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Biol Psychiatry ; 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143830


BACKGROUND: 22q11.2 deletions and duplications are copy number variations (CNVs) that predispose to developmental neuropsychiatric disorders. Both CNVs are associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), while the deletion confers disproportionate risk for schizophrenia. Neurobehavioral profiles associated with these reciprocal CNVs in conjunction with brain imaging measures have not been reported. METHODS: We profiled the impact of 22q11.2 CNVs on neurobehavioral measures relevant to ASD and psychosis in 106 22q11.2 deletion carriers, 38 22q11.2 duplication carriers, and 82 demographically matched healthy control subjects. To determine whether brain-behavior relationships were altered in CNV carriers, we further tested for interactions between group and regional brain structure on neurobehavioral domains. RESULTS: Cognitive deficits were observed in both CNV groups, with the lowest IQs in deletion carriers. ASD and dimensionally measured ASD traits were elevated in both CNV groups; however, duplication carriers exhibited increased stereotypies compared to deletion carriers. Moreover, discriminant analysis using ASD subdomains distinguished between CNV cases with 76% accuracy. Both psychotic disorder diagnosis and dimensionally measured positive and negative symptoms were elevated in deletion carriers. Finally, healthy control subjects showed an inverse relationship between processing speed and cortical thickness in heteromodal association areas, which was absent in both CNV groups. CONCLUSIONS: 22q11.2 CNVs differentially modulate intellectual functioning and psychosis-related symptomatology but converge on broad ASD-related symptomatology. However, subtle differences in ASD profiles distinguish CNV groups. Processing speed impairments, coupled with the lack of normative relationship between processing speed and cortical thickness in CNV carriers, implicate aberrant development of the cortical mantle in the pathology underlying impaired processing speed ability.

Am J Psychiatry ; : appiajp201919060583, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046535


OBJECTIVE: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is among the strongest known genetic risk factors for schizophrenia. Previous studies have reported variable alterations in subcortical brain structures in 22q11DS. To better characterize subcortical alterations in 22q11DS, including modulating effects of clinical and genetic heterogeneity, the authors studied a large multicenter neuroimaging cohort from the ENIGMA 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Working Group. METHODS: Subcortical structures were measured using harmonized protocols for gross volume and subcortical shape morphometry in 533 individuals with 22q11DS and 330 matched healthy control subjects (age range, 6-56 years; 49% female). RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the 22q11DS group showed lower intracranial volume (ICV) and thalamus, putamen, hippocampus, and amygdala volumes and greater lateral ventricle, caudate, and accumbens volumes (Cohen's d values, -0.90 to 0.93). Shape analysis revealed complex differences in the 22q11DS group across all structures. The larger A-D deletion was associated with more extensive shape alterations compared with the smaller A-B deletion. Participants with 22q11DS with psychosis showed lower ICV and hippocampus, amygdala, and thalamus volumes (Cohen's d values, -0.91 to 0.53) compared with participants with 22q11DS without psychosis. Shape analysis revealed lower thickness and surface area across subregions of these structures. Compared with subcortical findings from other neuropsychiatric disorders studied by the ENIGMA consortium, significant convergence was observed between participants with 22q11DS with psychosis and participants with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. CONCLUSIONS: In the largest neuroimaging study of 22q11DS to date, the authors found widespread alterations to subcortical brain structures, which were affected by deletion size and psychotic illness. Findings indicate significant overlap between 22q11DS-associated psychosis, idiopathic schizophrenia, and other severe neuropsychiatric illnesses.

Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358905


22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS)-a neurodevelopmental condition caused by a hemizygous deletion on chromosome 22-is associated with an elevated risk of psychosis and other developmental brain disorders. Prior single-site diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) studies have reported altered white matter (WM) microstructure in 22q11DS, but small samples and variable methods have led to contradictory results. Here we present the largest study ever conducted of dMRI-derived measures of WM microstructure in 22q11DS (334 22q11.2 deletion carriers and 260 healthy age- and sex-matched controls; age range 6-52 years). Using harmonization protocols developed by the ENIGMA-DTI working group, we identified widespread reductions in mean, axial and radial diffusivities in 22q11DS, most pronounced in regions with major cortico-cortical and cortico-thalamic fibers: the corona radiata, corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, posterior thalamic radiations, and sagittal stratum (Cohen's d's ranging from -0.9 to -1.3). Only the posterior limb of the internal capsule (IC), comprised primarily of corticofugal fibers, showed higher axial diffusivity in 22q11DS. 22q11DS patients showed higher mean fractional anisotropy (FA) in callosal and projection fibers (IC and corona radiata) relative to controls, but lower FA than controls in regions with predominantly association fibers. Psychotic illness in 22q11DS was associated with more substantial diffusivity reductions in multiple regions. Overall, these findings indicate large effects of the 22q11.2 deletion on WM microstructure, especially in major cortico-cortical connections. Taken together with findings from animal models, this pattern of abnormalities may reflect disrupted neurogenesis of projection neurons in outer cortical layers.

Neuroimage Clin ; 22: 101692, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30710873


Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common single gene disorder resulting in multi-organ involvement. In addition to physical manifestations such as characteristic pigmentary changes, nerve sheath tumors, and skeletal abnormalities, NF1 is also associated with increased rates of learning disabilities, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and autism spectrum disorder. While there are established NF1-related structural brain anomalies, including brain overgrowth and white matter disruptions, little is known regarding patterns of functional connectivity in NF1. Here, we sought to investigate functional network connectivity (FNC) in a well-characterized sample of NF1 participants (n = 30) vs. age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 30). We conducted a comprehensive investigation of both static as well as dynamic FNC and meta-state analysis, a novel approach to examine higher-dimensional temporal dynamism of whole-brain connectivity. We found that static FNC of the cognitive control domain is altered in NF1 participants. Specifically, connectivity between anterior cognitive control areas and the cerebellum is decreased, whereas connectivity within the cognitive control domain is increased in NF1 participants relative to healthy controls. These alterations are independent of IQ. Dynamic FNC analysis revealed that NF1 participants spent more time in a state characterized by whole-brain hypoconnectivity relative to healthy controls. However, connectivity strength of dynamic states did not differ between NF1 participants and healthy controls. NF1 participants exhibited also reduced higher-dimensional dynamism of whole-brain connectivity, suggesting that temporal fluctuations of FNC are reduced. Given that similar findings have been observed in individuals with schizophrenia, higher occurrence of hypoconnected dynamic states and reduced temporal dynamism may be more general indicators of global brain dysfunction and not specific to either disorder.

Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Conectoma/métodos , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Neurofibromatose 1/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurofibromatose 1/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
Mol Psychiatry ; 2018 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29895892


The 22q11.2 deletion (22q11DS) is a common chromosomal microdeletion and a potent risk factor for psychotic illness. Prior studies reported widespread cortical changes in 22q11DS, but were generally underpowered to characterize neuroanatomic abnormalities associated with psychosis in 22q11DS, and/or neuroanatomic effects of variability in deletion size. To address these issues, we developed the ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics Through Meta-Analysis) 22q11.2 Working Group, representing the largest analysis of brain structural alterations in 22q11DS to date. The imaging data were collected from 10 centers worldwide, including 474 subjects with 22q11DS (age = 18.2 ± 8.6; 46.9% female) and 315 typically developing, matched controls (age = 18.0 ± 9.2; 45.9% female). Compared to controls, 22q11DS individuals showed thicker cortical gray matter overall (left/right hemispheres: Cohen's d = 0.61/0.65), but focal thickness reduction in temporal and cingulate cortex. Cortical surface area (SA), however, showed pervasive reductions in 22q11DS (left/right hemispheres: d = -1.01/-1.02). 22q11DS cases vs. controls were classified with 93.8% accuracy based on these neuroanatomic patterns. Comparison of 22q11DS-psychosis to idiopathic schizophrenia (ENIGMA-Schizophrenia Working Group) revealed significant convergence of affected brain regions, particularly in fronto-temporal cortex. Finally, cortical SA was significantly greater in 22q11DS cases with smaller 1.5 Mb deletions, relative to those with typical 3 Mb deletions. We found a robust neuroanatomic signature of 22q11DS, and the first evidence that deletion size impacts brain structure. Psychotic illness in this highly penetrant deletion was associated with similar neuroanatomic abnormalities to idiopathic schizophrenia. These consistent cross-site findings highlight the homogeneity of this single genetic etiology, and support the suitability of 22q11DS as a biological model of schizophrenia.

J Neurosci ; 37(26): 6183-6199, 2017 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28536274


Reciprocal chromosomal rearrangements at the 22q11.2 locus are associated with elevated risk of neurodevelopmental disorders. The 22q11.2 deletion confers the highest known genetic risk for schizophrenia, but a duplication in the same region is strongly associated with autism and is less common in schizophrenia cases than in the general population. Here we conducted the first study of 22q11.2 gene dosage effects on brain structure in a sample of 143 human subjects: 66 with 22q11.2 deletions (22q-del; 32 males), 21 with 22q11.2 duplications (22q-dup; 14 males), and 56 age- and sex-matched controls (31 males). 22q11.2 gene dosage varied positively with intracranial volume, gray and white matter volume, and cortical surface area (deletion < control < duplication). In contrast, gene dosage varied negatively with mean cortical thickness (deletion > control > duplication). Widespread differences were observed for cortical surface area with more localized effects on cortical thickness. These diametric patterns extended into subcortical regions: 22q-dup carriers had a significantly larger right hippocampus, on average, but lower right caudate and corpus callosum volume, relative to 22q-del carriers. Novel subcortical shape analysis revealed greater radial distance (thickness) of the right amygdala and left thalamus, and localized increases and decreases in subregions of the caudate, putamen, and hippocampus in 22q-dup relative to 22q-del carriers. This study provides the first evidence that 22q11.2 is a genomic region associated with gene-dose-dependent brain phenotypes. Pervasive effects on cortical surface area imply that this copy number variant affects brain structure early in the course of development.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Probing naturally occurring reciprocal copy number variation in the genome may help us understand mechanisms underlying deviations from typical brain and cognitive development. The 22q11.2 genomic region is particularly susceptible to chromosomal rearrangements and contains many genes crucial for neuronal development and migration. Not surprisingly, reciprocal genomic imbalances at this locus confer some of the highest known genetic risks for developmental neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we provide the first evidence that brain morphology differs meaningfully as a function of reciprocal genomic variation at the 22q11.2 locus. Cortical thickness and surface area were affected in opposite directions with more widespread effects of gene dosage on cortical surface area.

Síndrome da Deleção 22q11/genética , Síndrome da Deleção 22q11/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Dosagem de Genes/genética , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Rearranjo Gênico/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão/genética