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Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 57(11): 1053-1063, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130018


Introduction: Liquid laundry detergent capsules (also called single-use detergent sacs; laundry pods; laundry packets) have become an increasingly popular household product worldwide. Objectives: To review the composition and mechanisms of toxicity of liquid laundry detergent, capsules, and the circumstances, routes, clinical features (and impact of packaging changes) and management of exposure. Methods: The databases PubMed and EMBASE were searched using the terms: "detergent" and "capsule", "pod", "pac" or "sac" combined with "poison", "ingest", "expos" but not "animal" or "in vitro" or "bacteria". The searches yielded 289 articles, of which 186 were excluded: 38 duplicates, 133 not relevant, 10 abstracts which had been published as a paper and 5 non-English language articles. The bibliographies of relevant articles were hand-searched which yielded 14 additional citations. Searching of abstracts from scientific meetings produced five additional citations. A total of 122 publications were relevant to the objectives of the review. Capsules and composition: Capsules typically contain anionic surfactants (20-35%), non-ionic surfactants (10-20%), propylene glycol (8-20%) and ethanol (2-5%) within a water-soluble polyvinyl alcohol membrane. Mechanisms of toxicity: Non-ionic surfactants are the primary mechanism, though anionic surfactants, ethanol and propylene glycol may also contribute. Circumstances of exposure: The majority (60%) of children are exposed when the capsule is removed from its original container. Routes of exposure: Ingestion is the most common (>85%); ocular (<15%) and dermal (<8%) exposure account for the remainder. Features following ingestion: Features develop in around half of all exposures, though >90% are minor. In those with features, vomiting occurs in some 50%; coughing and drowsiness are reported in <5%. Respiratory depression (<0.5%), central nervous system depression (<0.1%) esophageal or gastric injury (<0.5%), metabolic acidosis and hyperlactatemia (<0.05%) have been reported rarely. Of 17 deaths reported, 13 were adults and nine were suffering from cognitive impairment. Features following ocular exposure: Conjunctivitis, eye irritation and/or eye pain are commonly experienced; corneal injury is less common but complete recovery typically occurs within one week. Features following dermal exposure: Clinically important dermal toxicity seldom occurs, though skin burns can develop in <5% of cases when skin contact is prolonged. Impact of packaging changes on features: The implementation of packaging changes resulted in a fall in the number of exposures and their severity in the United States and in the number in Italy. Management-ingestion: Gut decontamination is not recommended, though small amounts of fluid can be administered orally to rinse out the mouth. Symptomatic and supportive care should be offered to all patients that develop features of toxicity. Supplemental oxygen should be administered for hypoxemia, and bronchodilators for laryngospasm/bronchospasm. Intubation and assisted ventilation may be required if CNS and respiratory depression develop. A chest radiograph should be performed if respiratory features develop. In patients with swallowing difficulties, drooling or oropharyngeal burns, endoscopy should be performed; if substantial mucosal damage is present MRI should be considered. In addition, intravenous fluids will be required if prolonged vomiting or diarrhea occur and acid-base disturbances should be corrected. Management-eye exposure: Thorough irrigation of the eye with sodium chloride 0.9% is required. Instillation of a local anesthetic will reduce discomfort and help more thorough decontamination. Due to the potential for corneal injury, fluorescein should be instilled. If ocular injury is present, the patient should be referred to an ophthalmologist. Management-skin exposure: Skin should be irrigated thoroughly with soap and water, and burns should be treated as a thermal burn. Conclusions: Accidental ingestion usually produces no or only minor features. Very rarely respiratory depression, central nervous system depression, esophageal or gastric injury, hyperlactatemia and metabolic acidosis occur. Ocular exposure results in corneal injury infrequently and skin burns can develop uncommonly following prolonged dermal contact. Of 17 deaths reported, 13 were adults and nine were suffering from cognitive impairment.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 57(12): 1146-1153, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30892959


Introduction: Liquid laundry detergent capsules contain concentrated liquid laundry detergent in a water-soluble polyvinyl alcohol membrane.Objective: To review 4652 exposures reported to the United Kingdom National Poisons Information Service (NPIS) and to assess the impact of regulatory changes on potential toxicity.Methods: Telephone enquiries to the NPIS and returned questionnaires for these products were analyzed for the period January 2008 to December 2018.Results: Data on 4652 exposures were reported by telephone or questionnaire, of which 95.4% involved children aged ≤5 years. Overall, 1738 of 4594 patients remained asymptomatic (Poisoning Severity Score [PSS] 0), 2729 developed minor (PSS 1) features, 107 suffered moderate features (PSS 2), 19 were graded as severe (PSS 3) and one died. Ingestion was involved in most exposures (n = 4175): vomiting occurred in 46.5%, coughing occurred in 4.3% and central nervous system depression in 3.2%. Nine (0.2%) children were intubated and ventilated. The eye was exposed in 646 cases: 371 (59.8%) suffered conjunctivitis or eye irritation and 21 (3.4%) had keratitis/corneal damage, which persisted in one patient for 9 d. The skin was involved in 364 cases; in 127 (35.5%) minor dermal features developed including erythema, irritation and rash. The most commonly reported features in the 127 cases with PSS ≥2 were vomiting (n = 75), stridor (n = 34), CNS depression (n = 22), keratitis/corneal damage (n = 21), coughing (n = 18), conjunctivitis (n = 13), hypersalivation (n = 12), foaming from the mouth (n = 11) and hypoxemia (n = 11). However, respiratory features (stridor, hypoxemia, bronchospasm, respiratory distress, dyspnea, pulmonary aspiration and tachypnea) were the reason for grading 56 of 127 cases as PSS ≥2.Conclusions: This large data set of 4652 exposures is reassuring in that 97.2% of exposures resulted in no or only minor features, only 107 patients suffered moderate features (PSS 2) and 19 severe (PSS 3) features; one patient died.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 57(5): 303-311, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30689457


INTRODUCTION: Sodium hypochlorite is used as a bleaching and disinfecting agent and is commonly found in household bleach. OBJECTIVE: The objective is to review critically the epidemiology, mechanisms of toxicity, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of hypochlorite poisoning. METHODS: PubMed was searched from January 1950 to June 2018 using the terms "Hypochlorite", "Sodium Hypochlorite", "Sodium Oxychloride", "Hypochlorous Acid", "Bleach", "Chlorine Bleach", in combination with the keywords "poisoning", "poison", "toxicity", "ingestion", "adverse effects", "overdose", and "intoxication". In addition, bibliographies of identified articles were screened for additional relevant studies including non-indexed reports. Non-peer-reviewed sources were also included. These searches produced 110 citations which were considered relevant. EPIDEMIOLOGY: There is limited information regarding statistical trends on world-wide poisoning from sodium hypochlorite. In the United States of America, poison control center data have shown that enquiries regarding hypochlorite bleaches have ranged from 43,000 to 46,000 per year over the period 2012-2016. Mechanisms of toxicity: Hypochlorite's potential to cause toxicity is related to its oxidizing capacity and the pH of the solution. Toxicity arises from its corrosive activity upon contact with mucous membranes and skin. Features following ingestion: While small accidental ingestions are very unlikely to cause clinically significant toxicity, large ingestions may cause corrosive gastrointestinal injury and systemic effects, including metabolic acidosis, hypernatremia, and hyperchloremia. Features following dental exposure: Hypochlorite is used extensively by dentists for cleaning root canals and is safe if the solution remains within the root canal. Extrusions into the periapical area can result in severe pain with localized large and diffuse swelling and hemorrhage. Features following skin exposure: Prolonged or extensive exposure may cause skin irritation and damage to the skin or dermal hypersensitivity. Such exposures can result in either immediate or delayed-type skin reactions. High concentration solutions have caused severe chemical skin burns. Features following inhalation: Although there are only limited data, inhalation of hypochlorite alone is likely to lead to no more than mild irritation of the upper airways. Features following ocular exposure: Corneal injuries from ocular exposure are generally mild with burning discomfort and superficial disturbance of the corneal epithelium with recovery within 1 or 2 days. With higher concentration solutions, severe eye irritation can occur. DIAGNOSIS: The diagnosis can typically be made on the basis of a careful history, including details of the specific product used, its hypochlorite concentration, and the amount involved. As hypochlorite bleach produces a characteristic smell of chlorine, this may provide a diagnostic clue. In severe cases, corrosive injury is suggested on presentation because of hypersalivation, difficulty swallowing, retrosternal pain or hematemesis. MANAGEMENT: Symptom-directed supportive care is the mainstay of management. Gastrointestinal decontamination is not beneficial. Local corrosive injury is the major focus of treatment in severe cases. Fiberoptic endoscopy and CT thorax/abdomen are complimentary and have been shown to be useful in corrosive injuries in assessing the severity of injury, risk of mortality and risk of subsequent stricture formation and should be performed as soon as possible after ingestion. Dental periapical extrusion injuries should be left open for some minutes to allow bleeding through the tooth and to limit hematoma development in tissue spaces. Once the bleeding has ceased, the canal can be dressed with non-setting calcium hydroxide and sealed coronally. CONCLUSIONS: Accidental ingestion of household bleach is not normally of clinical significance. However, those who ingest a large amount of a dilute formulation or a high concentration preparation can develop severe, and rarely fatal, corrosive injury so prompt supportive care is essential as there is no specific antidote. Treatment primarily consists of symptom-directed supportive care.

Desinfetantes/envenenamento , Oxidantes/envenenamento , Envenenamento , Hipoclorito de Sódio/envenenamento , Clareadores Dentários/envenenamento , Acidose/induzido quimicamente , Acidose/epidemiologia , Animais , Desinfetantes/química , Oftalmopatias/induzido quimicamente , Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipernatremia/induzido quimicamente , Hipernatremia/diagnóstico , Hipernatremia/epidemiologia , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Oxidantes/química , Envenenamento/diagnóstico , Envenenamento/epidemiologia , Envenenamento/terapia , Prognóstico , Doenças Respiratórias/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Dermatopatias/induzido quimicamente , Dermatopatias/epidemiologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/química , Clareadores Dentários/química
J R Soc Med ; : 141076818784545, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29932355
J Med Biogr ; : 967772018754646, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29392961


This paper will review Winston Churchill's severe respiratory illness in March 1886 when he developed pneumonia of the right lung as an 11-year-old boy. Winston was treated supportively with 'nourishment, stimulants [probably alcohol] and close watching' at his school by the 'celebrated' family physician, Dr Robson Roose, with the assistance of Dr Joseph Rutter. Roose was exemplary in his commitment to his young patient and assiduous in informing Lord Randolph Churchill of his son's clinical progress by letter.

J R Soc Med ; 110(12): 483-492, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29171780


While staying in the White House over Christmas 1941, Churchill developed chest pain on trying to open a window in his bedroom. Sir Charles Wilson, his personal physician, diagnosed a 'heart attack' (myocardial infarction). Wilson, for political and personal reasons, decided not to inform his patient of the diagnosis or obtain assistance from US medical colleagues. On Churchill's return to London, Wilson sought a second opinion from Dr John Parkinson who did not support the diagnosis of coronary thrombosis (myocardial infarction) and reassured Churchill accordingly.

Infarto do Miocárdio/história , Pessoas Famosas , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Médicos , Estados Unidos
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 55(7): 645-651, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28443378


INTRODUCTION: Oven cleaning products contain corrosive substances, typically sodium or potassium hydroxide. OBJECTIVE: To determine the reported toxicity from exposure to oven cleaning products. METHODS: Telephone enquiries to the UK National Poisons Information Service regarding oven cleaning products were analysed retrospectively for the period January 2009 to December 2015. RESULTS: There were 796 enquiries relating to 780 patients. Ninety-six percent of the products involved in the reported exposures contained sodium hydroxide and/or potassium hydroxide. Ingestion alone (n = 285) or skin contact alone (n = 208) accounted for the majority of cases; inhalation alone (n = 101), eye contact alone (n = 97), and multiple routes of exposure (n = 89) accounted for the remainder. Ninety-five percent of patients exposed by inhalation, 94% exposed dermally and 85% reporting eye exposure, developed features of toxicity. Patients exposed by multiple routes developed symptoms in 70% of cases. Only 103 of the 285 patients ingested oven cleaner directly, whereas 182 patients ingested food they considered to have been contaminated with oven cleaner. In 100 of the 103 direct ingestions where the features and World Health Organisation/International Programme on Chemical Safety/European Commission/European Association of Poison Centres and Clinical Toxicologists Poisoning Severity Score were known, 56 reported symptoms which were minor in 51 cases. The most common features following ingestion were vomiting (n = 26), abdominal pain (n = 22) or pharyngitis (n = 15). Skin burns (n = 91) predominantly involving the hands or arms, occurred in 44% of dermal exposures. Following inhalation, patients frequently developed respiratory features (n = 52) including coughing and chest pain/tightness. Eye pain (n = 43) and conjunctivitis (n = 33) commonly occurred following ocular exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Most (71%) patients exposed to an oven cleaner irrespective of the route of exposure developed features of toxicity, though in most cases only minor features developed; moderate or severe features ensued in ∼4%. Those patients exposed dermally, ophthalmically or by inhalation developed features more frequently (≥85%) than those who ingested a product directly (56%).

Acidentes Domésticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Cáusticos/envenenamento , Culinária/instrumentação , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Utensílios Domésticos , Produtos Domésticos/envenenamento , Centros de Controle de Intoxicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Envenenamento/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Envenenamento/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem