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1.
BMJ Open ; 9(10): e030564, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662373

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease worldwide. As of today, there are no disease-modifying drugs, but there is evidence that muscle strengthening exercises can substantially reduce pain and improve function in this disorder, and one very well tested physiotherapy protocol is the 'Better Management of Patients with Osteoarthritis' developed in Sweden. Given the high prevalence of knee OA, a potentially cost-effective, digitally delivered approach to treat knee OA should be trialled. This study aims to explore the benefits of iBEAT-OA (Internet-Based Exercise programme Aimed at Treating knee Osteoarthritis) in modulating pain, function and other health-related outcomes in individuals with knee OA. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A randomised controlled trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy of a web-based exercise programme in a population with knee OA compared with standard community care provided by general practitioners (GPs) in the UK. We anticipate recruiting participants into equal groups. The intervention group (n=67) will exercise for 20-30 min daily for six consecutive weeks, whereas the control group (n=67) will follow GP-recommended routine care. The participants will be assessed using a Numerical Rating Scale, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, the Arthritis Research UK Musculoskeletal Health Questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, 30 s sit to stand test, timed up and go test, quantitative sensory testing, musculoskeletal ultrasound scan, muscle thickness assessment of the vastus lateralis, and quadriceps muscles force generation during an isokinetic maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Samples of urine, blood, faeces and synovial fluid will be collected to establish biomarkers associated with changes in pain and sleep patterns in individuals affected with knee OA. Standard parametric regression methods will be used for statistical analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was obtained from the Research Ethics Committee (ref: 18/EM/0154) and the Health Research Authority (protocol no: 18021). The study was registered in June 2018. The results of the trial will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03545048.

2.
Ageing Res Rev ; 55: 100946, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437484

RESUMO

The prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) increases not only because of longer life expectancy but also because of the modern lifestyle, in particular physical inactivity and diets low in fiber and rich in sugar and saturated fats, which promote chronic low-grade inflammation and obesity. Adverse alterations of the gut microbiota (GMB) composition, called microbial dysbiosis, may favor metabolic syndrome and inflammaging, two important components of OA onset and evolution. Considering the burden of OA and the need to define preventive and therapeutic interventions targeting the modifiable components of OA, an expert working group was convened by the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases (ESCEO) to review the potential contribution of GMB to OA. Such a contribution is supported by observational or dietary intervention studies in animal models of OA and in humans. In addition, several well-recognized risk factors of OA interact with GMB. Lastly, GMB is a critical determinant of drug metabolism and bioavailability and may influence the response to OA medications. Further research targeting GMB or its metabolites is needed to move the field of OA from symptomatic management to individualized interventions targeting its pathogenesis.

4.
Gut Microbes ; : 1-8, 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030641

RESUMO

The gut microbiome has recently emerged as an important regulator of insulin resistance and abdominal obesity. The tryptophan metabolite generated by the gut microbiome, indoleproprionic acid (IPA) has been shown to predict the onset of type 2 diabetes. IPA is a metabolite produced by gut microbes from dietary tryptophan that exhibits a high degree of inter-individual variation. The microbiome composition parameters that are associated with circulating levels of this potent anti-oxidant have however not been investigated to date in human populations. In 1018 middle-aged women from the TwinsUK cohort, we assessed the relationship between serum IPA levels and gut microbiome composition targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Microbiome alpha-diversity was positively correlated with serum indoleproprionic acid levels (Shannon Diversity: Beta[95%CI] = 0.19[0.13;0.25], P = 6.41 × 10-10) after adjustment for covariates. Sixteen taxa and 12 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) associated with IPA serum levels. Among these are positive correlations with the butyrate-producing Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, the class Mollicutes and the order RF39 of the Tenericutes, and Coprococcus Negative correlations instead were observed with Eubacterium dolichum previously shown to correlate with visceral fat mass and several genera in the Lachnospiraceae family such as Blautia and Ruminococcus previously shown to correlate with obesity. Microbiome composition parameters explained ~20% of the variation in circulating levels of IPA, whereas nutritional and host genetic parameters explained only ~4%. Our data confirm an association between IPA circulating levels and metabolic syndrome parameters and indicate that gut microbiome composition influences IPA levels.

5.
Pain ; 160(3): 658-669, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30779717

RESUMO

Anxiety and depression are associated with increased pain responses in chronic pain states. The extent to which anxiety drives chronic pain, or vice versa, remains an important question that has implications for analgesic treatment strategies. Here, the effect of existing anxiety on future osteoarthritis (OA) pain was investigated, and potential mechanisms were studied in an animal model. Pressure pain detection thresholds, anxiety, and depression were assessed in people with (n = 130) or without (n = 100) painful knee OA. Separately, knee pain and anxiety scores were also measured twice over 12 months in 4730 individuals recruited from the general population. A preclinical investigation of a model of OA pain in normo-anxiety Sprague-Dawley (SD) and high-anxiety Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats assessed underlying neurobiological mechanisms. Higher anxiety, independently from depression, was associated with significantly lower pressure pain detection thresholds at sites local to (P < 0.01) and distant from (P < 0.05) the painful knee in patients with OA. Separately, high anxiety scores predicted increased risk of knee pain onset in 3274 originally pain-free people over the 1-year period (odds ratio = 1.71; 95% confidence interval = 1.25-2.34, P < 0.00083). Similarly, WKY rats developed significantly lower ipsilateral and contralateral hind paw withdrawal thresholds in the monosodium iodoacetate model of OA pain, compared with SD rats (P = 0.0005). Linear regressions revealed that baseline anxiety-like behaviour was predictive of lowered paw withdrawal thresholds in WKY rats, mirroring the human data. This augmented pain phenotype was significantly associated with increased glial fibrillary acidic protein immunofluorescence in pain-associated brain regions, identifying supraspinal astrocyte activation as a significant mechanism underlying anxiety-augmented pain behaviour.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etiologia , Astrócitos/fisiologia , Dor Crônica/complicações , Dor Musculoesquelética/complicações , Dor Musculoesquelética/patologia , Idoso , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
6.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 10(11): 3061-3062, 2018 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30414595
7.
Clin Epidemiol ; 10: 1447-1455, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30349392

RESUMO

Purpose: To estimate the extent of familial aggregation of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and coaggregation of related chronic diseases and assess the relative contribution of environmental and genetic factors on the risks. Patients and methods: This population-based study used the Taiwan National Health Insurance database to reconstruct family structure and identify people with T1D and other chronic diseases between 1999 and 2015. Relative risks (RRs) for T1D and other chronic diseases and heritability of T1D were estimated. Heritability was estimated using the polygenic liability model. Results: Validation of family structure found the positive predictive value to be 98.7% for maternal links and 98.6% for paternal links. Having an affected twin, first-degree relative, or spouse was associated with an adjusted RR (95% CI) of 553.66 (427.59-716.89), 32.49 (28.66-36.84), and 2.17 (0.31-15.40) for T1D, respectively. Based on the polygenic liability model, heritability, shared and non-shared contributions to T1D, and variances were 66.50%, 10.86%, and 22.64%, respectively. A family history of T1D was associated with an RR (95% CI) of 1.51 (1.20-1.89) for rheumatoid arthritis, 1.66 (1.21-2.26) for Sjögren's syndrome, 1.48 (1.09-2.01) for systemic lupus erythematosus, 1.24 (1.14-1.35) for simple goiter, 1.16 (1.04-1.31) for non-toxic nodular goiter, 1.61 (1.49-1.74) for thyrotoxicosis, 1.78 (1.57-2.01) for acquired hypothyroidism, 1.66 (1.40-1.98) for thyroiditis, and 1.15 (0.97-1.37) for epilepsy. Conclusion: These data highlight the importance of the genetic contribution to T1D and confirm the coaggregation of autoimmune and metabolic diseases with T1D.

8.
J Lipid Res ; 59(9): 1763-1770, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29986999

RESUMO

Omega-6 FAs are inflammatory mediators that are increased in joints with osteoarthritis (OA), but their association with OA progression is not yet well defined. To investigate the relationship between omega-6 FAs and knee OA, we measured with LC-MS the levels of 22 omega-6 lipids (arachidonic acid, linoleic acid, and 20 oxylipins) in synovial fluid (SF) from 112 knees of 102 individuals (58 with knee OA; 44 controls). We hypothesized that oxylipin metabolites would increase in OA knee SF and with radiographically progressive disease. We validated results by comparing samples from affected and unaffected knees in 10 individuals with unilateral OA. In adjusted analysis, SF levels of three omega-6 oxylipins [prostaglandin D2, 11,12-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (DHET), and 14,15-DHET] were associated with OA. Of these, 11,12-DHET and 14,15-DHET were higher in affected versus unaffected knees of people with unilateral disease (P < 0.014 and P < 0.003, respectively). Levels of these and 8,9-DHET were also associated with radiographic progression over 3.3 years in 87 individuals. Circulating levels of all three were associated with gene variants at the soluble epoxide hydrolase enzyme. Lipidomic profiling in SF identified an additional inflammatory pathway associated with knee OA and radiographic progression.

9.
J Pain Res ; 11: 1087-1093, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29922084

RESUMO

Background: Disturbed sleep is strongly correlated with chronic pain. The aim of this study was to examine the association between sleep disturbance and incident joint pain focusing on neuropathic-like pain symptoms. Methods: A total of 423 individuals who had undergone total joint replacement (TJR) for osteoarthritis were assessed at the mean time of 3.6 years post-surgery and again at 5.9 years post-TJR, using the Medical Outcomes Survey sleep subscale, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and painDETECT questionnaire instruments. Cox hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed adjusting for age, body mass index, sex, and use of hypnotic and analgesic medication. Results: The presence of neuropathic pain symptoms predicted incidence of disturbed sleep after adjustment for covariates and pain severity (adjusted HR [aHR] 2.01, 95% CI: 1.00-4.10; p<0.05). There was no association between joint pain and incidence of disturbed sleep when individuals with neuropathic pain symptoms at the baseline visit were excluded (aHR 1.11, 95% CI: 0.47-2.67). Disturbed sleep at baseline predicted incident neuropathic joint pain symptoms (aHR 2.75, 95% CI: 1.21-6.26; p<0.016) but had no effect on incidence of joint pain when all types of pain were considered together (aHR 0.63, 95% CI: 0.30-1.39). Conclusion: These data suggest a causal bidirectional link between sleep disturbance and joint pain with neuropathic features but not with other types of joint pain.

10.
BMJ ; 361: k2179, 2018 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29899036
11.
Nat Rev Rheumatol ; 14(7): 387-388, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29899548
12.
BMJ Open ; 8(5): e021344, 2018 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29773704

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The beneficial effect of dietary omega-3 supplementation in younger adults or older people with acute or chronic disease is established. Knowledge is now needed about the effect in medically stable older people. The objective of this study is to examine and assess the evidence for a role of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation in older adults on (1) muscle mass and muscle strength, (2) inflammatory biomarkers and (3) physical activity. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A systematic review and data synthesis will be conducted of randomised controlled trials in older people not recruited for any given disease diagnosis. Placebo-controlled studies reporting interventions involving dietary supplementation of omega-3 PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid will be included. Outcomes must include changes from baseline to last available follow-up for one or more of the following: muscle mass, inflammatory biomarkers, physical activity, walking speed, weight change, hand grip strength or muscle strength. Once the search strategy has been carried out, two independent researchers will assess relevant papers for eligibility. Articles up until 31 December 2017 in any language will be included. We will provide a narrative synthesis of the findings from the included studies. Studies will be grouped for meta-analysis according to the outcome(s) provided. Where studies have used the same type of intervention, with the same outcome measure, we will pool the results using a random effects meta-analysis, with standardised mean differences for continuous outcomes and risk ratios for binary outcomes, and calculate 95% CI and two-sided p values for each outcome. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: No research ethics approval is required for this systematic review as no confidential patient data will be used. The results of this systematic review will be disseminated through publication in an open-access peer-reviewed journal and through conference presentations. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42017080240.

13.
Eur Heart J ; 39(25): 2390-2397, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29750272

RESUMO

Aims: The gut microbiome influences metabolic syndrome (MetS) and inflammation and is therapeutically modifiable. Arterial stiffness is poorly correlated with most traditional risk factors. Our aim was to examine whether gut microbial composition is associated with arterial stiffness. Methods and results: We assessed the correlation between carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), a measure of arterial stiffness, and gut microbiome composition in 617 middle-aged women from the TwinsUK cohort with concurrent serum metabolomics data. Pulse wave velocity was negatively correlated with gut microbiome alpha diversity (Shannon index, Beta(SE)= -0.25(0.07), P = 1 × 10-4) after adjustment for covariates. We identified seven operational taxonomic units associated with PWV after adjusting for covariates and multiple testing-two belonging to the Ruminococcaceae family. Associations between microbe abundances, microbe diversity, and PWV remained significant after adjustment for levels of gut-derived metabolites (indolepropionate, trimethylamine oxide, and phenylacetylglutamine). We linearly combined the PWV-associated gut microbiome-derived variables and found that microbiome factors explained 8.3% (95% confidence interval 4.3-12.4%) of the variance in PWV. A formal mediation analysis revealed that only a small proportion (5.51%) of the total effect of the gut microbiome on PWV was mediated by insulin resistance and visceral fat, c-reactive protein, and cardiovascular risk factors after adjusting for age, body mass index, and mean arterial pressure. Conclusions: Gut microbiome diversity is inversely associated with arterial stiffness in women. The effect of gut microbiome composition on PWV is only minimally mediated by MetS. This first human observation linking the gut microbiome to arterial stiffness suggests that targeting the microbiome may be a way to treat arterial ageing.

14.
Nat Genet ; 50(6): 790-795, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29808030

RESUMO

The human gut microbiome plays a key role in human health 1 , but 16S characterization lacks quantitative functional annotation 2 . The fecal metabolome provides a functional readout of microbial activity and can be used as an intermediate phenotype mediating host-microbiome interactions 3 . In this comprehensive description of the fecal metabolome, examining 1,116 metabolites from 786 individuals from a population-based twin study (TwinsUK), the fecal metabolome was found to be only modestly influenced by host genetics (heritability (H2) = 17.9%). One replicated locus at the NAT2 gene was associated with fecal metabolic traits. The fecal metabolome largely reflects gut microbial composition, explaining on average 67.7% (±18.8%) of its variance. It is strongly associated with visceral-fat mass, thereby illustrating potential mechanisms underlying the well-established microbial influence on abdominal obesity. Fecal metabolic profiling thus is a novel tool to explore links among microbiome composition, host phenotypes, and heritable complex traits.

15.
Nat Genet ; 50(5): 652-656, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29662168

RESUMO

Hair color is one of the most recognizable visual traits in European populations and is under strong genetic control. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of almost 300,000 participants of European descent. We identified 123 autosomal and one X-chromosome loci significantly associated with hair color; all but 13 are novel. Collectively, single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with hair color within these loci explain 34.6% of red hair, 24.8% of blond hair, and 26.1% of black hair heritability in the study populations. These results confirm the polygenic nature of complex phenotypes and improve our understanding of melanin pigment metabolism in humans.

16.
Nat Rev Rheumatol ; 14(6): 327-340, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29670212

RESUMO

Mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation are now recognized as important factors in the development of osteoarthritis (OA). Mitochondria are the energy powerhouses of the cell, and also regulate different processes involved in the pathogenesis of OA including inflammation, apoptosis, calcium metabolism and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Mitochondria contain their own genetic material, mtDNA, which evolved through the sequential accumulation of mtDNA variants to enable humans to adapt to different climates. The ROS and reactive metabolic intermediates that are by-products of mitochondrial metabolism are regulated in part by mtDNA and are among the signals that transmit information between mitochondria and the nucleus. These signals can alter nuclear gene expression and, when disrupted, affect a number of cellular processes and metabolic pathways, leading to disease. mtDNA variation influences OA-associated phenotypes, including those related to metabolism, inflammation and even ageing, as well as nuclear epigenetic regulation. This influence also enables the use of specific mtDNA haplogroups as complementary diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of OA.

17.
PLoS One ; 13(3): e0194316, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29566009

RESUMO

Several studies suggest that low birthweight resulting from restricted intrauterine growth can leave a metabolic footprint which may persist into adulthood. To investigate this, we performed metabolomic profiling on 5036 female twins, aged 18-80, with weight at birth information available from the TwinsUK cohort and performed independent replication in two additional cohorts. Out of 422 compounds tested, 25 metabolites associated with birthweight in these twins, replicated in 1951 men and women from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study (HCS, aged 66) and in 2391 men and women from the North Finland Birth 1986 cohort (NFBC, aged 16). We found distinct heterogeneity between sexes and, after adjusting for multiple tests and heterogeneity, two metabolites were reproducible overall (propionylcarnitine and 3-4-hydroxyphenyllactate). Testing women only, we found other metabolites associated with lower birthweight from the meta-analysis of the three cohorts (2-hydroxy-butyric acid and γ-glutamylleucine). Higher levels of all these metabolites can be linked to insulin resistance, oxidative stress or a dysfunction of energy metabolism, suggesting that low birthweight in both twins and singletons are having an impact on these pathways in adulthood.


Assuntos
Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/fisiopatologia , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso/fisiologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Metaboloma/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Carnitina/análogos & derivados , Carnitina/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Dipeptídeos/análise , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Hidroxibutiratos/análise , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenilpropionatos/análise , Gravidez , Fatores Sexuais , Gêmeos/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
18.
Circ Res ; 122(11): 1555-1564, 2018 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29535164

RESUMO

RATIONALE: One measure of protein glycosylation (GlycA) has been reported to predict higher cardiovascular risk by reflecting inflammatory pathways. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study is to assess the role of a comprehensive panel of IgG glycosylation traits on traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease and on presence of subclinical atherosclerosis in addition to GlycA. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured 76 IgG glycosylation traits in 2970 women (age range, 40-79 years) from the TwinsUK cohort and correlated it to their estimated 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk score and their carotid and femoral plaque measured by ultrasound imaging. Eight IgG glycan traits are associated with the 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk score after adjusting for multiple tests and for individual risk factors-5 with increased risk and 3 with decreased risk. These glycans replicated in 967 women from ORCADES cohort (Orkney Complex Disease Study), and 6 of them were also associated in 845 men. A linear combination of IgG glycans and GlycA is also associated with presence of carotid (odds ratio, 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-1.93; P=7.5×10-5) and femoral (odds ratio, 1.32; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.64; P=0.01) plaque in a subset of women with atherosclerosis data after adjustment for traditional risk factors. One specific glycosylation trait, GP18-the percentage of FA2BG2S1 glycan in total IgG glycans, was negatively correlated with very-low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride levels in serum and with presence of carotid plaque (odds ratio, 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.50-0.71; P=5×10-4). CONCLUSIONS: We find molecular pathways linking IgG to arterial lesion formation. Glycosylation traits are independently associated with subclinical atherosclerosis. One specific trait related to the sialylated N-glycan is negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk, very-low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride serum levels, and presence of carotid plaque.

19.
Physiol Genomics ; 50(2): 117-126, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29341867

RESUMO

Disruption in the metabolism of lipids is broadly classified under dyslipidemia and relates to the concentration of lipids in the blood. Dyslipidemia is a predictor of cardio-metabolic disease including obesity. Traditionally, the large interindividual variation has been related to genetic factors and diet. Genome-wide association studies have identified over 150 loci related to abnormal lipid levels, explaining ~40% of the total variation. Part of the unexplained variance has been attributed to environmental factors including diet, but the extent of the dietary contribution remains unquantified. Furthermore, other factors are likely to influence lipid metabolism including the gut microbiome, which plays an important role in the digestion of different dietary components including fats and polysaccharides. Here we describe the contributing role of host genetics and the gut microbiome to dyslipidemia and discuss the potential therapeutic implications of advances in understanding the gut microbiome to the treatment of dyslipidemia.

20.
Joint Bone Spine ; 85(3): 323-325, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28528279

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To validate the gout activity score (GAS) against the gout impact scale in a primary care based gout cohort. METHODS: This was a single-centre cross-sectional study. People with gout who participated in previous research at academic rheumatology, University of Nottingham, UK, and consented for participation in future studies were mailed a questionnaire in September 2015. Those returning completed questionnaires were invited to attend for a study visit at which blood was collected and musculoskeletal examination was performed. The Gout Assessment Questionnaire, which contains the gout impact scale (GIS), and short form (SF) 36v2 questionnaires were completed. The GAS3-step-c score was calculated. Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated to examine correlation between GAS and SF-36 v2, and GIS. Statistical analyses were performed using PASW v22. RESULTS: One hundred and two (93% men) of the 150 participants who were mailed a questionnaire attended the study visit. Their mean (SD) age, body mass index, serum uric acid and GAS were 67.94 (9.93) years, 29.96 (4.57) kg/m2, 5.25 (1.75) mg/dl, and 2.99 (0.74) respectively. There was moderate correlation between GAS and gout concern overall, unmet gout treatment need, and gout concern during an attack components of GIS (r=0.306 to 0.453), but no to poor correlation between GAS and summary scores and scales of SF-36 v2 (r=-0.090 to -0.251). CONCLUSION: This first study to validate GAS against the GIS found moderate correlation. However, this study did not examine the predictive validity of GAS, and prospective studies are needed before GAS can be used widely.

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