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1.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361759

RESUMO

Croton ferrugineus Kunth is an endemic species of Ecuador used in traditional medicine both for wound healing and as an antiseptic. In this study, fresh Croton ferrugineus leaves were collected and subjected to hydrodistillation for extraction of the essential oil. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer using a non-polar and a polar chromatographic column. The antibacterial activity was assayed against three Gram-positive bacteria, one Gram-negative bacterium and one dermatophyte fungus. The radical scavenging properties of the essential oil was evaluated by means of DPPH and ABTS assays. The chemical analysis allowed us to identify thirty-five compounds representing more than 99.95% of the total composition. Aliphatic sesquiterpene hydrocarbon trans-caryophyllene was the main constituent with 20.47 ± 1.25%. Other main compounds were myrcene (11.47 ± 1.56%), ß-phellandrene (10.55 ± 0.02%), germacrene D (7.60 ± 0.60%), and α-humulene (5.49 ± 0.38%). The essential oil from Croton ferrugineus presented moderate activity against Candida albicans (ATCC 10231) with an MIC of 1000 µg/mL, a scavenging capacity SC50 of 901 ± 20 µg/mL with the ABTS method, and very strong antiglucosidase activity with an IC50 of 146 ± 20 µg/mL.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Croton/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/química , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Alcenos/química , Alcenos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Benzotiazóis/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/química , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Sesquiterpenos Monocíclicos/química , Sesquiterpenos Monocíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/química , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/química , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Sulfônicos/antagonistas & inibidores , alfa-Glucosidases/química
2.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361766

RESUMO

Hedyosmum racemosum (Ruiz & Pav.) G. is a native species of Ecuador used in traditional medicine for treatment of rheumatism, bronchitis, cold, cough, asthma, bone pain, and stomach pain. In this study, fresh H. racemosum leaves of male and female specimens were collected and subjected to hydrodistillation for the extraction of the essential oil. The chemical composition of male and female essential oil was determined by gas chromatography-gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector and coupled to a mass spectrometer using a non-polar and a polar chromatographic column. The antibacterial activity was assayed against five Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria, and two dermatophytes fungi. The scavenging radical properties of the essential oil were evaluated by DPPH and ABTS assays. The chemical analysis allowed us to identify forty-three compounds that represent more than 98% of the total composition. In the non-polar and polar column, α-phellandrene was the principal constituent in male (28.24 and 25.90%) and female (26.47 and 23.90%) essential oil. Other main compounds were methyl chavicol, germacrene D, methyl eugenol, and α-pinene. Female essential oil presented a strong activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 9997) with an minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 500 µg/mL and a scavenging capacity SC50 of 800 µg/mL.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/química , Magnoliopsida/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Derivados de Alilbenzenos/química , Derivados de Alilbenzenos/isolamento & purificação , Anisóis/química , Anisóis/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Arthrodermataceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Arthrodermataceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Benzotiazóis/antagonistas & inibidores , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/química , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/isolamento & purificação , Equador , Eugenol/análogos & derivados , Eugenol/química , Eugenol/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Magnoliopsida/metabolismo , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Folhas de Planta/química , Plantas Medicinais , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/química , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Sexuais , Ácidos Sulfônicos/antagonistas & inibidores
3.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203565

RESUMO

Ocotea quixos (Lam.) Kosterm. is an aromatic tree native to Ecuador, whose leaves are used to prepare aromatic beverages to which different health benefits are attributed. In this study, Ocotea quixos leaves were collected in the Amazon region in different environmental conditions and subjected to hydrodistillation to isolate the essential oil. The collection variables used were type of soil, amount of shade, and height; in addition, the presence of twig and leaf age and moisture were used as variables. Chemical composition was analyzed by means of gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. A wide variety of chemical compositions were detected in the samples. In total, forty-seven compounds were identified, which represented between 97.17% and 99.89% of the total composition. The constituents were mainly grouped into aliphatic sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (33.03-55.89%), other compounds (8.94-47.83%), and oxygenated monoterpenes (1.97-39.66%). The main constituents were found to be (E)-cinnamyl acetate (5.96-41.65%), (E)-methyl cinnamate (0.38-37.91%), and trans-caryophyllene (8.77-37.02%). The statistical analysis suggested the existence of two essential oil chemotypes and a direct correlation between environmental conditions and chemical composition of the essential oils.


Assuntos
Ocotea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óleos Voláteis/análise
4.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(2)2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578706

RESUMO

Piper carpunya Ruiz & Pav. is an aromatic shrub native to Ecuador, the leaves of which are used to prepare the traditional beverage Guaviduca. Different health benefits are attributed to the guaviduca beverage, which is consumed as a traditional and folk medicine. In this study, fresh P. carpunya leaves were collected in the winter and summer and subjected to hydrodistillation for the extraction of the essential oil. The guaviduca beverage was prepared by infusion in water and the volatile compounds were isolated by liquid-liquid extraction. Chemical composition and enantioselective analyses were performed by gas chromatography. The antibacterial activity was assayed against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The scavenging radical properties of the essential oil was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydryl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) assays. The acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity was measured using the spectrophotometric method. The chemical analysis allowed us to identify more than 98% of the compounds in all samples. The main constituent of the essential oil was 1,8-cineole (25.20 ± 1.31%) in P. carpunya collected in winter and (17.45 ± 2.33%) in P. carpunya collected in summer, while in the beverage, there was 14 mg/L. Safrole was identified in the essential oil (PCW 21.91 ± 2.79%; PCS 13.18 ± 1.72%) as well as in the beverage (2.43 ± 0.12 mg/L). Enantioselective analysis was used to investigate the enantiomeric ratio and excess of four chiral components. The essential oil presented a strong activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae with a MIC of 500 µg/mL and a very strong anticholinesterase activity with an IC50 of 36.42 ± 1.15 µg/mL.

5.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(12)2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256174

RESUMO

Essential oils are highly demanded substances worldwide. They can be used without modification due to their different chemical and biological properties or as natural sources of chemical compounds. The limit in the use of these metabolites is their low yield. In the present investigation, the essential oil of fruits from Dacryodes peruviana collected in the Ecuadorian Amazon was extracted and studied. The essential oil was released from the plant matrix and isolated by hydrodistillation. The yields obtained were 4.8 ± 0.2% and 11.3 ± 0.2% for fresh and dried fruits, respectively, one of the highest yields on record to date. Twenty-five chemical compounds were identified by GC/MS and GC/FID techniques. The principal constituent was α-phellandrene, with 50.32 ± 3.32%. The antimicrobial activity of the oil was assayed against five Gram negative bacteria, two Gram positive bacteria and two fungi. The essential oil exerted a moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The repellent activity of the oil was assayed against mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae); the samples with 3%, 2% and 1% essential oil were class 4, and the sample with 0.5% showed to be class 3. The essential oil showed a weak antioxidant activity through the DPPH and ABTS methods.

6.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-6, 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32851854

RESUMO

In the present research, the essential oil from Piper ecuadorense was analysed by GC/MS and GC/FID techniques. A total of forty-four chemical compounds were identified which represent 98.65% of the essential oil composition. The main compounds were bicyclogermacrene (12.98%), 3-thujopsanone (11.59%), α-phellandrene (6.89%), (E)-nerolidol (6.88%), δ-elemene (6.83%) and shyobunol (5.79%). The essential oil from P. ecuadorense exerted a strong activity against Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) with an MIC of 250 µg/mL, and a very strong activity against Trichophyton rubrum (ATCC 28188) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (ATCC 28185) with an MIC of 62.5 µg/mL in both cases. The antioxidant activity of essential oil was explored using DPPH and ABTS method, through ABTS assay. The oils showed an IC50 of 1.81 ± 0.09 mg/mL. This is the first report on the chemical composition and biological activity of essential oil from this species.

7.
Metabolites ; 10(3)2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151095

RESUMO

Volatile metabolites from Frullania brasiliensis Raddi, Herbertus juniperoideus (Sw.) Grolle, Leptoscyphus hexagonus (Nees) Grolle, and Syzygiella anomala (Lindenb. & Gottsche) Steph collected in the south of Ecuador were investigated. Volatile secondary metabolites were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) and Gas chromatography/Mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Sixty-seven volatile compounds were identified in the four species, which represent between 80.12-90.17% of the total chemical composition. The major components were τ-muurolol (32.14%) and Germacrene-D (11.98%) in the essential oil of F. brasiliensis, bicyclogermacrene (18.23%), and Caryophyllene oxide (15.29%) in the oil of H. juniperoideus, Cabreuva oxide D (33.77%) and Elemol (18.55%) in the oil of Leptoscyphus hexagonus, and Silphiperfola-5,7(14)-diene (25.22%) and Caryophyllene oxide (8.98%) in the oil of Syzygiella anomala. This is the first report on volatile compounds for the species Herbertus juniperoideus, Leptoscyphus hexagonus, and Syzygiella anomala.

8.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 76(3): 399-411, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30317458

RESUMO

The current concern about resistance to acaricides and the impact of toxic waste on the environment has led to the search of vegetal alternatives in the control of the brown tick of the dog Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Schinus molle L. (Anacardiaceae) derivatives have been associated with insecticidal, antimicrobial and antiprotozoal activities and essential oil showed to be lethal to R. microplus larvae. This study aimed at evaluating the acaricidal effect of essential oil of S. molle (EOSm) on engorged adult females and larval stages of R. sanguineus. One-hundred engorged females were obtained from the ears, interdigital spaces, neck, groin and base of the tail of two cross-bred dogs. The larvae package test was accomplished with 21-day-old larvae and five concentrations (v/v) of EOSm (0.125, 0.25, 0.50, 1 and 2%) in an anionic detergent, a synthetic acaricide (cypermethrin) and detergent and deionized water as controls. The immersion adult test was carried out with nine concentrations (0.125, 0.25, 0.50, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 20%) of the EOSm. At the concentration of 2%, EOSm caused 99.3% of larval mortality. In adults, inhibition of oviposition, egg hatching (EH) and reproductive efficiency (RE) values were dose-dependent from 4 to 20% EOSm; the lowest values of EH (29.62) and RE (22.61) were achieved with 20% EOSm. Strong and negative correlations were found between concentration of EOSm and EH (r = - 0.948) and between concentration of EOSm and RE (r = - 0.985). This study demonstrated for the first time the acaricidal effect of EOSm on larvae and reproductive parameters of engorged adult females of R. sanguineus.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Anacardiaceae/química , Óleos Voláteis , Rhipicephalus sanguineus , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos , Animais , Feminino , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rhipicephalus sanguineus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 225: 319-326, 2018 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30030122

RESUMO

ETHNOBOTANICAL AND ETHNOMEDICINAL RELEVANCE: The importance given in Ecuador to the rescue of traditional knowledge and nutritional value of ancestral foods and drinks, has stimulated our investigation of the chemical composition and some biological activities of M. fragrans ('arrayán') essential oil, a natural aromatic additive used in the preparation of the traditional fruit-juice 'colada morada', which is typically drunk in the Day of the Dead or All Soul´s Day. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Different essential oils of Myrcianthes fragrans (Sw.) McVaught were obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of the plant collected in Cerro Villonaco (Loja-Ecuador) at three different phenological growth stages, i.e., during foliation (Fo), flowering (Fl) and fruiting (Fr) stages. The chemical compositions of the essential oils were determined by GC/MS and GC/FID techniques. The antimicrobial activities were determined by the broth microdilution method and reported as minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC, ug/mL). AIMS OF THE STUDY: i) to investigate the traditional uses of arrayán (M. fragrans) in the South region of Ecuador; ii) to identify the main components of the essential oils isolated at different phenological stages; iiì) to test the antimicrobial activity of the essential oils against bacteria and yeasts causing human ailments and a yeast causing food spoilage. RESULTS: 37, 46 and 38 compounds, representing 96.5%, 96.2%, and 95.6% of the three essential oils (Fo, Fl and Fr), respectively, have been identified. Oxygenated monoterpenes (OM) were the major components with percentages of 63.1 (Fo), 49.4 (Fl), and 61.9% (Fr), respectively. The main constituents of the essential oils were the monoterpene aldehydes geranial (1) and neral (2), the content of which varied, depending on the phenological development stage of the plant, spanning from 31.1% and 23.6% (Fo), to 23.6% and 17.8% (Fl), and 29.7% and 24.3% (Fr), respectively. In vitro antimicrobial tests showed that the essential oils from M. fragrans exhibited good activity against the Gram-negative bacteria, K. pneumoniae, and against the yeasts, C. albicans and S. cerevisiae. CONCLUSIONS: The oil is characterized by a high concentration of the monoterpene aldehydes geranial and neral (citral), that make the aroma of colada morada prepared in southern Ecuador quite different from the beverage made in other regions of the country, where other types of myrtles (Myrtaceae spp.) are used. Moreover, the oil may become a new rich source of the important industrial chemical citral. The pleasant aromatic properties and the good in vitro antimicrobial activity of arrayán oil suggest a plausible scientific explanation for the traditional uses of the plant not only as a natural aromatizer of a traditional beverage but also as a natural anti-infective and anti-yeast agent.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Myrtaceae , Óleos Voláteis , Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bebidas , Equador , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia
10.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 15(6): 4706-12, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26369100

RESUMO

Blends of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), loaded with different amounts of Amoxicillin antibiotic (AMOX) were electrospun to investigate their release properties and obtain a controlled and tuneable release. The processing parameters for electrospinning were set up and reliable membranes were obtained. Morphology and thermal behaviour were found dependent on the component ratio as well as on the incorporated drug amount. A very different release kinetics of the two pristine polymers, very rapid for PCL and very slow for PLA, reflected in intermediate release time. However comparing the release amount with that predicted by the mixture rule a preferential incorporation of AMOX into PLA can be inferred.


Assuntos
Amoxicilina/farmacocinética , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Ácido Láctico/química , Nanofibras/química , Poliésteres/química , Polímeros/química , Amoxicilina/química , Nanotecnologia
11.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 13(3): 1717-26, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23755579

RESUMO

Amoxicillin (AMOX) was successfully encapsulated at different concentrations into poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) by the electrospinning technique, and mats of non-woven fibers were obtained and characterized in terms of morphology, in vitro release and antibacterial properties. The scanning electron microscopy evidenced the nanofibrous structure of the pristine PCL, composed of individual, uniform, and randomly oriented fibres with an average diameter ranging around 0.8 micron. The addition of amoxicillin at different concentrations (3, 5 and 7 wt%) did not evidence change in the fiber morphology. The release curves, for all samples, present mainly two stages: a first stage, quick as a "burst," is followed by a second slow stage. The burst was analyzed as a function of amoxicillin concentration and thickness of the membranes, and values corresponding to absence of burst were individuated. In the second stage the release was found very slow extending up to months for the most concentrated sample. The antibacterial activity of the electrospun fibers was effective to inhibit in different proportions Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli. The properties of the filled membranes and their capability for local delivery of antibiotics make them suitable for biomedical applications.


Assuntos
Amoxicilina/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Poliésteres/química , Amoxicilina/química , Amoxicilina/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência à Tração , Difração de Raios X
12.
J Appl Biomater Funct Mater ; 11(1): e61-70, 2013 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23728536

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to achieve detailed biomaterials characterization of a drug delivery system for local cancer treatment based on electrospun titanocene trichloride-loaded resorbable polycaprolactone (PCL) fibers. METHODS: The PCL fibers were characterized for their structural, morphologic and physical properties. The drug release kinetics of the titanocene complex was investigated at different concentrations, to obtain a set of correlations between structure and tuneable release. After exposing cancer cells directly onto the surface of PCL fibers, the anti-proliferative effects of titanocene-loaded PCL were assessed by: (i) counting viable cells via live/dead staining methods, and (ii) analyzing cell apoptosis. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Titanocene concentration influenced fiber diameters reduced for PCL filled with titanocene. X-ray analysis suggested that the titanocene, encapsulated into the PCL fibers, is not allowed to crystallize and exists as amorphous aggregates into the fibers. The titanocene release curves presented two stages unrelated to PCL degradation: an initial burst release followed by a release linear with time, extending for a very long time. All of the titanocene-loaded fibers revealed sustained drug release properties suggesting their potential clinical applicability for the treatment of local cancer diseases.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Compostos Organometálicos/administração & dosagem , Poliésteres/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Composição de Medicamentos , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Nanofibras/química , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Compostos Organometálicos/farmacocinética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
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