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1.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372606

RESUMO

As demonstrated with the novel coronavirus pandemic, rapid and accurate diagnosis is key to determine the clinical characteristic of a disease and to improve vaccine development. Once the infected person is identified, hematological findings may be used to predict disease outcome and offer the correct treatment. Rapid and accurate diagnosis and clinical parameters are pivotal to track infections during clinical trials and set protection status. This is also applicable for re-emerging diseases like dengue fever, which causes outbreaks in Asia and Latin America every 4 to 5 years. Some areas in the US are also endemic for the transmission of dengue virus (DENV), the causal agent of dengue fever. However, significant number of DENV infections in rural areas are diagnosed solely by clinical and hematological findings because of the lack of availability of ELISA or PCR-based tests or the infrastructure to implement them in the near future. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) are a less sensitive, yet they represent a timely way of detecting DENV infections. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is an association between hematological findings and the probability for an NS1-based DENV RDT to detect the DENV NS1 antigen. We also aimed to describe the hematological parameters that are associated with the diagnosis through each test.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Dengue/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Ásia/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Dengue/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pandemias , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(7): e0009517, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Peru, the information regarding sand fly vectors of leishmaniasis and bartonellosis in the Amazon region is limited. In this study, we carried out sand fly collections in Peruvian lowland and highland jungle areas using different trap type configurations and screened them for Leishmania and Bartonella DNA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Phlebotomine sand flies were collected in Peruvian Amazon jungle and inter Andean regions using CDC light trap, UV and color LED traps, Mosquito Magnet trap, BG Sentinel trap, and a Shannon trap placed outside the houses. Leishmania spp. screening was performed by kDNA PCR and confirmed by a nested cytochrome B gene (cytB) PCR. Bartonella spp. screening was performed by ITS PCR and confirmed by citrate synthase gene (gltA). The PCR amplicons were sequenced to identify Leishmania and Bartonella species. UV and Blue LED traps collected the highest average number of sand flies per hour in low jungle; UV, Mosquito Magnet and Shannon traps in high jungle; and Mosquito Magnet in inter Andean region. Leishmania guyanensis in Lutzomyia carrerai carrerai and L. naiffi in Lu. hirsuta hirsuta were identified based on cytB sequencing. Bartonella spp. related to Bartonella bacilliformis in Lu. whitmani, Lu. nevesi, Lu. hirsuta hirsuta and Lu. sherlocki, and a Bartonella sp. related to Candidatus B. rondoniensis in Lu. nevesi and Lu. maranonensis were identified based on gltA gene sequencing. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: UV, Blue LED, Mosquito Magnet and Shannon traps were more efficient than the BG-Sentinel, Green, and Red LED traps. This is the first report of L. naiffi and of two genotypes of Bartonella spp. related to B. bacilliformis and Candidatus B. rondoniensis infecting sand fly species from the Amazon region in Peru.

3.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253232, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34157032

RESUMO

A major challenge for malaria is the lack of tools for accurate and timely diagnosis in the field which are critical for case management and surveillance. Microscopy along with rapid diagnostic tests are the current mainstay for malaria diagnosis in most endemic regions. However, these methods present several limitations. This study assessed the accuracy of Gazelle, a novel rapid malaria diagnostic device, from samples collected from the Peruvian Amazon between 2019 and 2020. Diagnostic accuracy was compared against microscopy and two rapid diagnostic tests (SD Bioline and BinaxNOW) using 18ssr nested-PCR as reference test. In addition, a real-time PCR assay (PET-PCR) was used for parasite quantification. Out of 217 febrile patients enrolled and tested, 180 specimens (85 P. vivax and 95 negatives) were included in the final analysis. Using nested-PCR as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of Gazelle was 88.2% and 97.9%, respectively. Using a cutoff of 200 parasites/µl, Gazelle's sensitivity for samples with more than 200 p/uL was 98.67% (95%CI: 92.79% to 99.97%) whereas the sensitivity for samples lower than 200 p/uL (n = 10) was 12.5% (95%CI: 0.32% to 52.65%). Gazelle's sensitivity and specificity were statistically similar to microscopy (sensitivity = 91.8, specificity = 100%, p = 0.983) and higher than both SD Bioline (sensitivity = 82.4, specificity = 100%, p = 0.016) and BinaxNOW (sensitivity = 71.8%, specificity = 97.9%, p = 0.002). The diagnostic accuracy of Gazelle for malaria detection in P. vivax infections was comparable to light microscopy and superior to both RDTs even in the presence of low parasitemia infections. The performance of Gazelle makes it a valuable tool for malaria diagnosis and active case detection that can be utilized in different malaria-endemic regions.

4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(2): e0009000, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566811

RESUMO

The Peruvian-Brazilian border is a highly endemic tegumentary leishmaniasis region in South America. The interoceanic highway is a commercial route that connects Peru and Brazil through Madre de Dios and has raised concerns about its impact on previously undisturbed areas. In order to assess leishmaniasis transmission risk along this highway, we conducted a surveillance study of the sand fly populations in this area. Sand flies were collected between 2009 and 2010 along transects at 200 m, 600 m and 1000 m from six study sites located along the highway (Iberia, La Novia, Alto Libertad, El Carmen, Florida Baja, Mazuko and Mavila) and an undisturbed area (Malinowski). Collected specimens were identified based on morphology and non-engorged females of each species were pooled and screened by kinetoplast PCR to detect natural Leishmania infections. A total of 9,023 specimens were collected belonging to 54 different Lutzomyia species including the first report of Lu. gantieri in Peru. Four species accounted for 50% of all specimens (Lutzomyia carrerai carrerai, Lu. davisi, Lu. shawi and Lu. richardwardi). El Carmen, Alto Libertad, Florida Baja and Malinowski presented higher Shannon diversity indexes (H = 2.36, 2.30, 2.17 and 2.13, respectively) than the most human disturbed sites of Mazuko and La Novia (H = 1.53 and 1.06, respectively). PCR detected 10 positive pools belonging to Lu. carrerai carrerai, Lu. yuilli yuilli, Lu. hirsuta hirsuta, Lu. (Trichophoromyia) spp., and Lu. (Lutzomyia) spp. Positive pools from 1,000 m transects had higher infectivity rates than those from 600 m and 200 m transects (9/169 = 5.3% vs 0/79 = 0% and 1/127 = 0.8%, p = 0.018). El Carmen, accounted for eight out of ten positives whereas one positive was collected in Florida Baja and Mazuko each. Our study has shown differences in sand fly diversity, abundance and species composition across and within sites. Multiple clustered Lutzomyia pools with natural Leishmania infection suggest a complex, diverse and spotty role in leishmaniasis transmission in Madre de Dios, with increased risk farther from the highway.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal/fisiologia , Leishmania/fisiologia , Animais , Brasil , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Leishmania/genética , Masculino , Peru
5.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 32, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an endemic disease in Brazil that is highly prevalent in the northern region of the country. Although there is a continuous and growing number of cases registered in the state of Roraima, there is limited information regarding the species of Leishmania that affect the human population. In this study, we aimed to characterize which Leishmania species cause human disease in those presenting with cutaneous leishmaniasis in endemic areas of the State of Roraima. METHODS: We conducted a prospective surveillance study between 2016 to 2018 in health centers located in the State of Roraima, Brazil. Participants with clinical suspicion of CL were enrolled and provided lesion samples for parasitological detection by microscopy. A subset of the samples was tested by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1 PCR) for molecular species identification. RESULTS: A total of 262 participants were enrolled in this study. Of those, 129 (49.27%) were positive by parasitological examination. Most positive subjects (81.58%) were male, and most cases presented a single lesion (80.26%). ITS-1 PCR and sequencing on a subset of 76 samples allowed us to detect nine different species of Leishmania: L. (V.) braziliensis, L (V.) panamensis, L. (V.) guyanensis, L. (V.) naiffi, L. (V.) shawi, L.(V.) utingensis, L. (V.) lindenbergi, L. (L.) amazonensis and L. (L.) mexicana. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides the first assessment of circulating species of Leishmania in the State of Roraima, Brazil, and shows the high diversity in this region. This study opens the path for further research on the transmission of leishmaniasis in the northernmost Brazilian State including vector and reservoir surveillance as well as for intensification of investigation and control activities against CL in the region.


Assuntos
Leishmania/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Leishmania/classificação , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Leishmania/patogenicidade , Leishmania braziliensis/genética , Leishmania braziliensis/patogenicidade , Leishmania guyanensis/genética , Leishmania guyanensis/patogenicidade , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20975, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33262482

RESUMO

Malaria continues to be an important health problem in Honduras despite major progress achieved reducing its incidence in the last two decades. In a context of case reduction, continuing surveillance of parasite diversity and drug resistance is an important component to assist effective malaria control strategies and support risk assessments. In this study, we employed next generation sequencing on collected Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum samples from the Hospital Escuela (University Hospital) in Honduras between 2005 and 2017. Hospital Escuela is the main public health hospital in Honduras and receives suspected malaria cases from endemic regions within the country. The resulting sequencing data was used to assess complexity of infections, parasite population structure, parasite diversity and drug resistance profiling. All P. vivax samples and all autochtonous P. falciparum samples were monoclonal and presented a low intra population diversity (π = 0.25 and 0.07, respectively). Genotyping of drug resistance markers showed that three P. falciparum samples presented the chloroquine resistant haplotype SVMNT on pfcrtr (positions 72-76). Epidemiological data suggested that two of these samples were imported cases from Africa whereas the third one was a local case. Three suspected imported cases (two of which were also pfcrt mutants) presented the pfmdr1 86Y mutation that further enhances the CQ resistant genotype. No evidence was found for kelch13 artemisinin resistance associated mutations nor parasite genetic background mutations. Discriminant analysis of principal components and phylogenetic analysis showed two P. vivax and two P. falciparum parasite sub-populations with limited recombination between them. It also confirmed the closer relationship of the three imported cases with African strains. Our findings showed that local Honduras P. falciparum strains do not hold CQ resistance polymorphisms which aligns with clinical data reported by the country and supports the continuity of CQ based treatment in Honduras. In addition, our findings highlight the need of using genomic approaches to provide key information about parasite biology including drug resistance, population structure and HRP2/HRP3 deletions which are becoming relevant as the country move towards elimination.


Assuntos
Genoma , Genômica , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Plasmodium vivax/genética , Biodiversidade , Análise por Conglomerados , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Honduras , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Malária Vivax/parasitologia , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Manejo de Espécimes
7.
Malar J ; 19(1): 450, 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33276776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The high incidence of Plasmodium vivax infections associated with clinical severity and the emergence of chloroquine (CQ) resistance has posed a challenge to control efforts aimed at eliminating this disease. Despite conflicting evidence regarding the role of mutations of P. vivax multidrug resistance 1 gene (pvmdr1) in drug resistance, this gene can be a tool for molecular surveillance due to its variability and spatial patterns. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from studies conducted between 2006 and 2015 in the Northern and Southern Amazon Basin and the North Coast of Peru. Thick and thin blood smears were prepared for malaria diagnosis by microscopy and PCR was performed for detection of P. vivax monoinfections. The pvmdr1 gene was subsequently sequenced and the genetic data was used for haplotype and diversity analysis. RESULTS: A total of 550 positive P. vivax samples were sequenced; 445 from the Northern Amazon Basin, 48 from the Southern Amazon Basin and 57 from the North Coast. Eight non-synonymous mutations and three synonymous mutations were analysed in 4,395 bp of pvmdr1. Amino acid changes at positions 976F and 1076L were detected in the Northern Amazon Basin (12.8%) and the Southern Amazon Basin (4.2%) with fluctuations in the prevalence of both mutations in the Northern Amazon Basin during the course of the study that seemed to correspond with a malaria control programme implemented in the region. A total of 13 pvmdr1 haplotypes with non-synonymous mutations were estimated in Peru and an overall nucleotide diversity of π = 0.00054. The Northern Amazon Basin was the most diverse region (π = 0.00055) followed by the Southern Amazon and the North Coast (π = 0.00035 and π = 0.00014, respectively). CONCLUSION: This study showed a high variability in the frequencies of the 976F and 1076L polymorphisms in the Northern Amazon Basin between 2006 and 2015. The low and heterogeneous diversity of pvmdr1 found in this study underscores the need for additional research that can elucidate the role of this gene on P. vivax drug resistance as well as in vitro and clinical data that can clarify the extend of CQ resistance in Peru.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32984076

RESUMO

Introduction: Malaria is still an important vector-borne disease in the New World tropics. Despite the recent decline in malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum infection in Africa, a rise in Plasmodium infections has been detected in several low malaria transmission areas in Latin America. One of the main obstacles in the battle against malaria is the lack of innovative tools to assess malaria transmission risk, and the behavioral plasticity of one of the main malaria vectors in Latin America, Anopheles darlingi. Methods: We used human IgG antibodies against mosquito salivary gland proteins as a measure of disease risk. Whole salivary gland antigen (SGA) from Anopheles darlingi mosquitoes was used as antigen in Western blot experiments, in which a ~65 kDa protein was visualized as the main immunogenic band and sent for sequencing by mass spectrometry. Apyrase and peroxidase peptides were designed and used as antigens in an ELISA-based test to measure human IgG antibody responses in people with different clinical presentations of malaria. Results: Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed 17 proteins contained in the ~65 kDa band, with an apyrase and a peroxidase as the two most abundant proteins. Detection of IgG antibodies against salivary antigens by ELISA revealed a significant higher antibody levels in people with malaria infection when compared to uninfected volunteers using the AnDar_Apy1 and AnDar_Apy2 peptides. We also detected a significant positive correlation between the anti-peptides IgG levels and antibodies against the Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum antigens PvMSP1 and PfMSP1. Odd ratios suggest that people with higher IgG antibodies against the apyrase peptides were up to five times more likely to have a malaria infection. Conclusion: Antibodies against salivary peptides from An. darlingi salivary gland proteins may be used as biomarkers for malaria risk.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Plasmodium , África , Animais , Formação de Anticorpos , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores , Plasmodium falciparum , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares
9.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234263, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525900

RESUMO

The current context of malaria elimination requires urgent development and implementation of highly sensitive and specific methods for prompt detection and treatment of malaria parasites. Such methods should overcome current delays in diagnosis, allow the detection of low-density infections and address the difficulties in accessing remote endemic communities. In this study, we assessed the performance of the RealAmp and malachite-green loop mediated isothermal amplification (MG-LAMP) methodologies, using microscopy and conventional nested-PCR as reference techniques. Both LAMP techniques were performed for Plasmodium genus, P. falciparum, and P. vivax identification using 136 whole blood samples collected from three communities located in the Peruvian Amazon basin. Turnaround time and costs of performing the LAMP assays were estimated and compared to that of microscopy and nested-PCR. Using nested-PCR as reference standard, we calculated the sensitivity, specificity and 95% confidence interval (CI) for all methods. RealAmp had a sensitivity of 92% (95% CI: 85-96.5%) and specificity of 100% (95% CI: 89.1-100%) for species detection; sensitivity and specificity of MG-LAMP were 94% (95% CI: 87.5-97.8%) and 100% (89.1-100%), respectively. Whereas microscopy showed 88.1% sensitivity (95% CI: 80.2-93.7%) and 100% specificity (95%: 89.1-100%). The turnaround time and costs of performing the LAMP assays were lower compared to those associated with nested-PCR but higher than those associated with microscopy. The two LAMP assays were shown to be more sensitive and simple to implement than microscopy. Both LAMP methodologies could be used as large-scale screening tests, but the MG-LAMP assay uses a simple, portable heat-block while the RealAmp requires a RealAmp machine or a real-time PCR machine. This makes the MG-LAMP an appropriate choice for malaria surveillance studies in endemic sites. Use of LAMP tests in active case detection of Plasmodium parasites could help to detect positive malaria cases early.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Compostos Organometálicos/metabolismo , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Plasmodium vivax/genética , Plasmodium vivax/isolamento & purificação , Temperatura , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Malária Falciparum/diagnóstico , Malária Vivax/diagnóstico , Masculino , Plasmodium falciparum/fisiologia , Plasmodium vivax/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Malar J ; 18(1): 176, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasmodium ovale curtisi and Plasmodium ovale wallikeri are regarded as less virulent forms of malaria with a geographic distribution including Southeast Asia, Central and West Africa, and is increasingly reported as an infection in returning travellers. A species of malaria that may have delayed or relapsing presentations similar to Plasmodium vivax, the clinical presentation of P. ovale spp. has been described to have prepatent periods of 2 weeks or slightly longer with reports of relapse following primary infection out to 8-9 months. This presentation may be obscured further in the setting of anti-malarial exposure, with report of delayed primary infection out to 4 years. Presented is a cluster of 4 imported P. ovale spp. cases in returning Peruvian military personnel assigned to United Nations peace-keeping operations in the Central African Republic. CASE PRESENTATION: From January to December 2016, Peruvian peace-keepers were deployed in support of United Nations (UN) operations in the Central African Republic (CAR). While serving abroad, Navy, Army, and Air Force members experienced 223 episodes of Plasmodium falciparum malaria following interruption of prophylaxis with mefloquine. Diagnosis was made using rapid diagnostics tests (RDTs) and/or smear with no coinfections identified. Cases of malaria were treated with locally-procured artemether-lumefantrine. Returning to Peru in January 2017, 200 peace-keepers were screened via thick and thin smear while on weekly mefloquine prophylaxis with only 1 showing nucleic acid within red blood cells consistent with Plasmodium spp. and 11 reporting syndromes of ill-defined somatic complaints. Between a period of 5 days to 11 months post return, 4 cases of P. ovale spp. were diagnosed using smear and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) following febrile complaints. All cases were subsequently treated with chloroquine and primaquine, with cure of clinical disease and documented clearance of parasitaemia. CONCLUSION: These patients represent the first imported cases in Peru of this species of malaria as well as highlight the challenges in implementing population level prophylaxis in a deployed environment, and the steps for timely diagnosis and management in a non-endemic region where risk of introduction for local transmission exists.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/parasitologia , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/epidemiologia , Plasmodium ovale/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Combinação Arteméter e Lumefantrina/uso terapêutico , República Centro-Africana/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Parasitemia/tratamento farmacológico , Peru , Plasmodium ovale/genética , Nações Unidas
11.
BMC Genomics ; 19(1): 816, 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30424726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, is currently divided into six discrete typing units (DTUs), named TcI-TcVI. TcII is among the major DTUs enrolled in human infections in South America southern cone, where it is associated with severe cardiac and digestive symptoms. Despite the importance of TcII in Chagas disease epidemiology and pathology, so far, no genome-wide comparisons of the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes of TcII field isolates have been performed to track the variability and evolution of this DTU in endemic regions. RESULTS: In the present work, we have sequenced and compared the whole nuclear and mitochondrial genomes of seven TcII strains isolated from chagasic patients from the central and northeastern regions of Minas Gerais, Brazil, revealing an extensive genetic variability within this DTU. A comparison of the phylogeny based on the nuclear or mitochondrial genomes revealed that the majority of branches were shared by both sequences. The subtle divergences in the branches are probably consequence of mitochondrial introgression events between TcII strains. Two T. cruzi strains isolated from patients living in the central region of Minas Gerais, S15 and S162a, were clustered in the nuclear and mitochondrial phylogeny analysis. These two strains were isolated from the other five by the Espinhaço Mountains, a geographic barrier that could have restricted the traffic of insect vectors during T. cruzi evolution in the Minas Gerais state. Finally, the presence of aneuploidies was evaluated, revealing that all seven TcII strains have a different pattern of chromosomal duplication/loss. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of genomic variability and aneuploidies suggests that there is significant genomic variability within Minas Gerais TcII strains, which could be exploited by the parasite to allow rapid selection of favorable phenotypes. Also, the aneuploidy patterns vary among T. cruzi strains and does not correlate with the nuclear phylogeny, suggesting that chromosomal duplication/loss are recent and frequent events in the parasite evolution.


Assuntos
Aneuploidia , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Variação Genética , Genoma de Protozoário , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Animais , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Tipagem Molecular , Filogenia , Trypanosoma cruzi/classificação , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação
12.
Genome Med ; 10(1): 52, 2018 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29973248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax poses a significant challenge to malaria elimination due to its ability to cause relapsed infections from reactivation of dormant liver parasites called hypnozoites. We analyzed 69 P. vivax whole genome sequences obtained from subjects residing in three different villages along the Peruvian Amazon. This included 23 paired P. vivax samples from subjects who experienced recurrent P. vivax parasitemia following observed treatment with chloroquine and primaquine. METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood samples collected from subjects. P. vivax DNA was enriched using selective whole genome amplification and whole genome sequencing. We used single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the core P. vivax genome to determine characteristics of the parasite population using discriminant analysis of principal components, maximum likelihood estimation of individual ancestries, and phylogenetic analysis. We estimated the relatedness of the paired samples by calculating the number of segregating sites and using a hidden Markov model approach to estimate identity by descent. RESULTS: We present a comprehensive dataset of population genetics of Plasmodium vivax in the Peruvian Amazonian. We define the parasite population structure in this region and demonstrate a novel method for distinguishing homologous relapses from reinfections or heterologous relapses with improved accuracy. The parasite population in this area was quite diverse with an estimated five subpopulations and evidence of a highly heterogeneous ancestry of some of the isolates, similar to previous analyses of P. vivax in this region. Pairwise comparison of recurrent infections determined that there were 12 homologous relapses and 3 likely heterologous relapses with highly related parasites. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first large-scale study to evaluate recurrent P. vivax infections using whole genome sequencing. CONCLUSIONS: Whole genome sequencing is a high-resolution tool that can identify P. vivax homologous relapses with increased sensitivity, while also providing data about drug resistance and parasite population genetics. This information is important for evaluating the efficacy of known and novel antirelapse medications in endemic areas and thus advancing the campaign to eliminate malaria.


Assuntos
Malária Vivax/genética , Malária Vivax/transmissão , Plasmodium vivax/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Cromossomos/genética , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Variação Genética , Geografia , Humanos , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Peru/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Dinâmica Populacional , Recidiva , Manejo de Espécimes , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Curr Genomics ; 19(2): 87-97, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29491737

RESUMO

Trypanosomatids are a group of kinetoplastid parasites including some of great public health importance, causing debilitating and life-long lasting diseases that affect more than 24 million people worldwide. Among the trypanosomatids, Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei and species from the Leishmania genus are the most well studied parasites, due to their high prevalence in human infections. These parasites have an extreme genomic and phenotypic variability, with a massive expansion in the copy number of species-specific multigene families enrolled in host-parasite interactions that mediate cellular invasion and immune evasion processes. As most trypanosomatids are heteroxenous, and therefore their lifecycles involve the transition between different hosts, these parasites have developed several strategies to ensure a rapid adaptation to changing environments. Among these strategies, a rapid shift in the repertoire of expressed genes, genetic variability and genome plasticity are key mechanisms. Trypanosomatid genomes are organized into large directional gene clusters that are transcribed polycistronically, where genes derived from the same polycistron may have very distinct mRNA levels. This particular mode of transcription implies that the control of gene expression operates mainly at post-transcriptional level. In this sense, gene duplications/losses were already associated with changes in mRNA levels in these parasites. Gene duplications also allow the generation of sequence variability, as the newly formed copy can diverge without loss of function of the original copy. Recently, aneuploidies have been shown to occur in several Leishmania species and T. cruzi strains. Although aneuploidies are usually associated with debilitating phenotypes in superior eukaryotes, recent data shows that it could also provide increased fitness in stress conditions and generate drug resistance in unicellular eukaryotes. In this review, we will focus on gene and chromosomal copy number variations and their relevance to the evolution of trypanosomatid parasites.

14.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 1993, 2018 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29386521

RESUMO

We examined the mitogenomes of a large global collection of human malaria parasites to explore how and when Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax entered the Americas. We found evidence of a significant contribution of African and South Asian lineages to present-day New World malaria parasites with additional P. vivax lineages appearing to originate from Melanesia that were putatively carried by the Australasian peoples who contributed genes to Native Americans. Importantly, mitochondrial lineages of the P. vivax-like species P. simium are shared by platyrrhine monkeys and humans in the Atlantic Forest ecosystem, but not across the Amazon, which most likely resulted from one or a few recent human-to-monkey transfers. While enslaved Africans were likely the main carriers of P. falciparum mitochondrial lineages into the Americas after the conquest, additional parasites carried by Australasian peoples in pre-Columbian times may have contributed to the extensive diversity of extant local populations of P. vivax.


Assuntos
Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Genoma Mitocondrial , Migração Humana , Malária Falciparum/transmissão , Filogenia , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Animais , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Haplorrinos , Humanos , Plasmodium falciparum/patogenicidade
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 11(11): e0006029, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29107954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an important health problem in the New World affecting civilian and military populations that are frequently exposed in endemic settings. The Peruvian region of Madre de Dios located near the border with Brazil is one of the most endemic CL regions in South America with more than 4,451 reported cases between 2010 and 2015 according to the Peruvian epidemiology directorate. However, little is known regarding the diversity and distribution of sand fly vectors in this region. In this study, we aimed to characterize the sand fly fauna in this endemic setting and identify sand fly species naturally infected with Leishmania possibly involved in pathogen transmission. METHODS: Sand fly collections were carried out during 2014 and 2015 in the communities of Flor de Acre, Villa Primavera, Mavila and Arca Pacahuara using CDC light traps and Shannon traps. Collected specimens were identified and non-blood-fed females were selected for Leishmania infection screening using kinetoplastid DNA-PCR (kDNA-PCR) and nested Real time PCR for species identification. RESULTS: A total of 10,897 phlebotomines belonging to the genus Lutzomyia (58 species) and Brumptomyia (2 species) were collected. Our study confirmed the widespread distribution and abundance of Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) spp. (24%), Lu. whitmani (19.4%) and Lu. yucumensis (15.8%) in the region. Analysis of Shannon diversity index indicates variability in sand fly composition across sites with Villa Primavera presenting the highest sand fly diversity and abundance. Leishmania screening by kDNA-PCR resulted in 45 positive pools collected from Flor de Acre (34 pools), Mavila (10 pools) and Arca Pacahuara (1 pool) and included 14 species: Lu. yucumensis, Lu. aragoi, Lu. sallesi, Lu. sherlocki, Lu. shawi, Lu. walkeri, Lu nevesi, Lu. migonei, Lu. davisi, Lu. carrerai, Lu. hirsuta, Lu. (Trichophoromyia) spp., Lu. llanosmartinsi and Lu. whitmani. Lutzomyia sherlocki, Lu. walkeri and Lu. llanosmartinsi had the highest infection rates (8%, 7% and 6%, respectively). We identified Leishmania guyanensis in two Lu. whitmani pools, and L. braziliensis in two Lu. llanosmartinsi pools and one Lu. davisi pool. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our collections there is high sand fly diversity in Madre de Dios, with differences in sand fly abundance and species composition across sites. We identified 14 sand fly species naturally infected with Leishmania spp., having detected natural infection with L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis in three sand fly species. These results suggest the presence of several potential vectors that vary in their spatial and geographical distribution, which could explain the high prevalence of CL cases in this region.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal/fisiologia , Leishmania/fisiologia , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Animais , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Leishmania/genética , Masculino , Peru
16.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 18(1): 104, 2017 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28187714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Molecular genetic markers are one of the most informative and widely used genome features in clinical and environmental diagnostic studies. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular marker is very attractive because it is suitable to high throughput automation and confers high specificity. However, the design of taxon-specific primers may be difficult and time consuming due to the need to identify appropriate genomic regions for annealing primers and to evaluate primer specificity. RESULTS: Here, we report the development of a Tool for Identification of Primers for Multiple Taxa (TipMT), which is a web application to search and design primers for genotyping based on genomic data. The tool identifies and targets single sequence repeats (SSR) or orthologous/taxa-specific genes for genotyping using Multiplex PCR. This pipeline was applied to the genomes of four species of Leishmania (L. amazonensis, L. braziliensis, L. infantum and L. major) and validated by PCR using artificial genomic DNA mixtures of the Leishmania species as templates. This experimental validation demonstrates the reliability of TipMT because amplification profiles showed discrimination of genomic DNA samples from Leishmania species. CONCLUSIONS: The TipMT web tool allows for large-scale identification and design of taxon-specific primers and is freely available to the scientific community at http://200.131.37.155/tipMT/ .


Assuntos
Primers do DNA/metabolismo , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Interface Usuário-Computador , Primers do DNA/química , Genoma de Protozoário , Internet , Leishmania/genética
17.
Sci Rep ; 7: 40804, 2017 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28091623

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is a highly diverse group of diseases caused by kinetoplastid of the genus Leishmania. These parasites are taxonomically diverse, with human pathogenic species separated into two subgenera according to their development site inside the alimentary tract of the sand fly insect vector. The disease encompasses a variable spectrum of clinical manifestations with tegumentary or visceral symptoms. Among the causative species in Brazil, Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis is an important etiological agent of human cutaneous leishmaniasis that accounts for more than 8% of all cases in endemic regions. L. (L.) amazonensis is generally found in the north and northeast regions of Brazil. Here, we report the first isolation of L. (L.) amazonensis from dogs with clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis in Governador Valadares, an endemic focus in the southeastern Brazilian State of Minas Gerais where L. (L.) infantum is also endemic. These isolates were characterized in terms of SNPs, chromosome and gene copy number variations, confirming that they are closely related to a previously sequenced isolate obtained in 1973 from the typical Northern range of this species. The results presented in this article will increase our knowledge of L. (L.) amazonensis-specific adaptations to infection, parasite survival and the transmission of this Amazonian species in a new endemic area of Brazil.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Genoma de Protozoário , Leishmania/genética , Leishmaniose/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Leishmania/patogenicidade , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
18.
BMC Genomics ; 16: 887, 2015 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26518129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a neglected parasitic disease with diverse clinical manifestations and a complex epidemiology. It has been shown that its parasite-related traits vary between species and that they modulate infectivity, pathogenicity, and virulence. However, understanding of the species-specific adaptations responsible for these features and their evolutionary background is limited. To improve our knowledge regarding the parasite biology and adaptation mechanisms of different Leishmania species, we conducted a proteome-wide phylogenomic analysis to gain insights into Leishmania evolution. RESULTS: The analysis of the reconstructed phylomes (totaling 45,918 phylogenies) allowed us to detect genes that are shared in pathogenic Leishmania species, such as calpain-like cysteine peptidases and 3'a2rel-related proteins, or genes that could be associated with visceral or cutaneous development. This analysis also established the phylogenetic relationship of several hypothetical proteins whose roles remain to be characterized. Our findings demonstrated that gene duplication constitutes an important evolutionary force in Leishmania, acting on protein families that mediate host-parasite interactions, such as amastins, GP63 metallopeptidases, cathepsin L-like proteases, and our methods permitted a deeper analysis of their phylogenetic relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight the importance of proteome wide phylogenetic analyses to detect adaptation and evolutionary processes in different organisms and underscore the need to characterize the role of expanded and species-specific proteins in the context of Leishmania evolution by providing a framework for the phylogenetic relationships of Leishmania proteins. Phylogenomic data are publicly available for use through PhylomeDB (http://www.phylomedb.org).


Assuntos
Leishmania/classificação , Leishmania/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Evolução Molecular , Genômica , Histonas/genética , Proteoma
19.
BMC Genomics ; 16: 715, 2015 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26384787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis complex is responsible for most cases of New World tegumentary leishmaniasis. This complex includes two closely related species but with different geographic distribution and disease phenotypes, L. (V.) peruviana and L. (V.) braziliensis. However, the genetic basis of these differences is not well understood and the status of L. (V.) peruviana as distinct species has been questioned by some. Here we sequenced the genomes of two L. (V.) peruviana isolates (LEM1537 and PAB-4377) using Illumina high throughput sequencing and performed comparative analyses against the L. (V.) braziliensis M2904 reference genome. Comparisons were focused on the detection of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), insertions and deletions (INDELs), aneuploidy and gene copy number variations. RESULTS: We found 94,070 variants shared by both L. (V.) peruviana isolates (144,079 in PAB-4377 and 136,946 in LEM1537) against the L. (V.) braziliensis M2904 reference genome while only 26,853 variants separated both L. (V.) peruviana genomes. Analysis in coding sequences detected 26,750 SNPs and 1,513 indels shared by both L. (V.) peruviana isolates against L. (V.) braziliensis M2904 and revealed two L. (V.) braziliensis pseudogenes that are likely to have coding potential in L. (V.) peruviana. Chromosomal read density and allele frequency profiling showed a heterogeneous pattern of aneuploidy with an overall disomic tendency in both L. (V.) peruviana isolates, in contrast with a trisomic pattern in the L. (V.) braziliensis M2904 reference. Read depth analysis allowed us to detect more than 368 gene expansions and 14 expanded gene arrays in L. (V.) peruviana, and the likely absence of expanded amastin gene arrays. CONCLUSIONS: The greater numbers of interspecific SNP/indel differences between L. (V.) peruviana and L. (V.) braziliensis and the presence of different gene and chromosome copy number variations support the classification of both organisms as closely related but distinct species. The extensive nucleotide polymorphisms and differences in gene and chromosome copy numbers in L. (V.) peruviana suggests the possibility that these may contribute to some of the unique features of its biology, including a lower pathology and lack of mucosal development.


Assuntos
Leishmania braziliensis/genética , Leishmania/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Genômica , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
20.
BMC Genomics ; 16: 499, 2015 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26141959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, is currently divided into six discrete typing units (DTUs), named TcI-TcVI. CL Brener, the reference strain of the T. cruzi genome project, is a hybrid with a genome assembled into 41 putative chromosomes. Gene copy number variation (CNV) is well documented as an important mechanism to enhance gene expression and variability in T. cruzi. Chromosomal CNV (CCNV) is another level of gene CNV in which whole blocks of genes are expanded simultaneously. Although the T. cruzi karyotype is not well defined, several studies have demonstrated a significant variation in the size and content of chromosomes between different T. cruzi strains. Despite these studies, the extent of diversity in CCNV among T. cruzi strains based on a read depth coverage analysis has not been determined. RESULTS: We identify the CCNV in T. cruzi strains from the TcI, TcII and TcIII DTUs, by analyzing the depth coverage of short reads from these strains using the 41 CL Brener chromosomes as reference. This study led to the identification of a broader extent of CCNV in T. cruzi than was previously speculated. The TcI DTU strains have very few aneuploidies, while the strains from TcII and TcIII DTUs present a high degree of chromosomal expansions. Chromosome 31, which is the only chromosome that is supernumerary in all six T. cruzi samples evaluated in this study, is enriched with genes related to glycosylation pathways, highlighting the importance of glycosylation to parasite survival. CONCLUSIONS: Increased gene copy number due to chromosome amplification may contribute to alterations in gene expression, which represents a strategy that may be crucial for parasites that mainly depend on post-transcriptional mechanisms to control gene expression.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Genoma de Protozoário/genética , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Expressão Gênica/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Genômica/métodos , Glicosilação
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