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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593680

RESUMO

Incidentally discovered adrenal masses are common and mostly benign and non-functioning adenomas. However, evolving evidence suggests that a notable proportion of these adrenal adenomas may demonstrate mild autonomous cortisol secretion (MACS), which has been associated with an increased risk for hypertension, hyperglycemia, obesity, dyslipidemia, vertebral fractures, adverse cardiovascular events, and mortality. Therefore, it is advised that all patients with an incidentally discovered adrenal mass be tested for MACS. When there is convincing evidence for MACS, surgical adrenalectomy has been associated with an improvement in certain metabolic parameters and a reduction in vertebral fractures; however, conclusive evidence demonstrating decreased cardiovascular outcomes or mortality are not yet available. Future studies with adequate randomization and follow-up to assess adverse clinical endpoints are needed to determine the optimal management and follow-up of patients with MACS.

3.
Science ; 371(6529)2021 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414189

RESUMO

Polyadenylate [poly(A)] tail addition to the 3' end of a wide range of RNAs is a highly conserved modification that plays a central role in cellular RNA function. Elements for nuclear expression (ENEs) are cis-acting RNA elements that stabilize poly(A) tails by sequestering them in RNA triplex structures. A crystal structure of a double ENE from a rice hAT transposon messenger RNA complexed with poly(A)28 at a resolution of 2.89 angstroms reveals multiple modes of interaction with poly(A), including major-groove triple helices, extended minor-groove interactions with RNA double helices, a quintuple-base motif that transitions poly(A) from minor-groove associations to major-groove triple helices, and a poly(A) 3'-end binding pocket. Our findings both expand the repertoire of motifs involved in long-range RNA interactions and provide insights into how polyadenylation can protect an RNA's extreme 3' end.


Assuntos
Poli A/química , Poliadenilação , Estabilidade de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/química , Cristalização , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Oryza
5.
Hypertension ; : HYPERTENSIONAHA12016429, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33280409

RESUMO

Primary aldosteronism is an underdiagnosed cause of hypertension. Although inadequate screening is one reason for underdiagnosis, another important contributor is that clinicians may inappropriately exclude the diagnosis when screening aldosterone concentrations fall below traditionally established thresholds. We evaluated the intraindividual variability in screening aldosterone concentrations and aldosterone-to-renin ratios, and how this variability could impact case detection, among 51 patients with confirmed primary aldosteronism who had 2 or more screening measurements of renin and aldosterone on different days. There were a total of 137 screening measurements with a mean of 3 (range 2-6) per patient. The mean intraindividual variability, expressed as coefficients of variation, was 31% for aldosterone and 45% for the aldosterone-to-renin ratio. Aldosterone concentrations ranged from 4.9 to 51 ng/dL; 49% of patients had at least one aldosterone measurement below 15 ng/dL, 29% had at least 2 aldosterone measurements below 15 ng/dL, and 29% had at least one measurement below 10 ng/dL. Individual aldosterone-to-renin ratios ranged from 8.2 to 427 ng/dL per ng/mL·hour; 57% had at least one ratio below 30 ng/dL per ng/mL·hour, 27% had at least 2 ratios below 30 ng/dL per ng/mL·hour, and 24% had at least one ratio below 20 ng/dL per ng/mL·hour. Aldosterone concentrations and aldosterone-to-renin ratios are highly variable in patients with primary aldosteronism, with many screening values falling below conventionally accepted diagnostic thresholds. The diagnostic yield for primary aldosteronism may be substantially increased by recalibrating the definition of a positive screen to include more liberal thresholds for aldosterone and the aldosterone-to-renin ratio.

6.
Am J Hypertens ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variability of aldosterone concentrations has been described in patients with primary aldosteronism. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 340 patients with primary aldosteronism who underwent adrenal venous sampling (AVS) at a tertiary referral center, 116 of whom also had a peripheral venous aldosterone measured hours before the procedure. AVS was performed by the same interventional radiologist using bilateral, simultaneous sampling, under unstimulated and then stimulated conditions, and each sample was obtained in triplicate. Main outcome measures were: (i) change in day of AVS venous aldosterone from pre-AVS to intra-AVS and (ii) variability of triplicate adrenal venous aldosterone concentrations during AVS. RESULTS: Within an average duration of 131 minutes, 81% of patients had a decline in circulating aldosterone concentrations (relative decrease of 51% and median decrease of 7.0 ng/dl). More than a quarter (26%) of all patients had an inferior vena cava aldosterone of ≤5 ng/dl at AVS initiation. The mean coefficient of variation of triplicate adrenal aldosterone concentrations was 30% and 39%, in the left and right veins, respectively (corresponding to a percentage difference of 57% and 73%), resulting in lateralization discordance in up to 17% of patients if the lateralization index were calculated using only one unstimulated aldosterone-to-cortisol ratio rather than the average of triplicate measures. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating aldosterone levels can reach nadirs conventionally considered incompatible with the primary aldosteronism diagnosis, and adrenal venous aldosterone concentrations exhibit acute variability that can confound AVS interpretation. A single venous aldosterone measurement lacks precision and reproducibility in primary aldosteronism.

7.
N Engl J Med ; 383(19): e111, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211933
9.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(6): R185-R196, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077688

RESUMO

Primary aldosteronism is common and contributes to adverse cardiovascular, kidney, and metabolic outcomes. When instituted early and effectively, targeted therapies can mitigate these adverse outcomes. Surgical adrenalectomy is among the most effective treatments because it has the potential to cure, or attenuate the severity of, pathologic aldosterone excess, resulting in a host of biochemical and clinical changes that improve health outcomes. Herein, we review the role of surgical adrenalectomy in primary aldosteronism while emphasizing the physiologic ramifications of surgical intervention, and compare these to other targeted medical therapies for primary aldosteronism. We specifically review the role of curative adrenalectomy for unilateral primary aldosteronism, the role of non-curative adrenalectomy for bilateral primary aldosteronism, and how these interventions influence biochemical and clinical outcomes in relation to medical therapies for primary aldosteronism.


Assuntos
Adrenalectomia/tendências , Aldosterona/sangue , Hiperaldosteronismo/sangue , Hiperaldosteronismo/cirurgia , Adrenalectomia/métodos , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/sangue , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/cirurgia , Cardiopatias/sangue , Cardiopatias/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Nefropatias/sangue , Nefropatias/prevenção & controle
10.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(12)2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865201

RESUMO

CONTEXT: New approaches are needed to address the evolution of the primary aldosteronism syndrome and to increase its recognition. Herein, we review evidence indicating that primary aldosteronism is a prevalent syndrome that is mostly unrecognized, and present a pragmatic and pathophysiology-based approach to improve diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: Evidence was gathered from published guidelines and studies identified from PubMed by searching for primary aldosteronism, aldosterone, renin, and hypertension. This evidence was supplemented by the authors' personal knowledge, research experience, and clinical encounters in primary aldosteronism. INTERPRETATION OF EVIDENCE: Renin-independent aldosterone production is a prevalent phenotype that is diagnosed as primary aldosteronism when severe in magnitude, but is largely unrecognized when milder in severity. Renin-independent aldosterone production can be detected in normotensive and hypertensive individuals, and the magnitude of this biochemical phenotype parallels the magnitude of blood pressure elevation, the risk for incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease, and the likelihood and magnitude of blood pressure reduction with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist therapy. Expansion of the indications to screen for primary aldosteronism, combined with the use of a pathophysiology-based approach that emphasizes inappropriate aldosterone production in the context of renin suppression, will substantially increase the diagnostic and therapeutic yields for primary aldosteronism. CONCLUSIONS: The landscape of primary aldosteronism has evolved to recognize that it is a prevalent syndrome of renin-independent aldosterone production that contributes to the pathogenesis of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Expanding screening indications and simplifying the diagnostic approach will enable implementation of targeted treatment for primary aldosteronism.

11.
JAAD Case Rep ; 6(10): 993-995, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32995427
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32995875

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Current evidence on determinants of adverse health outcomes in patients with adrenal insufficiency (AI) is scarce, especially in regards to AI sub-types. OBJECTIVE: To determine predictors of adverse outcomes in different sub-types of AI. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional survey study at two tertiary centers. PARTICIPANTS: 696 patients with AI: primary AI (PAI, 42%), secondary AI (SAI, 32%), and glucocorticoid-induced AI (GIAI, 26%). INTERVENTION: Patient-centered questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patients' knowledge, self-management of AI, self-perceived health and adverse outcomes. RESULTS: The incidence rate of adrenal crisis was 24/100 patient-years with 44% experiencing at least one adrenal crisis since diagnosis (59% in PAI vs 31% in SAI vs 37% in GIAI, p<0.0001). All patients described high degrees of discomfort with self-management and receiving prompt treatment. Patients with PAI were most likely to develop adrenal crises (adjusted OR 2.8, 95% CI: 1.9-4.0) despite reporting better self-perceived health (adjusted OR 3.3, 95% CI: 2.1-5.3), understanding of their diagnosis (89% vs 74-81% in other sub-types, p=0.002), higher comfort with self-management (62% vs 52-61% in other sub-types, p=0.005), and higher likelihood to receive prompt treatment for adrenal crises in the emergency department (42% vs 19-30% in other sub-types, p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with AI reported high degrees of discomfort with self-management and treatment delays when presenting with adrenal crises. Despite better self-perceived health and understanding of diagnosis, patients with PAI experienced the highest frequency of adrenal crises. A multi-dimensional educational effort is needed for patients and providers to improve the outcomes of all sub-types of AI.

15.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) ; 93(5): 539-545, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511774

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the influence of a dietary sodium intake intervention on cortisol measurements within the general population. DESIGN: Cross-over intervention. PATIENTS: Six hundred thirty adults without known Cushing syndrome, cardiovascular or renal disease completed a restricted dietary sodium diet (10 mmol/d, 230 mg/d) followed by cross-over to a liberalized dietary sodium diet (200 mmol/d, 4600 mg/d). Twenty-four-hour urine collection and biochemical investigations were performed at the end of each dietary intervention. RESULTS: Mean 24-hour urinary free cortisol increased with liberalized sodium intake when compared with restricted sodium intake (178.0 ± 89.7 vs 121.3 ± 65.6 nmol/d, P < .001). Nearly all participants (84%) had an increase in the urinary free cortisol following liberalized sodium intake. This translated to a substantial difference in the proportion of participants exceeding categorical thresholds of urinary cortisol on liberalized vs restricted sodium intake: 62% vs 27% for 138 nmol/d (50 mcg/d), 46% vs 17% for 166 nmol/d (60 mcg/d), 32% vs 10% for 193 nmol/d (70 mcg/d), 23% vs 6% for 221 nmol/d (80 mcg/d), 17% vs 4% for 248 nmol/d (90 mcg/d). In parallel, there was a small decrease in morning total serum cortisol with liberalized sodium intake (303.0 ± 117.3 vs 326.4 ± 162.5 nmol/L, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Increased dietary sodium intake increases urinary free cortisol excretion and may increase the risk for false-positive results. Variations in dietary sodium intake may influence the interpretations of cortisol measurements performed to evaluate for hypercortisolism.

16.
Ann Intern Med ; 173(1): 10-20, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary aldosteronism is a nonsuppressible renin-independent aldosterone production that causes hypertension and cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the prevalence of nonsuppressible renin-independent aldosterone production, as well as biochemically overt primary aldosteronism, in relation to blood pressure. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: 4 U.S. academic medical centers. PARTICIPANTS: Participants with normotension (n = 289), stage 1 hypertension (n = 115), stage 2 hypertension (n = 203), and resistant hypertension (n = 408). MEASUREMENTS: Participants completed an oral sodium suppression test, regardless of aldosterone or renin levels, as a confirmatory diagnostic for primary aldosteronism and to quantify the magnitude of renin-independent aldosterone production. Urinary aldosterone was measured in participants in high sodium balance with suppressed renin activity. Biochemically overt primary aldosteronism was diagnosed when urinary aldosterone levels were higher than 12 µg/24 h. RESULTS: Every blood pressure category had a continuum of renin-independent aldosterone production, where greater severity of production was associated with higher blood pressure, kaliuresis, and lower serum potassium levels. Mean adjusted levels of urinary aldosterone were 6.5 µg/24 h (95% CI, 5.2 to 7.7 µg/24 h) in normotension, 7.3 µg/24 h (CI, 5.6 to 8.9 µg/24 h) in stage 1 hypertension, 9.5 µg/24 h (CI, 8.2 to 10.8 µg/24 h) in stage 2 hypertension, and 14.6 µg/24 h (CI, 12.9 to 16.2 µg/24 h) in resistant hypertension; corresponding adjusted prevalence estimates for biochemically overt primary aldosteronism were 11.3% (CI, 5.9% to 16.8%), 15.7% (CI, 8.6% to 22.9%), 21.6% (CI, 16.1% to 27.0%), and 22.0% (CI, 17.2% to 26.8%). The aldosterone-renin ratio had poor sensitivity and negative predictive value for detecting biochemically overt primary aldosteronism. LIMITATION: Prevalence estimates rely on arbitrary and conventional thresholds, and the study population may not represent nationwide demographics. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of primary aldosteronism is high and largely unrecognized. Beyond this categorical definition of primary aldosteronism, there is a prevalent continuum of renin-independent aldosterone production that parallels the severity of hypertension. These findings redefine the primary aldosteronism syndrome and implicate it in the pathogenesis of "essential" hypertension. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Hiperaldosteronismo/epidemiologia , Adulto , Aldosterona/urina , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperaldosteronismo/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/classificação , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Potássio/sangue , Prevalência , Renina/urina , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Gland Surg ; 9(1): 14-24, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32206595

RESUMO

Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a common cause of secondary hypertension caused by excessive and inappropriate secretion of the hormone aldosterone from one or both adrenal glands. The prevalence of PA ranges from 10% in the general hypertensive population to 20% in resistant hypertension, yet only a small fraction of patients is diagnosed. Disease and symptom recognition, screening in indicated populations, multidisciplinary communication, and appropriate imaging and biochemical workup can identify patients who might benefit from effective and targeted treatment modalities. Effective treatments available include both surgical and medical approaches, usually dependent on the subtype of PA present. Our collective understanding of the pathophysiology of PA is expanded by recent developments in molecular biology and genetics, including understanding the specific somatic and germline mutations involved in pathogenesis. We review the pathophysiology, diagnostic workup, and treatment considerations for this disease process.

19.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163150

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Complex relationships between aldosterone and calcium homeostasis have been proposed. OBJECTIVE: To disentangle the influence of aldosterone and intravascular volume on calcium physiology. DESIGN: Patient-oriented and epidemiology studies. SETTING: Clinical research center and nationwide cohorts. PARTICIPANTS/INTERVENTIONS: Patient-oriented study (n = 18): Participants were evaluated after completing a sodium-restricted (RES) diet to contract intravascular volume and after a liberalized-sodium (LIB) diet to expand intravascular volume. Cross-sectional studies (n = 3755): the association between 24h urinary sodium and calcium excretion and risk for kidney stones was assessed. RESULTS: Patient-oriented study: compared to a RES-diet, a LIB-diet suppressed renin activity (LIB: 0.3 [0.1, 0.4] vs. RES: 3.1 [1.7, 5.3] ng/mL/h; P < 0.001) and plasma aldosterone (LIB: 2.0 [2.0, 2.7] vs. RES: 20.0 [16.1, 31.0] vs. ng/dL; P < 0.001), but increased calciuria (LIB: 238.4 ±â€…112.3 vs. RES: 112.9 ±â€…60.8 mg/24hr; P < 0.0001) and decreased serum calcium (LIB: 8.9 ±â€…0.3 vs. RES: 9.8 ±â€…0.4 mg/dL; P < 0.0001). Epidemiology study: mean urinary calcium excretion was higher with greater urinary sodium excretion. Compared to a urinary sodium excretion of < 120 mEq/day, a urinary sodium excretion of ≥220 mEq/day was associated with a higher risk for having kidney stones in women (risk ratio = 1.79 [95% confidence interval 1.05, 3.04]) and men (risk ratio = 2.06 [95% confidence interval 1.27, 3.32]). CONCLUSIONS: High dietary sodium intake suppresses aldosterone, decreases serum calcium, and increases calciuria and the risk for developing kidney stones. Our findings help disentangle the influences of volume from aldosterone on calcium homeostasis and provide support for the recommendation to restrict dietary sodium for kidney stone prevention.

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