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1.
Infectio ; 23(supl.1): 106-128, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-984514

RESUMO

Resumen Los inhibidores de transferencia de la cadena de integrasa (INSTI) son medicamentos cuyo mecanismo de acción consiste en bloquear el proceso de integración del ADN proviral al ADN del hospedero mediante la unión al sitio catalítico de la integrasa viral y de esta manera evitar su replicación. Actualmente se cuenta con la aprobación INSTI de primera y segunda generación, presentan similitud en su mecanismo de acción, cambios en su estructura que modifican su barrera genética, pero mantienen su perfil de seguridad y efectividad. Desde su aprobación en el año 2007, se han llevado a cabo múltiples estudios clínicos cuyos resultados han permitido avanzar en el conocimiento de su efectividad en diferentes escenarios clínicos; (pacientes naive, experimentados, esquemas de simplificación y profilaxis, así, como en el conocimiento de su perfil de mutaciones de resistencia). En el presente artículo se hizo una revisión de los miembros de esta familia de antirretrovirales (ARV).


Abstract: Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTI) are drugs whose mechanism of action consists of blocking the integration process of the proviral DNA to the host DNA by binding to the catalytic site of the viral integration and thus preventing its replication. Currently it has the approval of INSTI of first generation, two of second generation and in process of approval of a third of second generation. The two generations has similitude in its mechanisms of action, changes in its structures that modify its genetic barrier, but keeping his security and effectiveness profile. Since the approval of INSTI´s in 2007 to date, multiple clinical studies have been carried out, whose results have allowed us to advance in the knowledge of their effectiveness in different clinical scenarios; (naive patients, experienced patients, simplification and prophylaxis schemes, as well as in the knowledge of their profile of resistance mutations). In the present article, we made a review of the members of this family of antiretrovirals (ARV).

2.
BMC Microbiol ; 19(1): 106, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The introduction of MALDI-TOF MS in the clinical microbiology laboratory has modified the approaches for the identification of fungi. Thanks to this tool, it is possible to identify cryptic species, which possess critical susceptibility patterns. Clinical strains were identified using the MicroScan and MALDI-TOF MS systems. Discrepant results from both methods were investigated using ITS rDNA barcoding. Finally, these isolates were also tested for in vitro susceptibility. RESULTS: The percentage of agreement between both methods to 498 yeast isolates was of 93.6% (32 discrepant isolates). The concordance of ITS sequencing with MALDI-TOF MS was higher (99%) than that of MicroScan (94%). Several of these discordant yeasts displayed high MICs for antifungal agents. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the need of the MS and molecular approaches such as MALDI-TOF MS and ITS rDNA barcoding for the correct identification of emerging or cryptic yeast species; besides, some of these could be multidrug resistant. This work was the first experience in the implementation of the MALDI-TOF MS technology in Colombia. We found the first uncommon yeasts including Candida auris and we could identify Trichosporon faecalis. Our work highlights a clear necessity of an accurate yeast identification as a much more pertinent technique than the susceptibility profiles, because the most unusual yeasts exhibit resistance profiles to the few available antifungals.

3.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2291, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30337929

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic virus associated with the development of aggressive and poor-prognosis B-cell lymphomas in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV+ patients). The most important risk factors for these malignancies include immune dysfunction, chronic immune activation, and loss of T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire. The combination of all these factors can favor the reactivation of EBV, malignant cell transformation, and clinical progression toward B-cell lymphomas. The overarching aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency, phenotype, functionality, and distribution of TCR clonotypes for EBV-specific T-cell subpopulations in HIV+ patients at different clinical stages and for HIV+ patients with B-cell lymphoma, as well as to establish their association with clinical variables of prognostic value. Factors were studied in 56 HIV+ patients at different clinical stages and in six HIV+ subjects with diagnosed B-cell lymphoma. We found a significant decrease in all subpopulations of EBV-specific CD4+ T cells from HIV+ patients at stage 3 and with B-cell lymphoma. EBV-specific effector CD8+ T cells, particularly effector memory cells, were also reduced in HIV+ patients with B-cell lymphoma. Interestingly, these cells were unable to produce IFN-γ and lacked multifunctionality in HIV+ patients. The TCR-Vß repertoire, which is key for protection against EBV in healthy individuals, was less diverse in HIV+ patients due to a lower frequency of TCR-Vß2+, Vß4+, Vß7.1+, Vß9+, Vß13.6+, Vß14+, Vß17+, Vß22+ CD4+, Vß14+, and Vß17+ CD8+ T cells. HIV+ patients with positive plasma EBV loads (EBV+HIV+) had a noteworthy decrease in the levels of both TNF-α+ and multifunctional TNF-α+/IL-2+ and TNF-α+/IFN-γ+ CD8+ T cells. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that HIV+ patients have significant alterations in the immune response to EBV (poor-quality immunity) that can favor viral reactivation, escalating the risk for developing EBV-associated B-cell lymphomas.

4.
Infectio ; 22(1): 46-54, ene.-mar. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-892750

RESUMO

Abstract The search for strategies for the reduction of Surgical Site infection (SSI) is a priority, given the impact those infections have on the outcome of the patients. The preope rative patient skin antisepsis, has recently gained greater significance in the prevention of SSI, as one of the critical factors, which can be intervened and can reduce the risk of infection. In recent years, comprehensive investigations have been published, not only dedicated to the comparison of antiseptic solutions, application techniques, but also about the importance of preoperative washing, use of surgical tapes and dressings impregnated with antiseptics, and preoperative shaving. This review outlines the key findings related to the preoperative patient's skin antisepsis and offers a protocol with practical recommendations to be implemented in the institutions of our country. It provides evidence based recommendations about the use of antiseptic solutions (povidone iodine, chlorhexidine, chlorhexidine plus alcohol, etc.) with emphasis on the advantages and disadvantages of each one.

5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 69: 63-67, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29421668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Candida auris is a recently reported Candida species that is phenotypically similar to Candida haemulonii and related to hospital outbreaks. This organism can be misidentified as Candida haemulonii, Candida famata, Candida catenulata, or Rhodotorula glutinis by phenotypic approaches. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and DNA sequence analysis using internal transcribed spacer rDNA bar-coding provide an accurate identification. CASE REPORTS: Three cases of C. auris infection in patients with risk factors for fungal infection (one admitted to the intensive care unit, one with lymphoma, and one with HIV; all three with previous antibiotic use) are reported; these infections were not epidemiologically related. Yeast isolates were recovered from blood, ocular secretion, and bronchoalveolar lavage and were misidentified as C. catenulata and Candida albicans by the phenotypic MicroScan method. The isolates were confirmed to be C. auris by means of MALDI-TOF MS and DNA sequence analysis. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed on these C. auris isolates, which exhibited high minimum inhibitory concentrations to triazoles and amphotericin B. One patient survived and the other two died. Only one of these deaths was related to fungemia. CONCLUSIONS: C. auris is an emerging and opportunistic multidrug-resistant human pathogen. It is necessary to strengthen measures to achieve an accurate and quick identification and also to avoid its dissemination. This will require improvements in health and infection control measures, as well as the promotion of antifungal stewardship in healthcare facilities.


Assuntos
Candida/genética , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Idoso , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Fúngica Múltipla/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Triazóis/farmacologia
6.
Infectio ; 21(4): 223-233, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-892736

RESUMO

Resumen Objetivo: evaluar la mejor evidencia actual disponible para generar recomendaciones con respecto a la efectividad y seguridad del uso de tigeciclina en adultos con infección de piel y tejidos blandos (IPTB). Materiales y métodos: se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura, seleccionando los metaanálisis y experimentos clínicos controlados (ECCs), los cuales se valoraron utilizando la herramienta SIGN (Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network.), con el fin de generar tablas de evidencia según GRADE de los estudios de tigeciclina en la indicación de IPTB, para posteriormente utilizar un proceso Delphi modificado para calificar las diferentes recomendaciones. Resultados: la revisión sistemática se incluyeron 9 metaanálisis que incluyeron 5 estudios clínicos aleatorizados con 1873 pacientes, y de ellos 952 asignados al brazo de tigeciclina, no mostró inferioridad frente a los comparadores en curación clínica (RR= 0.76 IC95% 0,57 - 1.03), curación microbiológica (RR= 0.92 IC95% 0,61 - 1.38), eventos adversos serios RR 1,41 (IC95%0,97 a 2,35), ni mortalidad RR 1,9 (IC95%0,84 a 4,3). La tigeciclina puede relacionarse con mayor frecuencia de eventos adversos leves de origen gastrointestinal. Conclusión: en pacientes adultos con IPTB, se considera que el uso de tigeciclina en monoterapia en pacientes no críticamente enfermos es equivalente en eficacia a otras opciones terapéuticas antimicrobianas. Se debe considerar especialmente como terapia de ajuste en pacientes con infecciones polimicrobianas.


Abstract Objective: To assess current best evidence available to generate recommendations regarding the effectiveness and safety of tigecycline use in adults with skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs). Materials and methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted by selecting meta-analyzes and controlled clinical trials (CCTs), which were assessed using the SIGN tool (Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network) in order to generate evidence tables according to GRADE of studies of tigecycline in the SSTIs indication, and then using a modified Delphi Method to score the different recommendations. Results: Nine meta-analyzes were included compounded by five randomized clinical trials with a sample size of 1873 patients, where 952 patients were assigned to tigecycline. The group of patients with tigecycline showed no inferiority to the comparator in clinical cure (RR = 0.76 95% CI 0.57 - 1.03), microbiologic cure (RR = 0.92 95% CI 0.61 - 1.38), serious adverse events RR 1, 41 (95% CI 0.97 to 2.35) or mortality RR 1.9 (95% CI 0.84 to 4.3). Tigecycline may be related to increased frequency of minor adverse events of gastrointestinal origin. Conclusion: In adult patients with SSTIs, it is considered that the use of tigecycline in monotherapy in non-critically ill patients is equivalent in effectiveness to other antimicrobial treatment options. It should be especially considered as an adjustment therapy in patients with polymicrobial infections.

7.
Infectio ; 21(4): 234-242, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-892737

RESUMO

Resumen Objetivo: evaluar la mejor evidencia actual disponible para generar recomendaciones, con respecto a la efectividad y seguridad del uso de tigeciclina en adultos con infección intraabdominal complicada. Materiales y métodos: se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura, seleccionando los metaanálisis y experimentos clínicos controlados, los cuales se valora- ron utilizando la herramienta SIGN, con el fin de generar tablas de evidencia según GRADE de los estudios de tigeciclina en la indicación infección intraabdominal complicada, para posteriormente utilizar un proceso Delphi modificado para calificar las diferentes recomendaciones con el fin de generar un consenso. Resultados: se analizaron los resultados basados en la revisión sistemática de la literatura en la que se incluyeron 5 metaanálisis que cumplieron los criterios de selección comparando tigeciclina con otros tratamientos antibióticos en infección intraabdominal complicada; de los cuales, 2711 pacientes recibieron al menos una dosis del antibiótico (1382 tigeciclina y 1389 el comparador) y en los que no se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en los desenlaces evaluados al comparar tigeciclina con otros antibióticos. Conclusión: en pacientes adultos con infección intraabdominal complicada, se considera que el uso de tigeciclina en monoterapia es equivalente en eficacia y seguridad a otras opciones terapéuticas antimicrobianas y no representa un exceso de mortalidad en comparación a otros antibióticos


Abstract Objective: To assess current best evidence available to generate recommendations regarding the effectiveness and safety of tigecycline use in adults with complicated intra-abdominal infection (cIAIs). Materials and methods: We conducted a systematic review of published meta-analysis that evaluated tigecycline compared to other antimicrobials and included the indication of cIAI. Quality of the evidence was evaluated by using the SIGN tool (Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network) according to GRADE, and final recommendations were assessed by a modified Delphi Method in order to develop a consensus. Results: Five meta-analyzes met the selection criteria comparing tigecycline with other antibiotic treatments in complicated intra-abdominal infection. Five randomized clinical trials comprised in these meta-analysis included 2711 patients that received at least one dose of antibiotic (1382 tigecycline and 1389 the comparator regimen), We found no statistically significant differences in the evaluated outcomes by comparing tigecycline with other antibiotics, including clinical and microbiologic efficacy, safety and drug related mortality Conclusion: In adult patients with cIAIs, the use of tigecycline as monotherapy is equivalent in effectiveness to other antimicrobial therapeutic options and does not represent an increase in mortality compared to other antibiotics.

8.
Infectio ; 21(3): 182-191, jul.-set. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-892728

RESUMO

Resumen La búsqueda de estrategias para la disminución de la infección de sitio operatorio (ISO) es una prioridad, dado el impacto que ésta tiene en los resultados de la atención de los pacientes. Recientemente ha tomado gran relevancia en la prevención de la ISO, la preparación prequirúrgica de la piel del paciente como uno de los factores clave, en los que se puede intervenir y disminuir el riesgo. En los últimos años han aparecido revisiones exhaustivas dedicadas no solo a la comparación de las soluciones antisépticas, y técnica de aplicación, también acerca de la importancia del baño pre operatorio, uso de cintas y compresas quirúrgicas impregnadas con antisépticos y el recorte de cabello preoperatorio. En esta publicación se describen los hallazgos más importantes relacionados con la preparación antiséptica de la piel del paciente y se propone un protocolo con recomendaciones prácticas para ser implementado en las instituciones del país. Se incluyen recomendaciones basadas en niveles de evidencia sobre el uso de las soluciones antisépticas (yodopovidona, clorhexidina, clorhexidina mas alcohol, entre otras) con énfasis en las ventajas y desventajas de cada una de ellas.


Abstract The search for strategies for reduction of Surgical Site infection (SSI) is a priority, given the impact that infections have on the outcome of the patients. The preoperative patient skin antisepsis, has recently gained greater significance in the prevention of SSI, as one of the critical factors, which can be intervened and can reduce the risk of infection. In recent years, comprehensive investigations have been published not only dedicated to the comparison of antiseptic solutions, application techniques, but also about the importance of preoperative bathing, use of surgical tapes and dressings impregnated with antiseptics, and preoperative shaving. This review outlines the key findings related to the preoperative patient's skin antisepsis and offers a protocol with practical recommendations to be implemented in the institutions of our country. It provides evidence based recommendations about the use of antiseptic solutions (povidone iodine, chlorhexidine, chlorhexidine plus alcohol, etc.) with emphasis on the advantages and disadvantages of each one.

9.
Univ. med ; 58(1)2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-996082

RESUMO

Introducción: el sistema nervioso central es uno de los órganos afectados, de manera directa e indirecta, por el VIH; adicionalmente, los trastornos psiquiátricos son más frecuentes en esta población. Objetivo: comprender la patogénesis, las manifestaciones clínicas y el manejo de las enfermedades neuropsiquiátricas en la población con VIH. Métodos: se realizó una búsqueda en las bases de datos Medline, Embase, SciELO, LILACS y Psychlnfo utilizando término libres y MeSH. Resultados: los trastornos neuropsiquiátricos generan un impacto negativo en el tratamiento y seguimiento de los pacientes con VIH, lo cual disminuye su adherencia al tratamiento y aumenta las dificultades en su manejo integral. Llamativamente, existe una falta de estudios latinoamericanos en esta área.


Introduction: HIV is the infectious disease with the biggest worldwide impact in the last decades. For this reason, the control of this disease was induded in the millennium objectives of the UN. There has been a long time interest for studying the psychiatric comorbidities in these patients due to its impact in survival. Níethods: A research in the data bases Medline, Embase, SciELO, LILACS, and Psychlnfo was made using free terms and MeSH terms. Results: The neuropsychiatric disorders have a negative impact in the treatment and control of HIV positive patients, reducing their adherence and increasing the difficulties in the comprehensive treatment. There is a déficit in studies that could clear up this relationship in Colombian population.


Assuntos
HIV , Colômbia , Sintomas Afetivos/diagnóstico
10.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 36(supl.1): 69-77, dic. 2016. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-783524

RESUMO

Introducción. Las bacteriemias por Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistentes a carbapenémicos son un problema de salud pública por las pocas alternativas de tratamiento disponibles, el aumento de la estancia hospitalaria, los costos que genera y el aumento en el riesgo de mortalidad. Objetivo. Evaluar los factores de riesgo de bacteriemia por P. aeruginosa resistente a carbapenémicos adquirida en el Hospital Universitario San Ignacio, durante el periodo comprendido entre enero de 2008 y junio de 2014. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio de casos y controles. Los casos eran de pacientes que presentaban bacteriemia por P. aeruginosa resistente a carbapenémicos y los controles eran pacientes con P. aeruginosa sensible a este grupo de antibióticos. Se midieron variables como el uso de meropenem o ertapenem, la inmunosupresión y la neoplasia, y se determinaron la mortalidad y el tiempo de estancia hospitalaria. Resultados. Se evaluaron 168 pacientes, 42 casos y 126 controles. En el modelo multivariado se encontraron los siguientes factores de riesgo relacionados con la bacteriemia por P. aeruginosa resistente a carbapenémicos y adquirida en el hospital: uso de nutrición parenteral ( odds ratio , OR=8,28; IC 95% 2,56-26,79; p=0), uso de meropenem (OR=1,15; IC 95% 1,03-1,28; p=0,01) y uso de ciprofloxacina (OR=81,99; IC 95% 1,14-5884; p=0,043). Conclusión. Para el control de la aparición de P. aeruginosa resistente a carbapenémicos, se deben fortalecer los programas de control de antimicrobianos, promover el uso prudente de carbapenémicos y quinolonas, y vigilar el uso adecuado de la nutrición parenteral.


Introduction: Bacteremia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistant to carbapenems is a public health problem due to the limitations it places on therapeutic options, as well as the increased time patients must spend in hospital, costs and the risk of mortality. Objective: To evaluate the risk factors for presentation of bacteremia due to carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa acquired in the Hospital Universitario San Ignacio between January 2008 and June 2014. Materials and methods: This was a case control study in which the case patients presented bacteremia due to P. aeruginosa resistant to carbapenems and the control group included patients with P. aeruginosa susceptible to this group of antibiotics. Variables such as the previous use of meropenem and ertapenem, immunosuppression and neoplasia were measured. Mortality and duration of hospital were also described. Results: In all, 168 patients were evaluated, of which 42 were cases and 126 controls. Using a multivariate model, the risk factors related to bacteremia due to carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa acquired in hospital were the following: use of parenteral nutrition (OR=8.28; 95% CI: 2.56-26.79; p=0); use of meropenem (OR=1.15; 95% CI: 1.03-1.28; p=0.01); and use of ciprofloxacin (OR=81.99; 95% CI: 1.14-5884; p=0.043). Conclusion: In order to prevent the emergence of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa , antimicrobial control programs should be strengthened by promoting the prudent administration of carbapenems and quinolones. The correct use of parenteral nutrition should also be monitored.


Assuntos
Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Bacteriemia , Ciprofloxacino , Nutrição Parenteral , Fatores de Risco
11.
Biomedica ; 36(0): 69-77, 2016 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27622627

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bacteremia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistant to carbapenems is a public health problem due to the limitations it places on therapeutic options, as well as the increased time patients must spend in hospital, costs and the risk of mortality.  OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk factors for presentation of bacteremia due to carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa acquired in the Hospital Universitario San Ignacio between January 2008 and June 2014.  MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a case control study in which the case patients presented bacteremia due to P. aeruginosa resistant to carbapenems and the control group included patients with P. aeruginosa susceptible to this group of antibiotics. Variables such as the previous use of meropenem and ertapenem, immunosuppression and neoplasia were measured. Mortality and duration of hospital were also described.  RESULTS: In all, 168 patients were evaluated, of which 42 were cases and 126 controls. Using a multivariate model, the risk factors related to bacteremia due to carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa acquired in hospital were the following: use of parenteral nutrition (OR=8.28; 95% CI: 2.56-26.79; p=0); use of meropenem (OR=1.15; 95% CI: 1.03-1.28; p=0.01); and use of ciprofloxacin (OR=81.99; 95% CI: 1.14-5884; p=0.043).  CONCLUSION: In order to prevent the emergence of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa, antimicrobial control programs should be strengthened by promoting the prudent administration of carbapenems and quinolones. The correct use of parenteral nutrition should also be monitored.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Ciprofloxacino/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Tienamicinas/farmacologia , beta-Lactamas/farmacologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ertapenem , Hospitais , Humanos , Meropeném , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Fatores de Risco
13.
Infectio ; 20(3): 180-189, jul.-sep. 2016. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: lil-791170

RESUMO

Introducción: Antes del año 1996, la infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) era considerada una condición fatal; sin embargo, con la introducción de la terapia antirretroviral combinada, se transformó en una enfermedad crónica con gran incremento en su expectativa de vida. A pesar de esta terapia, existen una serie de complicaciones a las que los individuos con VIH están expuestos. El pulmón es el órgano más comúnmente afectado. Las infecciones oportunistas como la neumonía por Pneumocystis jirovecii , el compromiso pulmonar asociado a histoplasmosis, tuberculosis y micobacterias no tuberculosas, entre otras, aún son condiciones que amenazan a esta población. Objetivo: Esta revisión pretende abordar los cambios en el diagnóstico, pronóstico y epidemiología de los pacientes con VIH e infecciones pulmonares, luego de la introducción de la terapia antirretroviral combinada. Metodología: Se revisaron las bases de datos electrónicas MEDLINE (pubmed), EMBASE, SciELOy LILACS. Se incluyeron revisiones sistemáticas, ensayos clínicos aleatorizados, estudios controlados, series de tiempo, « antes y después ¼ , estudios observacionales desde el año 1995 hastadiciembre de 2014, así como datos epidemiológicos de la OMS. Conclusiones: Después de casi 20 años de su introducción, la terapia antirretroviral combinadaha modificado la historia natural de la infección por VIH, con disminución en la frecuencia depresentación y mortalidad relacionada con la mayoría de los patógenos que comprometen eltracto respiratorio.


Background: Prior to 1996, HIV was considered practically fatal. However, after highly active antiretroviral therapy was introduced, HIV became a chronic disease with a great increase in life expectancy. Despite this therapy, there are many complications to which an HIV infected person is exposed, with the lung the most commonly affected organ. Opportunistic infections such as pneumocystis pneumonia, histoplasmosis, tuberculosis, nontuberculous mycobacteria, among others, are still important threats to the HIV population. Objective: This review aims to address changes in the diagnosis, prognosis and epidemiology of HIV-infected patients with lung infections since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy was introduced. Methodology: The electronic databases MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, LILACS and SciELO were reviewed. Systematic reviews, randomised, controlled studies, case series, « before and after ¼ ,observational studies from 1995 until December 2014 were included in addition to epidemiological data from the WHO. Conclusions: After nearly 20 years since its introduction, combined antiretroviral therapy has changed the natural history of HIV infection, with a decrease in the frequency of occurrence and mortality related to most pathogens involving the respiratory tract.


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções Respiratórias/transmissão , Terapêutica
14.
Univ. salud ; 18(2): 302-311, mayo-ago. 2016. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-797473

RESUMO

Objetivo: Identificar la capacidad de afrontamiento y adaptación de cuidadores de niños y niñas con cáncer teniendo como referente el modelo de adaptación de Callista Roy. Materiales y métodos: Estudio con enfoque cuantitativo de tipo descriptivo y de corte transversal, cuya muestra estuvo constituida por 23 cuidadoras principales de niños y niñas con cáncer que se encontraban hospitalizados o asistían a quimioterapia ambulatoria. Para la recolección de la información se utilizó la Escala de Medición del Proceso de Afrontamiento y Adaptación de Callista Roy versión abreviada en español. Resultados: El 100% de los cuidadores principales eran madres y abuelas. El 56,5% de ellas se presentaba en un afrontamiento alto y el 43,5% afrontamiento medio. Las cuidadoras que demostraron afrontamiento alto se ubican en el grupo de las que se encontraban solteras y casadas, pertenecientes al estrato uno, con nivel de escolaridad bachiller completo y llevaban menos de un año a cargo del cuidado. Los resultados por factores de afrontamiento demuestran reacciones, comportamientos y estrategias utilizadas para hacer frente a los problemas difíciles mediante un afrontamiento activo. Conclusión: Las características del cuidador y las estrategias utilizadas para conseguir respuestas adaptativas, deben ser aprovechadas por enfermería para promover un modelo de cuidado integral donde se aborde no solamente al niño o niña, sino también a su familia y entorno, con el fin de posibilitar un afrontamiento integrado.


Objective: To identify the coping capacity and adaptation of caregivers of children with cancer taking as reference the adaptation model of Callista Roy. Materials and methods: A descriptive and cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach, whose sample consisted of 23 primary caregivers of children with cancer, who were hospitalized or attending outpatient chemotherapy. The Measurement Scale of Coping and Adaptation Process of Callista Roy abridged version in Spanish was used for data collection. Results: 100% of primary caregivers were mothers and grandmothers. 56.5% of them presented high coping and 43.5% an average one. Carers who demonstrated high coping were single and married, belonging to strata 1, with full high school education level and were in charge of care for less than a year. The results by factors of coping demonstrate reactions, behaviors and strategies used to address difficult problems through an active coping. Conclusion: The characteristics of the caregiver and the strategies used to achieve adaptive responses should be used by nursing to promote a model of integrated care where not only the children but also their family and environment is addressed in order to enable an integrated coping.


Assuntos
Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Adaptação Psicológica , Cuidadores
15.
Acta méd. colomb ; 39(2): 211-215, abr.-jun. 2014. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-720236

RESUMO

El síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda del adulto en pacientes con malaria está asociado a infección por Plasmodium falciparum, ocasionalmente manifestado en pacientes infectados por Plasmodium vivax, por lo que han sido pocos los casos reportados en la literatura (1). Reportamos el caso de un paciente de 43 años quien estuvo en área endémica y desarrolló síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda del adulto (SDRA) por Plasmodium vivax. El diagnóstico fue realizado por métodos microscópicos. Concluimos que el SDRA asociado a Plasmodium vivax puededesarrollarse antes de iniciar terapia antimalárica, condición con una alta morbimortalidad. (Acta Med Colomb 2014; 39: 211-215).


The adult acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with malaria is associated with Plasmodium falciparum infection, and only occasionally manifested in patients infected with Plasmodium vivax, so few cases have been reported in the literature. 1 The case of a 43 year old patient who was in an endemic area and developed acute adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) by Plasmodium vivax is reported. The diagnosis was made by microscopic methods. It was concluded that ARDS associated with Plasmodium vivax can develop before starting antimalarial therapy, a condition with high morbidity and mortality. (Acta Med Colomb 2014; 39: 211-215).

17.
Conserv Biol ; 27(1): 210-8, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22979901

RESUMO

Although the genetic and ecological effects of population declines in endangered species have been well studied, little is known of the social consequences. Changes in signaling behavior may result in disrupted communication and affect both reproductive and conflict-resolution activities. The North Island Kokako (Callaeas wilsoni) is an endangered, duetting (i.e., alternating, coordinated singing by mated pairs) songbird endemic to New Zealand temperate rain forests. Scattered populations (approximately 1500 individuals in 13 surviving and 11 translocated populations) in isolated conservation areas of different sizes have been rescued from extirpation and are currently recovering. We examined key song attributes of the Kokako to assess whether population size or growth rate are related to song complexity, the reduction of which may compromise effective communication. We analyzed song repertoire size and phrase-type sharing (i.e., Jaccard index of similarity), vocal performance (singing rates, song switching rates, and diversity of phrase types), and song syntactical characteristics (i.e., unpredictability in sequences of phrase types) in surviving and translocated populations (populations of approximately 19-250 territorial individuals). Population size was positively correlated with a population's song repertoire, song diversity, and switching of song phrase types and negatively correlated with shared phrase types and variation in syntactical structure of songs. Population growth rate correlated positively with pair repertoire size, population repertoire size, and singing rates during song bouts. As for solo-singing species in fragmented landscapes, songs in the fragmented populations of Kokako appear to be undergoing microevolution as occurs in island colonization events. Our results suggest that vocal changes in small populations could affect population establishment and growth, particularly in multiple-source translocations. We believe measurement of vocal behavior could be used as a supplement to periodic population censuses to allow more frequent monitoring of population size.


Assuntos
Canto/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Aves Canoras/fisiologia , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Densidade Demográfica
18.
Infectio ; 15(2): 98-107, abr.-jun. 2011. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-635680

RESUMO

Las infecciones asociadas a la atención en salud son uno de los eventos secundarios más comunes entre los pacientes hospitalizados. Estas infecciones se relacionan con incrementos en la morbilidad, la mortalidad, la estancia hospitalaria y los costos asociados a la atención en salud. La clorhexidina ha probado ser útil en la prevención de infecciones asociadas a la atención en salud, debido a su amplio espectro antiséptico, su eficacia y su margen de seguridad. Diferentes estudios han demostrado efectividad de la clorhexidina en la prevención de infecciones tales como las del sitio operatorio, la bacteriemia asociada al catéter vascular, la neumonía asociada al respirador, las infecciones maternas y neonatales, y otras infecciones causadas por Staphylococcus aureus. La mayoría de los estudios han encontrando superioridad de este compuesto sobre otros antisépticos, en la prevención y control de infecciones asociadas a la salud.


Health care related infections are one of the most common adverse events among hospitalized patients. These types of infections are related to an increased morbidity, mortality, hospitalization time, and health care related costs. Chlorhexidine has been proven to be useful for preventing health care related infections due to its wide antiseptic spectrum, effectiveness and safety. Different studies have shown evidence about the effectiveness of chlorhexidine in the prevention of infections related to surgical sites, vascular catheter related bloodstream infections, ventilator associated pneumonia, maternal and neonatal infections and other infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Most studies have found superiority of this compound against other antiseptics in the prevention and control of health care related infections.

19.
Univ. med ; 52(1): 120-129, ene.-mar. 2011. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-620376

RESUMO

El síndrome inflamatorio de reconstitución inmunológica en caso de infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) es una entidad clínica rara, que se manifiesta con la activación de procesos infecciosos oportunistas que se encontraban estables. Presentamos dos casos de este síndrome con compromiso del sistema nervioso central: síndrome de movimientos anormales y periférico, y síndrome de Guillain Barré...


Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in the context of severe immunosupression secondary to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a clinical entity manifested by a paradoxical clinical impairment due to an activation of infectious opportunistic processes previously under immune surveillance. We illustrate two case reports of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome with atypical central nervous system involvement (choreoathetosis) and acute inflammatory demyelinating polineuropathy (Guillain-Barré syndrome)...


Assuntos
Humanos , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , HIV , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Síndrome de Lesch-Nyhan , Polineuropatias
20.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 27(1): 63-68, ene.-mar. 2011. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-591559

RESUMO

El síndrome de reconstitución inmunológica inflamatorio (SRII) en pacientes con infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH), es una entidad clínica rara caracterizada por un aumento de linfocitos T CD4+(CLTCD4+) y disminución de la carga viral servirá del VIH, que aparece corto tiempo después de iniciar terapia antirretroviral de gran actividad (TARGA). Usualmente se manifiesta con un deterioro paradójico del estado del paciente secundario a una reactivación de procesos infecciosos oportunistas.Caso clínico: hombre con diagnóstico de toxoplasmosis cerebral en el curso de infección por VIH, quien posterioral inicio de la TARGA desarrollo coriorretinitis. El paciente experimento mejoría poco tiempo después de haber suspendido la TARGA y de administrar esteroides.Conclusión: La incidencia del SRII ha aumentado en los pacientes VIH que cursan con alta carga antigénica yCLTCD4+ bajo. Su patofisiología genera incertidumbre debido a que los biomarcadores diagnósticos y pronósticos no se conocen del todo. El tratamiento propuesto lo constituye en algunos casos la suspensión temporal de la TARGA con administración de esteroides, no obstante es necesaria la realización de más estudios.


Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in context of severe immunosupression secondary to humanimmunodeficiency virus (HIV), is characterized by a dramatic rise of T lymphocyte CD4+ count in addition to aHIV viral load drop in, typically it is manifested by a paradoxical clinical impairment due to reactivation opportunistic of infectious processes previously under immune surveillance. A 36 years old male with cerebral toxoplasmosis in context of HIV infection developed chorioretinitis 8 weeks after commencing HAART. Workup laboratories only showed a marked T Lymphocyte CD4+ count increase with a HIV viral load lower than 40 copies/ml and other possible causes of chorioretinitis were excluded. After cessation of HAART and establishing corticosteroid therapy clinical improvement of this condition was documented. IRIS incidence has increased among AIDS patients especially with high antigenic burden and very low CD4 + T lymphocytecount. However its mechanism is still unclear due to biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis are not completely known at all. In order to validate and refine diagnostic criteria and therapeutic approaches of IRIS more studies are needed.


Assuntos
Humanos , Coriorretinite , HIV , Toxoplasmose
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