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1.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315554

RESUMO

The Canadian Food Inspection Agency is developing an Establishment-based Risk Assessment model for Hatcheries to allocate inspection resources according to the food safety risk associated with each hatchery falling under its jurisdiction. In a previous study, 29 factors contributing to the food safety risk of hatcheries were identified and grouped into three clusters (inherent risk, risk mitigation, and compliance) and assessment criteria were defined. The objective of the current study was to estimate the relative risk (RR) of these criteria. Two rounds of expert elicitations were conducted to allow 13 Canadian experts to estimate the RR of each criterion (n = 96) based on its potential impact on human health, with a specific focus on Salmonella spp. This process also aimed to estimate the maximum increase or decrease in the overall food safety risk of a hatchery when considering multiple criteria belonging to a specific cluster and to assess the risk attribution of Salmonella spp. at the hatchery and bird-type levels. Results showed that the respondent profile had no influence on the importance given to a majority of criteria. Uniformity of answers among experts improved from the first to the second round. Overall, 62.5%, 32.3%, and 5.2% of the criteria were attributed to an RR that was less than 2, between 2 and 3, and greater than 3, respectively. Mixing eggs from different supply flocks when placed into the same hatching unit, hatching multiple species, and importing eggs with unknown quality status were identified as having the highest contribution to a hatchery's inherent risk. Requiring information on the foodborne pathogen status of supplying flocks and the occurrence of regulatory enforcement actions were the most impactful risk mitigation and compliance factors, respectively. The median RR value assigned to each criterion and cluster will be used to build this new model.

2.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960594

RESUMO

Biosecurity is crucial for infectious disease prevention, more importantly in the absence of vaccination. The need for improving the implementation of biosecurity practices was highlighted in French duck farms following the 2016-2017 H5N8 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) epidemic. Farmers have multiple reasons for not implementing biosecurity practices: external (time, money) and internal (socio-psychological). The purpose of this study was to determine how sets of socio-psychological factors (i.e. knowledge on biosecurity and avian influenza transmission, attitudes, personality traits, social background) affect the adoption of on-farm biosecurity practices. Biosecurity practices and socio-psychological determinants were assessed during 127 duck farm visits, in South West France, using both questionnaires and on-farm observations. Factorial analysis of mixed data (FAMD) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) identified three groups of farmers with different socio-psychological profiles: the first group was characterized by minimal knowledge, negative attitudes towards biosecurity, little social pressure and a low level of conscientiousness. The second group was characterized by more extensive experience in poultry production, higher stress and social pressure. The third group was characterized by less experience in poultry production, better knowledge and positive attitudes towards biosecurity, increased self-confidence and orientation towards action. The first group had a significantly lower adoption of biosecurity measures than the two other groups. A better understanding of the factors involved in farmers' decision-making could improve the efficiency of interventions aiming at improving and maintaining the level of on-farm biosecurity in the duck industry.

3.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 67(1): 14-24, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550078

RESUMO

Towards the continuous improvement of its inspection system, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) is developing an Establishment-based Risk Assessment model for Hatcheries to allocate inspection resources based on the food safety risk associated with the Canadian hatcheries falling under its jurisdiction. The objectives of the current study were to identify and select critical food safety-related risk factors that would be included in this model, with a main focus on Salmonella. A literature review was used to develop a comprehensive list of risk factors that could potentially contribute to the food safety risk attributed to Canadian hatcheries operating in all production streams (breeders, layers, broilers, turkeys, waterfowl and game birds). The development of this list used a selection process that was conducted according to the availability of data sources, the clarity of definition and the measurability of the selected risk factors. A panel of experts reviewed and adjusted the identified risk factors. A final list of 29 risk factors was generated; 20 originated from the scientific literature and nine from the expert panel. Risk factors were grouped in three clusters according to whether they pertained to the inherent risk (nine factors identified), risk mitigation (nine factors identified) or compliance of a hatchery with its preventive control plan and regulatory requirements (11 factors identified). Criteria for assessing each risk factor were defined based on common practices used in the Canadian hatchery industry. This comprehensive list of risk factors and criteria represents useful information to support the design and implementation of a Canadian risk assessment model for hatcheries, but could also be used by like-minded food safety authorities.

4.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821736

RESUMO

In Europe, African swine fever virus (ASFV) is one of the most threatening infectious transboundary diseases of domestic pigs and wild boar. In September 2018, ASF was detected in wild boar in the South of Belgium. France, as a bordering country, is extremely concerned about the ASF situation in Belgium, and an active preparedness is ongoing in the country. One of the questions raised by this situation relates to disturbing activities that may affect wild boar movements and their possible impact on the spread of ASFV. Despite evidence of disturbance related to hunting practices, there is a paucity of information on the impact of forestry and human leisure activities. To assess this impact on wild boar movements, a systematic review was first conducted but very few useful data were obtained. For this reason, an expert elicitation was carried out by the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety in order to deal with this knowledge gap. A total of 30 experts originating from France and adjacent neighbouring countries (Spain, Belgium and Switzerland) were elicited about the relative importance of six factors of spatial disturbance of wild boar (noise, smell, invasion of space, modification of the environment, duration and frequency of the activity). Then, for each factor of disturbance, they were asked about the impact of 16 different commercial forestry and human leisure activities. A global weighted score was estimated in order to capture the variability of a wide range of territorial conditions and the uncertainty of expert elicitation. This estimate permitted ranking all 16 activities and aggregating them in three groups according to their potential for disturbance of wild boar, using a regression tree analysis. The results of this expert elicitation provide a methodological approach that may be useful for French and other European decision makers and stakeholders involved in the crisis management of ASF.

5.
Prev Vet Med ; 158: 78-88, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30220399

RESUMO

On-farm biosecurity can be assessed by analyzing patterns of practices to better tailor technical advice to producers. Given their close contact with environmental and wildlife disease reservoirs, free-range duck farms are exposed to multiple risk factors of pathogen exposure that are rare or absent in indoor production. The recurrent emergence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) viruses in Southeast Asia and Europe has emphasized the importance of farm-level biosecurity on free-range duck farms. This study was conducted on 46 French duck farms. The farms were visited and an 80-question survey was administered to assess biosecurity practices. Patterns of practices were explored with multiple correspondence analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. Farms were assigned to one of three clusters in which specific farm types were overrepresented: farms specialized in rearing to grow-out phases and open-circuit full cycle (i.e., all production phases on the farm) farms in cluster 1, closed-circuit full cycle farms in cluster 2, and farms specialized in gavage in cluster 3. Differences in practices might be linked with differences in production constraints. This study provides a baseline assessment of biosecurity practices on foie gras duck farms in Southwest France and will help efforts to adapt biosecurity programs to farm types.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Patos , Gansos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , França
6.
Prev Vet Med ; 103(2-3): 208-18, 2012 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21917344

RESUMO

Biosecurity compliance is generally poor in all types of animal production systems around the world. Therefore, it is essential to define strategies to improve the implementation of biosecurity measures. This study evaluated the value of audits and visible cameras on compliance with biosecurity measures required when entering and exiting poultry barns on 24 poultry farms in Québec, Canada. Short term (first two weeks) and medium term (six months later) compliance were determined. Application of biosecurity measures was evaluated using hidden cameras. Video viewing revealed a total of 2748 visits by 259 different individuals. Results showed that bimonthly audits did not have any impact on medium term compliance. Visible cameras had a significant impact on changing boots (OR=9.6; 1.9-48.4) and respecting areas (contaminated vs. clean) during the visit (OR=14.5; 1.2-175.1) for the short term period. However, six months later, compliance declined and was no longer significantly different from controls. Duration and moment of the visit, presence of the grower or an observer, barn entrance design, number of barns, number of biosecurity measures requested, type of boots worn, gender and being a member of a grower's family were significantly associated with biosecurity compliance.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Auditoria Administrativa , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Gravação em Vídeo , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Animais , Galinhas , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Quebeque , Fatores de Tempo , Perus
7.
Prev Vet Med ; 103(2-3): 201-7, 2012 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21940059

RESUMO

Biosecurity compliance is an issue in all types of animal production. Poor compliance is frequently related to lack of knowledge or comprehension. Human dimensions, such as personality and attitudes were also suggested as being related to compliance. As part of a larger study, personality traits, experience, education and training of employees, visitors and growers were evaluated to assess their relationship with their compliance with biosecurity measures when entering and exiting poultry barns. Biosecurity compliance was evaluated using hidden cameras. One hundred fourteen individuals involved in a total of 2379 visits on 23 poultry farms responded to a personality test. Results demonstrated that several determinants of compliance exist, and some are related to personality, experience and education. Three personality traits were significantly associated with compliance: responsibility, complexity and action-oriented. Such information has important implications for the selection of job applicants or task attribution and to enhance effectiveness of training programs.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/educação , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Personalidade , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Galinhas , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quebeque , Análise de Regressão , Estações do Ano , Inquéritos e Questionários , Perus , Gravação em Vídeo , Adulto Jovem
8.
Vet J ; 192(3): 417-21, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21944318

RESUMO

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N1 is a trans-boundary animal disease that has crossed the animal-human species barrier and over the past decade has had a considerable impact on the poultry industry, wild bird populations and on human health. Understanding the spatio-temporal patterns of H5N1 outbreaks can provide visual clues to the dynamics of disease spread and of areas at risk, and thus improve the cost-effectiveness of disease control and prevention. This study describes the characteristics and investigates the temporal, spatial and space-time dynamics of H5N1 outbreaks in domestic poultry between December 2003 and December 2009 using a global database. The study found that the start date of the epidemic wave was postponed, the duration of the epidemic was prolonged and its magnitude reduced over time, but the disease transmission cycle was not efficiently interrupted. Two 'hot-spot' regions of H5N1 outbreaks were identified: well-documented locations in East and Southeast Asia, as well as a novel location at the boundaries of Europe and Africa, where enhanced surveillance should be conducted. The risk of a pandemic due to H5N1 remains high.


Assuntos
Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1 , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Pandemias/veterinária , Aves Domésticas , Animais , Saúde Global , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Prev Vet Med ; 100(3-4): 193-9, 2011 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21605922

RESUMO

The effectiveness of biosecurity measures depends largely on the consistency of their applications by all those involved in poultry production. Unfortunately, poor biosecurity compliance has been reported repeatedly in poultry, as well in all other major animal productions. As part of a larger study, we conducted an investigation on eight poultry farms in Quebec, Canada, to evaluate compliance of existing biosecurity measures using hidden cameras. The objectives were to evaluate and describe the application of biosecurity measures when entering and exiting poultry barns. A total of 44 different mistakes were observed from 883 visits done by 102 different individuals. On average, four errors were recorded per visit. The maximum number of errors made by one individual during one visit was 14. People observed over several visits made on average six different errors. Twenty-seven out of the 44 errors (61.4%) were related to area delimitation (clean versus contaminated), six to boots (13.6%), five to hand washing (11.4%), three to coveralls (6.8%) and three to logbooks (6.8%). The nature and frequency of errors suggest a lack of understanding of biosecurity principles. There is thus a need to improve biosecurity training by making educational material available to all poultry personnel demonstrating why and how to apply biosecurity measures.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Gestão da Segurança/métodos , Gestão da Segurança/normas , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Aves Domésticas , Quebeque , Gravação em Vídeo
10.
Avian Pathol ; 37(1): 95-100, 2008 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18202956

RESUMO

Five hundred and seventy-three clinical submissions with fowl adenovirus (FAdV) involvement were examined to investigate the association of different types of FAdV with clinical problems related to FAdV infection. Samples were received from 2000 to 2006 and originated from seven Canadian provinces. Four hundred and eighty-seven submissions were inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) related, while 86 were not IBH related. Viruses isolated from 287 samples were further analysed by hexon gene loop 1 sequencing. Twenty-seven genotyped FAdVs were from Alberta, 20 from British Columbia, 16 from Manitoba, one from Nova Scotia, 82 from Ontario, 64 from Quebec and 77 from Saskatchewan. Two hundred and forty-six analysed FAdVs were from IBH cases, confirmed by liver histopathology, by FAdV isolation from the liver, or both. Based on hexon gene loop 1 sequencing analysis, FAdVs associated with IBH outbreaks were genetically related to FAdV02 (nine isolates, 99.4%), FAdV08a (100 isolates, 99.4% to 100%) and FAdV11 (98 isolates, 99.4% to 100%). Thirty-nine viruses were 93.7% to 94.3% identical to FAdV07 strain x11a, but the genetic and immunogenic properties of this strain require further investigation. In IBH cases, the co-infection rates for infectious bursal disease virus, infectious bronchitis virus, reoviruses and Newcastle disease virus were 3.47%, 1.04%, 6.25% and 0.69%, respectively. Forty-one genotyped FAdVs were from "non-IBH" cases. Viruses isolated from non-IBH cases consisted of 22 FAdV01, 15 FAdV11, two FAdV08a and one each of FAdV02 and FAdV04 viruses. Co-infection rates in non-IBH submissions were 50.00% for infectious bursal disease virus, 40.70% for infectious bronchitis virus, 27.91% for reoviruses and 1.16% for Newcastle disease virus.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Aviadenovirus/genética , Galinhas/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Animais , Canadá/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Hepatite Viral Animal/epidemiologia , Hepatite Viral Animal/virologia , Corpos de Inclusão Viral/virologia , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia
11.
Can J Vet Res ; 70(3): 183-90, 2006 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16850940

RESUMO

To evaluate immunocompetence in commercially raised chickens, we immunophenotyped Dekalb Delta and H&N White Leghorn (WLH) hybrids, 20 chickens in each of 3 age groups (9 wk [juvenile], 25 wk [young adult], and 79 or 80 wk [adult]), for circulating CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, TCR1+, TCR2+, and TCR3+ lymphocytes. The proportion of CD3+ T cells, including CD4+ and CD8+ subsets, was increased in the hybrids as compared with published values for laboratory-raised outbred WLH chickens. The proportion of the TCR2+ (Vbeta1) T cell subpopulation was also increased. An age-related decrease in the proportion of TCR1+ (gammasigma) T cells was noted in both hybrids. Further, a remarkably low CD4:CD8 ratio was evident in all age groups of both hybrids, indicating decreased immunocompetence. Overall, these experiments provide age-related proportions of various peripheral-blood T lymphocyte subpopulations in commercially raised Dekalb Delta and H&N chickens that diverge from the proportions in laboratory-raised outbred WLH chickens and suggest reduced immunocompetence. Such a decline in immunocompetence, including humoral immune capacity, could be attributed to genetic selection for production traits, environmental factors associated with commercial operations, and intense immunization.


Assuntos
Galinhas/imunologia , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Relação CD4-CD8/veterinária , Galinhas/genética , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo/veterinária , Imunocompetência , Contagem de Linfócitos/veterinária , Masculino
12.
Avian Dis ; 46(4): 1021-4, 2002.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12495068

RESUMO

Poult enteritis mortality syndrome (PEMS) has been an economically devastating disease in North Carolina since the early 1990s. Though much is known about the disease, many questions remain unanswered about the syndrome, including its cause, transmission of causative agent(s), and control methods. This study was designed to investigate the association between PEMS and farm management factors. A prospective longitudinal study was conducted by collecting farm data and monitoring weekly mortality in 54 commercial turkey flocks raised in PEMS-affected regions. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses revealed that enhancing rodent control methods was negatively associated (P = 0.0228) with PEMS.


Assuntos
Enterite Transmissível dos Perus/mortalidade , Síndrome de Mortalidade do Peruzinho por Enterite/mortalidade , Bem-Estar do Animal/normas , Animais , Enterite Transmissível dos Perus/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Estudos Longitudinais , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Mortalidade do Peruzinho por Enterite/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Tamanho da Amostra , Perus
13.
J Food Prot ; 58(5): 551-554, 1995 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31137273

RESUMO

The meat industry is in need of faster and more reliable methods to determine microbial loads in food products. A rapid method (<15 min) has been developed to assess the microbiological quality of chicken carcasses using the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence assay. The results indicate that, following modifications, the ATP bioluminescence test produced an acceptable correlation with plate counts (r = 0.85, p < 0.001) and demonstrated good repeatability between replicates. It is envisaged that the modified ATP bioluminescence assay would best be used as a platform rejection test. Using threshold levels determined from the regression equation, the ATP bioluminescence assays gave about 90% agreement with plate counts for carcass rinses with counts above 5 × 104 CFU/ml. These findings suggest that the modified ATP bioluminescence assay could be used for monitoring critical control points (CCPs) in programs based on hazard analysis of critical control points (HACCP).

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