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1.
Geriatrics (Basel) ; 4(4)2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783654

RESUMO

The increasing incidence of frailty is a health and social care challenge. Social prescription is advocated as an important approach to allow health professionals to link patients with sources of support in the community. This study aimed to determine the current evidence on the effectiveness of social prescribing programmes, to delay or reduce frailty in frail older adults living in the community. A systematic literature review of published (DARE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, NICE and SCIE, National Health Service (NHS) Economic Evaluation Database) and unpublished databases (OpenGrey; WHO Clinical Trial Registry; ClinicalTrials.gov) were searched to July 2019. Studies were eligible if they reported health, social or economic outcomes on social prescribing, community referral, referral schemes, wellbeing programmes or interventions when a non-health link worker was the intervention provider, to people who are frail living in the community. We screened 1079 unique studies for eligibility. No papers were eligible. There is therefore a paucity of evidence reporting the effectiveness of social prescribing programmes for frail older adults living in the community. Given that frailty is a clinical priority and social prescribing is considered a key future direction in the provision of community care, this is a major limitation.

3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(6): e195313, 2019 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173122

RESUMO

Importance: Anorexia nervosa is recognized as an important cause of morbidity in young people. However, the risk of cancer in people with anorexia nervosa remains uncertain. Objective: To evaluate the association of anorexia nervosa with the risk of developing or dying of cancer. Data Sources: MEDLINE, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science from database inception to January 9, 2019. Study Selection: Published observational studies in humans examining the risk of cancer in people with anorexia nervosa compared with the general population or those without anorexia nervosa. Studies needed to report incidence or mortality rate ratios (RRs). Data Extraction and Synthesis: Screening, data extraction, and methodological quality assessment were performed by at least 2 researchers independently. A random-effects model was used to synthesize individual studies. Heterogeneity (I2) was assessed and 95% prediction intervals (PIs) were calculated. Main Outcomes and Measures: All cancer incidence and cancer mortality associated with anorexia nervosa. Secondary outcomes were site-specific cancer incidence and mortality. Results: Seven cohort studies published in 10 articles (42 602 participants with anorexia nervosa) were included. Anorexia nervosa was not associated with risk of developing any cancer (4 studies in women; RR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.89-1.06; P = .53; I2, 0%; 95% PI, 0.80-1.18; moderate confidence). Anorexia nervosa was associated with decreased breast cancer incidence (5 studies in women; RR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.50-0.80; P < .001; I2, 0%; 95% PI, 0.44-0.83; high confidence). Conversely, anorexia nervosa was associated with increased risk of developing lung cancer (3 studies in women; RR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.06-2.12; P = .001; I2, 0%; 95% PI, 0.19-16.46; low confidence) and esophageal cancer (2 studies in women; RR, 6.10; 95% CI, 2.30-16.18; P < .001; I2, 0%; low confidence). Conclusions and Relevance: Among people with anorexia nervosa, risk of developing cancer did not differ compared with the general population, but a significantly reduced risk of breast cancer was observed. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these associations could have important preventive potential.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/complicações , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/etiologia , Distribuição por Sexo , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Clin Med ; 8(5)2019 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086009

RESUMO

The volume of total hip (THA) and knee arthroplasties (TKA) performed in a hospital per year could be an influential factor on the revision of these procedures. The aims of this study were: To obtain comparable cohorts in higher- and lower-volume hospitals; and to assess the association between the hospital volume and the incidence of revision. Data from patients undergoing THA and TKA caused by osteoarthritis and recorded in the Catalan Arthroplasty Register (RACat) between January 2005 and December 2016 were used. The main explanatory variable was hospital volume by year (higher/lower). The cut-off point was fixed, based on previous research, at 50 THA and 125 TKA procedures/year. To obtain comparable populations, a propensity-score matching method (1:1) was used. Patient characteristics prior to and after matching were compared. To assess differences by volume, subhazard ratios (SHRs) from competing risks models were obtained. After matching, 13,772 THA and 36,316 TKA patients remained in the study. Prior to matching, in both joints, significant differences in all confounders were observed between volume groups. After matching, none of them remained significant. Both in THA and TKA, a higher risk of revision in higher-volume hospitals was observed (THA SHR: 1.25, 95%CI: 1.02-1.53; and TKA SHR: 1.29, 95%CI: 1.16-1.44). Unlike other contexts, currently in Catalonia, higher-volume hospitals have a greater risk of revision than lower-volume hospitals. Further research could be valuable to define context-dependent measures to reduce the incidence of revision.

5.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214746, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934024

RESUMO

PURPOSE: 1) To systematically review the available scientific literature regarding specific instruments developed and/or tested in a Spanish population, to assess these PROMs in hip arthroplasty; 2) to carry out a standardized assessment of their measurement properties; and 3) to identify the best tools for use in Spain in an arthroplasty registry context. METHODS: A systematic review of PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE and CINHAL was done. Furthermore, a standardized assessment of the questionnaires identified using the Evaluating the Measurement of Patient-Reported Outcomes (EMPRO) tool was performed. All developments, validation and studies aiming to assess the measurement properties of PROMs in hip arthroplasty in the Spanish population were included. Data from the questionnaires on metric properties was taken into account to identify the best candidates for inclusion in a register. RESULTS: A total of 853 documents were found. After screening title and abstract, 13 full text documents were reviewed and 8 questionnaires adapted and validated to assess some of the aspects of hip arthroplasty in the Spanish population were identified. After the EMPRO assessment, 4 questionnaires showed suitable properties (WOMAC, OAKHQOL, mini-OAKHQOL and PFH). CONCLUSIONS: In Spain, there are a few suitable hip-specific questionnaires currently available to assess PROMs in hip arthroplasty surgery. Some of the more widely used questionnaires, like the OHS and HOOS, have not been validated in the Spanish population until now. Identified tools are suitable for use in a clinical context, however their use in an arthroplasty register is more questionable due to the lack of validation studies of the widely used tools in other registers.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/estatística & dados numéricos , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Psicometria/métodos , Psicometria/normas , Sistema de Registros , Humanos , Seleção de Pacientes , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Padrões de Referência , Sistema de Registros/normas , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas
6.
Sports Med Open ; 5(1): 10, 2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lateral elbow tendinopathy (LET) is a common condition affecting adults. Although a lack of treatment consensus continues to prompt numerous effectiveness studies, there is a paucity of clear guidance on the choice of outcome measure. Our aim was to undertake a standardised evaluation of the available clinical rating systems that report patient-centred outcomes in LET. METHODS: A systematic review of studies reporting the development, assessment of metric properties and/or use of instruments aiming to quantify LET-specific patient-centred outcome measures was conducted in MEDLINE, Embase and CINAHL (inception-2017) adhering to PRISMA guidance. The evidence for each instrument was independently assessed by two reviewers using the standardised evaluating measures of patient-reported outcomes (EMPRO) method evaluating overall and attribute-specific instrument performance (metric properties and usability). EMPRO scores > 50/100 were considered indicative of high performance. RESULTS: Out of 7261 references, we identified 105 articles reporting on 15 instruments for EMPRO analysis. Median performance score was 41.6 (range 21.6-72.5), with four instruments meeting high-performance criteria: quick Disabilities of the Arm Shoulder and Hand score (qDASH) (72.5), DASH (66.9), Oxford Elbow Score (OES) (66.6) and Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) (57.0). One hundred seventy-nine articles reported instrument use internationally with DASH as the most frequent (29.7% articles) followed by PRTEE (25.6%), MEPS (15.1%) and qDASH (8.1%). The correlation between frequency of use and performance was r = 0.35 (95%CI - 0.11; 0.83). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to provide standardised guidance on the choice of measures for LET. A large number of clinical rating systems are both available and being used for patients with LETs. Robust evidence is available for four measures, the DASH, QDASH, PRTEE and OES. The use of instruments in the literature is only in part explained by instrument performance.

7.
J Arthroplasty ; 34(5): 865-871, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The volume of arthroplasties performed in a hospital by year has an influence on the outcomes of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). The aims of this study are (1) to evaluate and compare the risk of revision and mortality of TKA and UKA and (2) to assess whether hospital volume is related to differences in revision risk and mortality. METHODS: All individuals recorded in the Catalan Arthroplasty Register between 1/1/2005 and 31/12/2016, diagnosed with osteoarthritis, undergoing cemented TKA and UKA were included. A propensity score matching method was used to obtain comparable cohorts, including 2374 matched prostheses overall. Hospital volume was considered as a dichotomous variable (lower/higher). Descriptive analyses were done before and after matching. Risks of revision and mortality at 30 days, 90 days, 1, 3, and 5 years were calculated and competing risks models and Cox models were fitted. RESULTS: For the population as a whole, higher risk of revision (sub-hazard ratio, 1.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-3.17) was found in UKA than in TKA but higher mortality was not. Considering the volume groups, significantly higher risk of revision in UKA than TKA was found in the lower-volume group only (sub-hazard ratio, 1.95; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-3.44). No differences in mortality between TKA and UKA were found in either group. CONCLUSION: Mortality and revision rates after TKA and UKA at higher-volume hospitals are similar. UKAs performed at lower-volume hospitals have higher revision rates. Volume-dependent specialization thus might help to reduce revision and mortality after surgery.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho/mortalidade , Hospitais com Alto Volume de Atendimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais com Baixo Volume de Atendimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artroplastia do Joelho/métodos , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Pontuação de Propensão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Espanha/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 28(2): 187-193, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30375101

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The diagnosis of hip osteoarthritis is subject to several uncertainties, especially in primary care. The aims of this study were to determine (i) the diagnostic accuracy of coding of hip osteoarthritis by primary care physicians in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), (ii) the relative influence of radiographic and clinical parameters on diagnostic accuracy, and (iii) the accuracy of the diagnosis date. METHODS: An extract of all patients aged over 65 years, with a Read code for hip osteoarthritis listed between January 1995 and December 2014, was obtained from CPRD. A random sample was selected of 170 participants. A questionnaire concerning data in medical records on relevant clinical and radiographic criteria used to establish the diagnosis of hip osteoarthritis was distributed to primary care physicians of participants. Using diagnostic criteria, we formulated thresholds for diagnosis based on clinical, radiographic, and combined grounds. RESULTS: One hundred nineteen completed questionnaires were returned (70% response rate). The positive predictive value (PPV) of hip osteoarthritis codes, based on radiological criteria, was 79.8%. The PPV, based on clinical criteria, was 79.0%, with substantial but not complete overlap. Overall 12% of diagnoses were not confirmed. In 42% of cases, there was disparity between date of diagnosis in CPRD and the medical record. Median difference in date was ±425 days (interquartile range, 18-1448 days). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the difficulties in reaching a diagnosis of hip osteoarthritis in primary care, CPRD Read codes have a sufficiently high PPV for most research uses. However, the accuracy of diagnosis date may not be as reliable.

10.
Patient Relat Outcome Meas ; 9: 345-352, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30498382

RESUMO

The interest in patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) continues to increase as recognition of their potential utility rises in an effort to make health systems more patient-centered. The US National Institutes of Health (NIH) Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System® (PROMIS®) has used state of the art psychometric and statistical techniques to create a universal PROMs language, with potential application across the whole spectrum of health conditions, languages, and geographic locations. PROMIS offers a versatile platform where specific health domains are assessed using both standardized short forms and computerized adaptive tests, which are automatically tailored to individual patients. The scores of each health domain or a standardized profile of multiple domains are all scored on a common metric scale. PROMIS is increasingly recognized as the international gold standard for patient-centered assessment, although the use of these tools in the UK is limited. In this review, the developmental methodology of the PROMIS is described with discussion of its relevant strengths and limitations for use in the UK. We provide a case study of the largest application of the PROMIS tools in the UK as an example of straightforward integration into health-care research. Barriers to the uptake of PROMIS in the UK include the technology requirement, measurement tradition, and lack of a clear understanding of its benefits, and although potential stakeholders should cautiously consider its use, its impressive potential and increasing international utilization should be recognized.

11.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 16(1): 223, 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30509311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To ascertain whether person centred coordinated care (P3C) is being delivered in healthcare services, components relating to the construct need to be measured. Patient reported measures (PRMs) can be used to provide a measurement of patients' experiences of P3C. Traditionally, they have been used to assess whether interventions are delivering P3C. Recently there has been an increased interest in using them to directly enhance P3C in clinical practice by, for example, improving practitioner-patient communication. However, there is limited research available on how P3C can be implemented in practice. This study aimed to extend this literature base by exploring how professionals use PRMs to enhance P3C. METHODS: Cross sectional thematic analysis of 26 semi-structured interviews with a variety of professionals who have experience of how PRMs can be used to make improvements to P3C. Inductive themes were mapped onto components of P3C care that fell under five established domains of P3C (Information and Communication; My Goals/Outcomes; Decision making; Care Planning and Transitions) to explore whether and how individual components of P3C were being improved through PRMs. Barriers and facilitators that affected the delivery and the results of the PRMs were also identified. RESULTS: Three P3C domains (Information and Communication, My Goals/Outcomes and Care Planning) were mapped frequently onto themes generated by the participants' interviews about PRM use. However, the domain 'Decision Making' was only mapped onto one theme and 'Transitions' was not mapped at all. Participant reports suggested that PRM use by practitioners enhanced patients' ability to self-manage, communicate, engage and reflect during consultations. Barriers to PRM use were related to a lack of a whole service approach to implementation. CONCLUSIONS: Practitioners use both PROMs and PREMs in various ways to improve different aspects of patient care. By sharing experiences professionals can benefit from each other's learning and work together to extend the potential value that PRMs can offer to P3C delivery.


Assuntos
Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/normas , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Relações Médico-Paciente , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade de Vida
12.
J Cancer Surviv ; 12(6): 803-812, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291561

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Overlooking other medical conditions during cancer treatment and follow-up could result in excess morbidity and mortality, thereby undermining gains associated with early detection and improved treatment of cancer. We compared the quality of care for diabetes patients subsequently diagnosed with breast, colorectal, or prostate cancer to matched, diabetic non-cancer controls. METHODS: Longitudinal cohort study using primary care records from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, United Kingdom. Patients with pre-existing diabetes were followed for up to 5 years after cancer diagnosis, or after an assigned index date (non-cancer controls). Quality of diabetes care was estimated based on Quality and Outcomes Framework indicators. Mixed effects logistic regression analyses were used to compare the unadjusted and adjusted odds of meeting quality measures between cancer patients and controls, overall and stratified by type of cancer. RESULTS: 3382 cancer patients and 11,135 controls contributed 44,507 person-years of follow-up. In adjusted analyses, cancer patients were less likely to meet five of 14 quality measures, including: total cholesterol ≤ 5 mmol/L (odds ratio [OR] = 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75-0.90); glycosylated hemoglobin ≤ 59 mmol/mol (adjusted OR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.70-0.85); and albumin creatinine ratio testing (adjusted OR = 0.83; 95% CI, 0.75-0.91). However, cancer patients were as likely as their matched controls to meet quality measures for other diabetes services, including retinal screening, foot examination, and dietary review. CONCLUSIONS: Although in the short-term, cancer patients were less likely to achieve target thresholds for cholesterol and HbA1c, they continued to receive high-quality diabetes primary care throughout 5 years post diagnosis. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: These findings are important for cancer survivors with pre-existing diabetes because they indicate that high-quality diabetes care is maintained throughout the continuum of cancer diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Próstata/complicações , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
15.
BMC Fam Pract ; 19(1): 108, 2018 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29969997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to ascertain multimorbidity patterns using a non-hierarchical cluster analysis in adult primary patients with multimorbidity attended in primary care centers in Catalonia. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using electronic health records from 523,656 patients, aged 45-64 years in 274 primary health care teams in 2010 in Catalonia, Spain. Data were provided by the Information System for the Development of Research in Primary Care (SIDIAP), a population database. Diagnoses were extracted using 241 blocks of diseases (International Classification of Diseases, version 10). Multimorbidity patterns were identified using two steps: 1) multiple correspondence analysis and 2) k-means clustering. Analysis was stratified by sex. RESULTS: The 408,994 patients who met multimorbidity criteria were included in the analysis (mean age, 54.2 years [Standard deviation, SD: 5.8], 53.3% women). Six multimorbidity patterns were obtained for each sex; the three most prevalent included 68% of the women and 66% of the men, respectively. The top cluster included coincident diseases in both men and women: Metabolic disorders, Hypertensive diseases, Mental and behavioural disorders due to psychoactive substance use, Other dorsopathies, and Other soft tissue disorders. CONCLUSION: Non-hierarchical cluster analysis identified multimorbidity patterns consistent with clinical practice, identifying phenotypic subgroups of patients.


Assuntos
Multimorbidade , Múltiplas Afecções Crônicas/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Espanha/epidemiologia
16.
Ann Fam Med ; 16(4): 322-329, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29987080

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Multimorbidity is associated with adverse outcomes, yet research on the determinants of its incidence is lacking. We investigated which sociodemographic, health, and individual lifestyle (eg, physical activity, smoking behavior, body mass index) characteristics predict new cases of multimorbidity. METHODS: We used data from 4,564 participants aged 50 years and older in the English Longitudinal Study of Aging that included a 10-year follow-up period. Discrete time-to-event (complementary log-log) models were constructed for exploring the associations of baseline characteristics with outcomes between 2002-2003 and 2012-2013 separately for participants with no initial conditions (n = 1,377) developing multimorbidity, any increase in conditions within 10 years regardless of initial conditions, and the impact of individual conditions on incident multimorbidity. RESULTS: The risks of developing multimorbidity were positively associated with age, and they were greater for the least wealthy, for participants who were obese, and for those who reported the lowest levels of physical activity or an external locus of control (believing that life events are outside of one's control) for all groups regardless of baseline conditions (all linear trends <.05). No significant associations were observed for sex, educational attainment, or social detachment. For participants with any increase in conditions (n = 4,564), a history of smoking was the only additional predictor. For participants with a single baseline condition (n = 1,534), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and arrhythmia showed the strongest associations with subsequent multimorbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the development and implementation of a strategy targeting the prevention of multimorbidity for susceptible groups. This approach should incorporate behavior change addressing lifestyle factors and target health-related locus of control.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Multimorbidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Autorrelato
17.
Br J Gen Pract ; 68(674): e633-e645, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29914880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reducing unnecessary prescribing remains a key priority for tackling the global rise of antibiotic-resistant infections. AIM: The authors sought to update a 2011 qualitative synthesis of GPs' experiences of antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs), including their views of interventions aimed at more prudent prescribing. They expanded the original scope to encompass all primary care professionals (PCPs) who can prescribe or dispense antibiotics for ARTIs (for example, nurses and pharmacists). DESIGN AND SETTING: Systematic review and meta-ethnography of qualitative studies. METHOD: A systematic search was conducted on MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ASSIA, and Web of Science. No date or language restrictions were used. Identified studies were grouped according to their thematic focus (usual care versus intervention), and two separate syntheses were performed. RESULTS: In all, 53 articles reporting the experiences of >1200 PCPs were included. Analysis of usual-care studies showed that PCPs tend to assume multiple roles in the context of ARTI consultations (the expert self, the benevolent self, the practical self), depending on the range of intrapersonal, interpersonal, and contextual situations in which they find themselves. Analysis of intervention studies identified four possible ways in which PCPs may experience quality improvement interventions (compromise, 'supportive aids', source of distress, and unnecessary). CONCLUSION: Contrary to the original review, these results suggest that the use of the same intervention is experienced in a totally different way by different PCPs, and that the same elements that are perceived as benefits by some could be viewed as drawbacks by others. Acceptability of interventions is likely to increase if these are context sensitive and take into account PCPs' varying roles and changing priorities.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Prescrição Inadequada/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Protocolos Clínicos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Prescrição Inadequada/prevenção & controle , Pesquisa Qualitativa
19.
J Patient Saf ; 2018 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29461334

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Major gaps remain in our understanding of primary care patient safety. We describe a toolkit for measuring patient safety in family practices. METHODS: Six tools were used in 46 practices. These tools were as follows: National Health Service Education for Scotland Trigger Tool, National Health Service Education for Scotland Medicines Reconciliation Tool, Primary Care Safequest, Prescribing Safety Indicators, Patient Reported Experiences and Outcomes of Safety in Primary Care, and Concise Safe Systems Checklist. RESULTS: Primary Care Safequest showed that most practices had a well-developed safety climate. However, the trigger tool revealed that a quarter of events identified were associated with moderate or substantial harm, with a third originating in primary care and avoidable. Although medicines reconciliation was undertaken within 2 days in more than 70% of cases, necessary discussions with a patient/carer did not always occur. The prescribing safety indicators identified 1435 instances of potentially hazardous prescribing or lack of recommended monitoring (from 92,649 patients). The Concise Safe Systems Checklist found that 25% of staff thought that their practice provided inadequate follow-up for vulnerable patients discharged from hospital and inadequate monitoring of noncollection of prescriptions. Most patients had a positive perception of the safety of their practice although 45% identified at least one safety problem in the past year. CONCLUSIONS: Patient safety is complex and multidimensional. The Patient Safety Toolkit is easy to use and hosted on a single platform with a collection of tools generating practical and actionable information. It enables family practices to identify safety deficits that they can review and change procedures to improve their patient safety across a key sets of patient safety issues.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

20.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg ; 27(4): e98-e106, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29444754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical rating systems are used as outcome measures in clinical trials and attempt to gauge the patient's view of his or her own health. The choice of clinical rating system should be supported by its performance against established quality standards. METHODS: A search strategy was developed to identify all studies that reported the use of clinical rating systems in the elbow literature. The strategy was run from inception in Medline Embase and CINHAL. Data extraction identified the date of publication, country of data collection, pathology assessed, and the outcome measure used. RESULTS: We identified 980 studies that reported clinical rating system use. Seventy-two separate rating systems were identified. Forty-one percent of studies used ≥2 separate measures. Overall, 54% of studies used the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS). For arthroplasty, 82% used MEPS, 17% used Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH), and 7% used QuickDASH. For trauma, 66.7% used MEPS, 32% used DASH, and 23% used the Morrey Score. For tendinopathy, 31% used DASH, 23% used Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE), and 13% used MEPS. Over time, there was an increased proportional use of the MEPS, DASH, QuickDASH, PRTEE, and the Oxford Elbow Score. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified a wide choice and usage of clinical rating systems in the elbow literature. Numerous studies reported measures without a history of either a specific pathology or cross-cultural validation. Interpretability and comparison of outcomes is dependent on the unification of outcome measure choice. This was not demonstrated currently.


Assuntos
Articulação do Cotovelo/fisiopatologia , Articulação do Cotovelo/cirurgia , Tendinopatia do Cotovelo/fisiopatologia , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Tendinopatia/fisiopatologia , Artroplastia , Articulação do Cotovelo/lesões , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
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