarization in biopsy samples from CP patients and measured serum levels of a panel of cytokines that are hallmarks of T helper responses and capable of influencing fibrocyte differentiation. RESULTS: The frequency of circulating Col1+CD45+ fibrocytes was higher in patients than in controls (P = 0.0371). CD45+proCol1+ and CXCR4+proCol1+ cells were detected in all examined biopsy samples from CP patients. Serum levels of CXCL12 were also higher in CP patients than controls (P = 0.0056), and tissue-infiltrating inflammatory cells intensely expressed CXCL12. Increased serum levels of Th2 cytokines (e.g., interleukin-13 [IL-13] and IL-10) were found in patients, and immunohistochemistry revealed a dominant infiltration of GATA-3+ cells, also indicating Th2 polarization; Th2-skewed responses are known to promote fibrocyte differentiation. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that fibrocytes are enriched in the peripheral blood of CP patients and infiltrate target lesions. The accumulation of fibrocytes in the pathologic tissue might be driven by CXCL12, and Th2-skewed immune responses are likely to facilitate their differentiation.

7.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(10): 1670-1680, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102498

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The efficacy of rituximab (RTX) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a subject of debate. This study was undertaken to investigate the outcomes of RTX treatment in a European SLE cohort, with an emphasis on the role of RTX as a maintenance agent. METHODS: All patients with SLE who were receiving RTX as induction therapy in 4 centers were included. Patients who received a single course of RTX and those who received RTX maintenance treatment (RMT) were followed up after treatment. Disease flares during the follow-up period were defined as an increase in disease activity and the number or dose of immunosuppressive drugs. RESULTS: Of 147 patients, 27% experienced treatment failure at 6 months. In a multivariate analysis, a low number of previous immunosuppressive therapies (P = 0.034) and low C4 levels (P = 0.008) reduced the risk of treatment failure. Eighty patients received RMT over a median of 24.5 months during which 85 relapses, mainly musculoskeletal, were recorded (1.06 per patient). At the time of the last RTX course, 84% of the patients were in remission. Twenty-eight (35%) of 80 patients never experienced a flare during RMT and had low damage accrual. Active articular disease at the time of the first RTX administration was associated with a risk of flare during RMT (P = 0.011). After RMT, relapse-free survival was similar to that in patients receiving a single RTX course (P = 0.72). CONCLUSION: RMT is a potential treatment option for patients with difficult-to-treat disease. Relapses occur during RMT and are more likely in those with active articular disease at the time of the first RTX administration. Relapse risk after RMT remains high and apparently comparable to that seen after a single RTX course.

8.
J Rheumatol ; 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092713

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) expose modified antigens for auto-antibodies in vasculitis (SVV). Little is known on levels and removal pathways of NETs in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), especially in lupus nephritis (LN). We determined circulating levels and defined NETs removal in large subsets of incident SLE patients, a part with newly onset nephritis. METHODS: Serum levels of NETs (ELISA), DNase1/DNase1L3 (ELISAs) and DNase activity (functional assay) were determined in 216 incident SLE patients, 103 had incident LN, in 50 patients with other primary glomerulonephritis and in healthy controls. Ex vivo NETs production by neutrophils purified from a random selection of patients was quantified as elastase/DNA release and by immunofluorescence techniques. RESULTS: Serum NETs were very high in iSLE/iLN compared to all groups of controls and correlated with anti-dsDNA, C3-C4 and proteinuria; incident LN had the highest levels. DNase activity was decreased in iLN compared to SLE (20% had one half DNase activity) despite similar serum levels of DNase1/DNase1L3. In these cases, pre-treatment of serum with Protein A restored DNase efficiency; one patient was homozygous for a c.289_290delAC variant of DNASE1L3. Ex vivo NETs production by neutrophils purified from LN, SLE and normal controls was similar in all cases. CONCLUSION: iLN patients have increased circulating NETs and reduced DNase activity, the later being explained by the presence of inhibitory substances in circulation and/or by rare DNase1L3 mutations. Accumulation of NETs derives from a multi-factorial mechanism, is associated and may contribute to disease severity in SLE, in particular to renal lesions.

9.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7934, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138830

RESUMO

NETs constitute a network of DNA and proteins released by neutrophils in response to infectious and immunologic triggers. NET proteins are recognized as autoantigens in ANCA vasculitis; limited knowledge is available in other autoimmune pathologies. The composition of NETs produced ex vivo by resting and Phorbol-myristate acetate (PMA) stimulated neutrophils was analyzed by high-throughput Fusion Orbitrap technology in 16 patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus/Lupus nephritis (9 SLE/7 LN) and in 11 controls. Seven-hundred proteins were characterized and specific fingerprints discriminated LN from SLE. We focused on methyl-oxidized αenolase (methionine sulfoxide 93) that was markedly increased in NETs from LN and was localized in NET filaments in tight connection and outlying DNA. The isotype of anti-αenolase antibodies was IgG2 in LN and IgG4 in other autoimmune glomerulonephritis (Membranous Nephropathy, MN); serum anti-αenolase IgG2 were higher in LN than in SLE and absent in MN. The same IgG2 antibodies recognized 5 epitopes of the protein one containing methionine sulphoxide 93. In conclusion, specific NET protein fingerprints characterize different subsets of SLE; methyl-oxidized αenolase is over-expressed in LN. Circulating anti-αenolase IgG2 recognize the oxidized epitope and are high in serum of LN patients. Post-translational modified NET proteins contribute to autoimmunity in patients with LN.

10.
Front Immunol ; 10: 693, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31019511

RESUMO

Objective: Chronic periaortitis (CP) is a rare fibro-inflammatory disorder that incorporates idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis, inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms, and perianeurysmal retroperitoneal fibrosis. CP is included in the spectrum of IgG4-related disease. Since CP patients rarely undergo diagnostic biopsies, serum IgG4 levels are often used to classify CP as IgG4-related. However, the clinical and prognostic significance of serum IgG4 in CP is unknown. Methods: We measured serum IgG4 in active CP patients and compared the clinical characteristics, response to therapy and outcome of patients with high and normal levels. We also tested the diagnostic significance of IgG4 by comparing its levels in CP patients, healthy and disease controls (malignancies, Erdheim-Chester disease, large-, and small-vessel vasculitis). Results: We studied 113 consecutive patients with active CP. Twenty-four (21.2%) had high serum IgG4 (>135 mg/dL). The demographic, laboratory, and clinical characteristics of patients with high and normal IgG4 were similar, and so were the rates of ureteral obstruction and the disease characteristics on CT, MRI, and 18F-FDG-PET. Patients with high IgG4 only had a higher frequency of extra-retroperitoneal fibro-inflammatory lesions (p = 0.005). There were no significant differences in response to therapy and relapses between the two groups. Serum IgG4 levels did not discriminate CP from controls. Conclusions: Serum IgG4 levels are high in a minority of CP patients and do not identify specific clinical or prognostic subgroups; only a higher frequency of extra-retroperitoneal lesions is found in high-IgG4 patients. Serum IgG4 levels do not help in the differential diagnosis between CP and its mimics.

11.
Neurosurgery ; 85(4): E693-E701, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30828728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare, non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Up to 50% of patients develop central nervous system involvement, and a subset of these patients can present with isolated tumor-like masses. OBJECTIVE: To describe the skull base manifestations of ECD with an emphasis on aspects most pertinent to surgeons who may be referred such patients for primary evaluation. METHODS: Scopus, Web of Science, and PubMed were searched from database inception to May 1, 2018 for articles reporting skull base ECD. An institutional retrospective analysis of all patients treated at the authors' institution since January 1, 1996 was also performed to supplement these data. RESULTS: Of 465 retrieved articles, 18 studies totaling 20 patients met inclusion criteria. Institutional review identified an additional 7 patients. Collectively, the median age at diagnosis was 49 yr (interquartile range, 42-58) with a 4:1 male-to-female ratio. Patients frequently presented with diplopia (48%), headache (30%), dysarthria (22%), and vertigo or imbalance (22%), though trigeminal hypesthesia (11%), facial nerve paresis (7%), hearing loss (7%), and trigeminal neuralgia (7%) were also observed. ECD commonly mimicked meningioma (33%), trigeminal schwannoma (8%), neurosarcoidosis (8%), and skull base lymphoma (8%). CONCLUSION: Discrete skull base lesions frequently mimic more common pathology such as meningioma or cranial nerve schwannomas. Medical therapy comprises the initial treatment for symptomatic skull base disease. Surgical resection is not curative and the utility of surgical intervention is largely limited to biopsy to establish diagnosis and/or surgical debulking to relieve mass effect.

12.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(3): 399-405, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30612116

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cyclophosphamide induction regimens are effective for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV), but are associated with infections, malignancies and infertility. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) has shown high remission rates in small studies of AAV. METHODS: We conducted a randomised controlled trial to investigate whether MMF was non-inferior to cyclophosphamide for remission induction in AAV. 140 newly diagnosed patients were randomly assigned to MMF or pulsed cyclophosphamide. All patients received the same oral glucocorticoid regimen and were switched to azathioprine following remission. The primary endpoint was remission by 6 months requiring compliance with the tapering glucocorticoid regimen. Patients with an eGFR <15 mL/min were excluded from the study. RESULTS: At baseline, ANCA subtype, disease activity and organ involvement were similar between groups. Non-inferiority was demonstrated for the primary remission endpoint, which occurred in 47 patients (67%) in the MMF group and 43 patients (61%) in the cyclophosphamide group (risk difference 5.7%, 90% CI -7.5% to 19%). Following remission, more relapses occurred in the MMF group (23 patients, 33%) compared with the cyclophosphamide group (13 patients, 19%) (incidence rate ratio 1.97, 95% CI 0.96 to 4.23, p=0.049). In MPO-ANCA patients, relapses occurred in 12% of the cyclophosphamide group and 15% of the MMF group. In PR3-ANCA patients, relapses occurred in 24% of the cyclophosphamide group and 48% of the MMF group. Serious infections were similar between groups (26% MMF group, 17% cyclophosphamide group) (OR 1.67, 95% CI 0.68 to 4.19, p=0.3). CONCLUSION: MMF was non-inferior to cyclophosphamide for remission induction in AAV, but resulted in higher relapse rate. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT00414128.

13.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0209343, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The TNFSF13B (TNF superfamily member 13b) gene encodes BAFF, a cytokine with a crucial role in the differentiation and activation of B cells. An insertion-deletion variant (GCTGT→A) of this gene, leading to increased levels of BAFF, has been recently implicated in the genetic predisposition to several autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis. Based on the elevated levels of this cytokine found in patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA) and systemic sclerosis (SSc), we aimed to assess whether this functional variant also represents a novel genetic risk factor for these two disorders. METHODS: A total of 1,728 biopsy-proven GCA patients from 4 European cohorts, 4,584 SSc patients from 3 European cohorts and 5,160 ethnically-matched healthy controls were included in the study. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs374039502, which colocalizes with the genetic variant previously implicated in autoimmunity, was genotyped using a custom TaqMan assay. First, association analysis was conducted in each independent cohort using χ2 test in Plink (v1.9). Subsequently, different case/control sets were meta-analyzed by the inverse variance method. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were found when allele distributions were compared between cases and controls for any of the analyzed cohorts. Similarly, combined analysis of the different sets evidenced a lack of association of the rs374039502 variant with GCA (P = 0.421; OR (95% CI) = 0.92 (0.75-1.13)) and SSc (P = 0.500; OR (95% CI) = 1.05 (0.91-1.22)). The stratified analysis considering the main clinical subphenotypes of these diseases yielded similar negative results. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the TNFSF13B functional variant does not contribute to the genetic network underlying GCA and SSc.


Assuntos
Fator Ativador de Células B/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Arterite de Células Gigantes/genética , Escleroderma Sistêmico/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Arterite de Células Gigantes/patologia , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Escleroderma Sistêmico/patologia
14.
Curr Rheumatol Rep ; 20(12): 80, 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397845

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aim to review traditional concepts and recent developments on the nosology, pathophysiology, clinical phenotypes and treatment of chronic periaortitis (CP). RECENT FINDINGS: CP is a rare disorder hallmarked by a periaortic fibro-inflammatory tissue. It can present as an isolated disease, but it can also be associated with other autoimmune and fibro-inflammatory lesions (e.g., fibrosing mediastinitis, sclerosing pancreato-cholangitis) that are part of the spectrum of IgG4-related disease. In a subgroup of patients, it also involves the thoracic aorta (so-called "diffuse periaortitis"), which supports the notion of an inflammatory disorder of large arteries. The pathogenesis of CP is multifactorial: recent studies have elucidated the predisposing role of immunogenetic variants and exposures to environmental agents such as smoking and asbestos. CP is a rare immune-mediated disease that affects the abdominal aorta and the iliac arteries and, in some cases, the thoracic aorta. It may overlap with manifestations of IgG4-related disease, and its treatment comprises glucocorticoids, conventional and biological immunosuppressive agents.

16.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 2018 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30299252

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Chronic periaortitis (CP) is an inflammatory disease associated in 20-60% of the cases with IgG4 related disease. Current evidence supports an autoimmune nature for CP. Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs) are involved in several immune system activities and are associated with autoimmunity in general. We explored the influence of genetic variants within this region on susceptibility to CP. METHODS: Genotyping of 4 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the FCGR region was performed in CP patients and controls. RESULTS: One hundred and eighty-three cases and 181 controls were included. An association between the SNP rs1801274 of the FCGR2A and CP was detected (OR 1.6, 95%CI 1.18-2.16;corrected p-value, pcorr=0.0085). After stratification of the population according to clinical characteristics, the association was restricted to cases of idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis (OR 1.66, 95%CI 1.21-2.29;pcorr=0.028), without involvement of the thoracic aorta (OR 1.77, 95%CI 1.21-2.57;pcorr=0.043), with deep vein thrombosis at onset (OR 3.96, 95%CI 1.81-8.66;pcorr=0.0021) and with normal IgG4 levels (OR 2.67, 95%CI 1.39-5.12;pcorr=0.031). CONCLUSIONS: In the largest candidate gene approach study performed so far in CP, we demonstrated an association for CP with a gene hallmark of autoimmunity. The association appears restricted to typical cases of CP without increase of IgG4 levels.

18.
Autoimmun Rev ; 17(9): 912-918, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30005854

RESUMO

Drug-induced lupus (DIL) includes a spectrum of drug-induced reactions often characterised by a clinical phenotype similar to that of idiopathic systemic lupus eruthematosus (SLE) but usually lacking major SLE complications. Different drugs may be associated with distinct clinical and serological profiles, and early recognition is crucial. Drugs traditionally associated with DIL include procainamide, hydralazine, quinidine and others, but strong associations with newer agents, such as TNF α (TNFα) inhibitors, are increasingly recognised. The pathogenic mechanisms explaining how drugs that have heterogeneous chemical structure and function lead to autoimmunity are only partially understood. However, it is likely that traditional DIL-associated agents can boost innate immune responses, particularly neutrophil responses, with neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation and exposure of autoantigens. Research in the field of DIL is evolving and may provide interesting models for the study of autoimmunity.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/complicações , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/patologia
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