*Algorithms Mol Biol ; 9: 13, 2014.*

##### RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deciding whether there is a single tree -a supertree- that summarizes the evolutionary information in a collection of unrooted trees is a fundamental problem in phylogenetics. We consider two versions of this question: agreement and compatibility. In the first, the supertree is required to reflect precisely the relationships among the species exhibited by the input trees. In the second, the supertree can be more refined than the input trees. Testing for compatibility is an NP-complete problem; however, the problem is solvable in polynomial time when the number of input trees is fixed. Testing for agreement is also NP-complete, but it is not known whether it is fixed-parameter tractable. Compatibility can be characterized in terms of the existence of a specific kind of triangulation in a structure known as the display graph. Alternatively, it can be characterized as a chordal graph sandwich problem in a structure known as the edge label intersection graph. No characterization of agreement was known. RESULTS: We present a simple and natural characterization of compatibility in terms of minimal cuts in the display graph, which is closely related to compatibility of splits. We then derive a characterization for agreement. CONCLUSIONS: Explicit characterizations of tree compatibility and agreement are essential to finding practical algorithms for these problems. The simplicity of the characterizations presented here could help to achieve this goal.

*Algorithms Mol Biol ; 8(1): 11, 2013 Apr 01.*

##### RESUMO

We study a long standing conjecture on the necessary and sufficient conditions for the compatibility of multi-state characters: There exists a function f(r) such that, for any set C of r-state characters, C is compatible if and only if every subset of f(r) characters of C is compatible. We show that for every r≥2, there exists an incompatible set C of Ω(r2)r-state characters such that every proper subset of C is compatible. This improves the previous lower bound of f(r)≥r given by Meacham (1983), and f(4)≥5 given by Habib and To (2011). For the case when r=3, Lam, Gusfield and Sridhar (2011) recently showed that f(3)=3. We give an independent proof of this result and completely characterize the sets of pairwise compatible 3-state characters by a single forbidden intersection pattern.Our lower bound on f(r) is proven via a result on quartet compatibility that may be of independent interest: For every n≥4, there exists an incompatible set Q of Ω(n2) quartets over n labels such that every proper subset of Q is compatible. We show that such a set of quartets can have size at most 3 when n=5, and at most O(n3) for arbitrary n. We contrast our results on quartets with the case of rooted triplets: For every n≥3, if R is an incompatible set of more than n-1 triplets over n labels, then some proper subset of R is incompatible. We show this bound is tight by exhibiting, for every n≥3, a set of n-1 triplets over n taxa such that R is incompatible, but every proper subset of R is compatible.

*BMC Bioinformatics ; 13 Suppl 10: S16, 2012 Jun 25.*

##### RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biological networks provide fundamental insights into the functional characterization of genes and their products, the characterization of DNA-protein interactions, the identification of regulatory mechanisms, and other biological tasks. Due to the experimental and biological complexity, their computational exploitation faces many algorithmic challenges. RESULTS: We introduce novel weighted quasi-biclique problems to identify functional modules in biological networks when represented by bipartite graphs. In difference to previous quasi-biclique problems, we include biological interaction levels by using edge-weighted quasi-bicliques. While we prove that our problems are NP-hard, we also describe IP formulations to compute exact solutions for moderately sized networks. CONCLUSIONS: We verify the effectiveness of our IP solutions using both simulation and empirical data. The simulation shows high quasi-biclique recall rates, and the empirical data corroborate the abilities of our weighted quasi-bicliques in extracting features and recovering missing interactions from biological networks.