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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3094, 2019 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300657

RESUMO

AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are tetrameric ligand-gated channels made up of combinations of GluA1-4 subunits encoded by GRIA1-4 genes. GluA2 has an especially important role because, following post-transcriptional editing at the Q607 site, it renders heteromultimeric AMPARs Ca2+-impermeable, with a linear relationship between current and trans-membrane voltage. Here, we report heterozygous de novo GRIA2 mutations in 28 unrelated patients with intellectual disability (ID) and neurodevelopmental abnormalities including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Rett syndrome-like features, and seizures or developmental epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). In functional expression studies, mutations lead to a decrease in agonist-evoked current mediated by mutant subunits compared to wild-type channels. When GluA2 subunits are co-expressed with GluA1, most GRIA2 mutations cause a decreased current amplitude and some also affect voltage rectification. Our results show that de-novo variants in GRIA2 can cause neurodevelopmental disorders, complementing evidence that other genetic causes of ID, ASD and DEE also disrupt glutamatergic synaptic transmission.

2.
Hum Mutat ; 40(10): 1690-1699, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033087

RESUMO

Ataxia-telangiectasia-like disorder (ATLD) is a rare genomic instability syndrome caused by biallelic variants of MRE11 (meiotic recombination 11) characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia and typical karyotype abnormalities. These symptoms are common to those of ataxia-telangiectasia, which is consistent with the key role of MRE11 in ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) activation after DNA double-strand breaks. Three unrelated French patients were referred with ataxia. Only one had typical karyotype abnormalities. Unreported biallelic MRE11 variants were found in these three cases. Interestingly, one variant (c.424G>A) was present in two cases and haplotype analysis strongly suggested a French founder variant. Variants c.544G>A and c.314+4_314+7del lead to splice defects. The level of MRE11 in lymphoblastoid cell lines was consistently and dramatically reduced. Functional consequences were evaluated on activation of the ATM pathway via phosphorylation of ATM targets (KAP1 and CHK2), but no consistent defect was observed. However, an S-phase checkpoint activation defect after camptothecin was observed in these patients with ATLD. In conclusion, we report the first three French ATLD patients and a French founder variant, and propose an S-phase checkpoint activation study to evaluate the pathogenicity of MRE11 variants.

4.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 2036-2042, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739909

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To define the clinical characteristics of patients with variants in TCF20, we describe 27 patients, 26 of whom were identified via exome sequencing. We compare detailed clinical data with 17 previously reported patients. METHODS: Patients were ascertained through molecular testing laboratories performing exome sequencing (and other testing) with orthogonal confirmation; collaborating referring clinicians provided detailed clinical information. RESULTS: The cohort of 27 patients all had novel variants, and ranged in age from 2 to 68 years. All had developmental delay/intellectual disability. Autism spectrum disorders/autistic features were reported in 69%, attention disorders or hyperactivity in 67%, craniofacial features (no recognizable facial gestalt) in 67%, structural brain anomalies in 24%, and seizures in 12%. Additional features affecting various organ systems were described in 93%. In a majority of patients, we did not observe previously reported findings of postnatal overgrowth or craniosynostosis, in comparison with earlier reports. CONCLUSION: We provide valuable data regarding the prognosis and clinical manifestations of patients with variants in TCF20.

5.
Neuron ; 2018 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30449657

RESUMO

Corpus callosum malformations are associated with a broad range of neurodevelopmental diseases. We report that de novo mutations in MAST1 cause mega-corpus-callosum syndrome with cerebellar hypoplasia and cortical malformations (MCC-CH-CM) in the absence of megalencephaly. We show that MAST1 is a microtubule-associated protein that is predominantly expressed in post-mitotic neurons and is present in both dendritic and axonal compartments. We further show that Mast1 null animals are phenotypically normal, whereas the deletion of a single amino acid (L278del) recapitulates the distinct neurological phenotype observed in patients. In animals harboring Mast1 microdeletions, we find that the PI3K/AKT3/mTOR pathway is unperturbed, whereas Mast2 and Mast3 levels are diminished, indicative of a dominant-negative mode of action. Finally, we report that de novo MAST1 substitutions are present in patients with autism and microcephaly, raising the prospect that mutations in this gene give rise to a spectrum of neurodevelopmental diseases.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(5): 666-678, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30343943

RESUMO

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) are severe neurodevelopmental disorders often beginning in infancy or early childhood that are characterized by intractable seizures, abundant epileptiform activity on EEG, and developmental impairment or regression. CACNA1E is highly expressed in the central nervous system and encodes the α1-subunit of the voltage-gated CaV2.3 channel, which conducts high voltage-activated R-type calcium currents that initiate synaptic transmission. Using next-generation sequencing techniques, we identified de novo CACNA1E variants in 30 individuals with DEE, characterized by refractory infantile-onset seizures, severe hypotonia, and profound developmental impairment, often with congenital contractures, macrocephaly, hyperkinetic movement disorders, and early death. Most of the 14, partially recurring, variants cluster within the cytoplasmic ends of all four S6 segments, which form the presumed CaV2.3 channel activation gate. Functional analysis of several S6 variants revealed consistent gain-of-function effects comprising facilitated voltage-dependent activation and slowed inactivation. Another variant located in the domain II S4-S5 linker results in facilitated activation and increased current density. Five participants achieved seizure freedom on the anti-epileptic drug topiramate, which blocks R-type calcium channels. We establish pathogenic variants in CACNA1E as a cause of DEEs and suggest facilitated R-type calcium currents as a disease mechanism for human epilepsy and developmental disorders.

7.
Hum Genet ; 137(9): 753-768, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30167850

RESUMO

NALCN is a conserved cation channel, which conducts a permanent sodium leak current and regulates resting membrane potential and neuronal excitability. It is part of a large ion channel complex, the "NALCN channelosome", consisting of multiple proteins including UNC80 and UNC79. The predominant neuronal expression pattern and its function suggest an important role in neuronal function and disease. So far, biallelic NALCN and UNC80 variants have been described in a small number of individuals leading to infantile hypotonia, psychomotor retardation, and characteristic facies 1 (IHPRF1, OMIM 615419) and 2 (IHPRF2, OMIM 616801), respectively. Heterozygous de novo NALCN missense variants in the S5/S6 pore-forming segments lead to congenital contractures of the limbs and face, hypotonia, and developmental delay (CLIFAHDD, OMIM 616266) with some clinical overlap. In this study, we present detailed clinical information of 16 novel individuals with biallelic NALCN variants, 1 individual with a heterozygous de novo NALCN missense variant and an interesting clinical phenotype without contractures, and 12 individuals with biallelic UNC80 variants. We report for the first time a missense NALCN variant located in the predicted S6 pore-forming unit inherited in an autosomal-recessive manner leading to mild IHPRF1. We show evidence of clinical variability, especially among IHPRF1-affected individuals, and discuss differences between the IHPRF1- and IHPRF2 phenotypes. In summary, we provide a comprehensive overview of IHPRF1 and IHPRF2 phenotypes based on the largest cohort of individuals reported so far and provide additional insights into the clinical phenotypes of these neurodevelopmental diseases to help improve counseling of affected families.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Canalopatias/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Canais de Sódio/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Canalopatias/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
8.
Genet Med ; 2018 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29997391

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the genetic basis of congenital ataxias (CAs), a unique group of cerebellar ataxias with a nonprogressive course, in 20 patients from consanguineous families, and to identify new CA genes. METHODS: Singleton -exome sequencing on these 20 well-clinically characterized CA patients. We first checked for rare homozygous pathogenic variants, then, for variants from a list of genes known to be associated with CA or very early-onset ataxia, regardless of their mode of inheritance. Our replication cohort of 180 CA patients was used to validate the new CA genes. RESULTS: We identified a causal gene in 16/20 families: six known CA genes (7 patients); four genes previously implicated in another neurological phenotype (7 patients); two new candidate genes (2 patients). Despite the consanguinity, 4/20 patients harbored a heterozygous de novo pathogenic variant. CONCLUSION: Singleton exome sequencing in 20 consanguineous CA families led to molecular diagnosis in 80% of cases. This study confirms the genetic heterogeneity of CA and identifies two new candidate genes (PIGS and SKOR2). Our work illustrates the diversity of the pathophysiological pathways in CA, and highlights the pathogenic link between some CA and early infantile epileptic encephalopathies related to the same genes (STXBP1, BRAT1, CACNA1A and CACNA2D2).

9.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(7): 960-971, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29681619

RESUMO

Deficiency of adenosine deaminase 2 (DADA2) is a recently described autoinflammatory disorder. Genetic analysis is required to confirm the diagnosis. We aimed to describe the identifying symptoms and genotypes of patients referred to our reference centres and to improve the indications for genetic testing. DNA from 66 patients with clinically suspected DADA2 were sequenced by Sanger or next-generation sequencing. Detailed epidemiological, clinical and biological features were collected by use of a questionnaire and were compared between patients with and without genetic confirmation of DADA2. We identified 13 patients (19.6%) carrying recessively inherited mutations in ADA2 that were predicted to be deleterious. Eight patients were compound heterozygous for mutations. Seven mutations were novel (4 missense variants, 2 predicted to affect mRNA splicing and 1 frameshift). The mean age of the 13 patients with genetic confirmation was 12.7 years at disease onset and 20.8 years at diagnosis. Phenotypic manifestations included fever (85%), vasculitis (85%) and neurological disorders (54%). Features best associated with a confirmatory genotype included fever with neurologic or cutaneous attacks (odds ratio [OR] 10.71, p = 0.003 and OR 10.9, p < 0.001), fever alone (OR 8.1, p = 0.01), and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) level with neurologic involvement (OR 6.63, p = 0.017). Our proposed decision tree may help improve obtaining genetic confirmation of DADA2 in the context of autoinflammatory symptoms. Prerequisites for quick and low-cost Sanger analysis include one typical cutaneous or neurological sign, one marker of inflammation (fever or elevated CRP level), and recurrent or chronic attacks in adults.

10.
Pediatr Radiol ; 48(3): 317-324, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29279948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evaluation of subcutaneous fetal fat layer thickness on T1-weighted sequences can be used to predict birth weight. Little is known about normal MR signal patterns of subcutaneous tissue throughout pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: To establish developmental patterns of subcutaneous fetal fat signal on T1-weighted sequences during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively examined T1-weighted images of 110 fetal MRI scans. We measured signal intensity of subcutaneous fat on thighs, buttocks, trunk, nuchal region, chin and scalp. We then calculated the ratios of the obtained values with fetal muscle, amnios and maternal fat signal, and compared the results with those of immunohistochemical examination of adipose tissue extracted from the abdominal wall of fetuses as part of standard autopsy protocol. RESULTS: We included 60 MRI scans in fetuses without intra-uterine growth restriction or macrosomia of non-diabetic mothers (range 23-37 weeks of gestation). Fat T1 intensity of all anatomical regions was low in all fetuses before 26 weeks of gestation. It became more hyperintense with increasing gestational age, in the following order: chin and nuchal region, then buttocks, thighs and trunk, and eventually the scalp at 33 weeks of gestation. After 33 weeks of gestation, all fetal subcutaneous tissues demonstrated overall hyperintense signal. This progression followed the conversion at immunohistochemistry of fetal adipose tissue composition from predominant brown to white adipose cells in 19 fetuses (19-41 weeks of gestation). CONCLUSION: Between 26 weeks and 33 weeks of gestation, subcutaneous fetal fat signal changed in an orderly pattern from chin to buttocks and scalp. This may reflect the conversion from predominant brown to white adipose tissues in subcutaneous fetal fat.


Assuntos
Feto/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Gordura Subcutânea/diagnóstico por imagem , Peso ao Nascer , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Fetal Diagn Ther ; 2017 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28675887

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the prenatal imaging findings in pontine tegmental cap dysplasia (PTCD), a rare congenital malformation of the hindbrain so far reported postnatally only and characterized by a typical appearance of the pons with malformations of the vermis and the cerebellar peduncles. METHODS: This retrospective multicenter study retrieved 4 cases of PTCD over a 10-year period. Prenatal ultrasonography and fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were reviewed and compared to postnatal or postmortem data. RESULTS: In all cases, the parents were referred between 22 and 27 weeks of gestation for characterization of a small cerebellar diameter <3rd centile. The prenatal diagnosis of PTCD was suspected in 1/4 cases, while in 3/4 cases the suggested prenatal diagnosis was pontocerebellar hypoplasia. In all cases, PTCD was characterized by ventral pontine hypoplasia with absence of bulging of the pons and by the tegmental cap protruding into the fourth ventricle on prenatal MRI. Parents opted for termination of pregnancy in 1 case. In the 3 other cases, the children presented with global developmental delay and multiple cranial nerve impairment. CONCLUSION: PTCD is a differential diagnosis of pontocerebellar hypoplasia and should be discussed on prenatal MRI in the presence of the tegmental cap protruding into the fourth ventricle.

12.
Ann Neurol ; 78(6): 871-86, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26288984

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS) is caused by mutations in the SACS gene. SACS encodes sacsin, a protein whose function remains unknown, despite the description of numerous protein domains and the recent focus on its potential role in the regulation of mitochondrial physiology. This study aimed to identify new mutations in a large population of ataxic patients and to functionally analyze their cellular effects in the mitochondrial compartment. METHODS: A total of 321 index patients with spastic ataxia selected from the SPATAX network were analyzed by direct sequencing of the SACS gene, and 156 patients from the ATAXIC project presenting with congenital ataxia were investigated either by targeted or whole exome sequencing. For functional analyses, primary cultures of fibroblasts were obtained from 11 patients carrying either mono- or biallelic variants, including 1 case harboring a large deletion encompassing the entire SACS gene. RESULTS: We identified biallelic SACS variants in 33 patients from SPATAX, and in 5 nonprogressive ataxia patients from ATAXIC. Moreover, a drastic and recurrent alteration of the mitochondrial network was observed in 10 of the 11 patients tested. INTERPRETATION: Our results permit extension of the clinical and mutational spectrum of ARSACS patients. Moreover, we suggest that the observed mitochondrial network anomalies could be used as a trait biomarker for the diagnosis of ARSACS when SACS molecular results are difficult to interpret (ie, missense variants and heterozygous truncating variant). Based on our findings, we propose new diagnostic definitions for ARSACS using clinical, genetic, and cellular criteria.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Mitocôndrias , Espasticidade Muscular/diagnóstico , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/congênito , Adolescente , Adulto , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Fibroblastos , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Espasticidade Muscular/genética , Espasticidade Muscular/patologia , Espasticidade Muscular/fisiopatologia , Mutação , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/diagnóstico , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/genética , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/patologia , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Eur J Med Genet ; 58(8): 416-8, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26188271

RESUMO

Heterozygous ACTG1 mutations are responsible for Baraitser-Winter cerebrofrontofacial syndrome which cortical malformation is characterized by pachygyria with frontal to occipital gradient of severity. We identified by whole exome sequencing in a cohort of 12 patients with prenatally diagnosed microlissencephaly, 2 foetal cases with missense mutations in the ACTG1 gene and in one case of living patient with typical Baraitser-Winter syndrome. Both foetuses and child exhibited microcephaly and facial dysmorphism consisting of microretrognatism, hypertelorism and low-set ears. Brain malformations included lissencephaly with an immature cortical plate, dysmorphic (2/3) or absent corpus callosum and vermian hypoplasia (2/3). Our results highlight the powerful diagnostic value of exome sequencing for patients with microlissencephaly, that may expand the malformation spectrum of ACTG1-related Baraitser-Winter cerebrofrontofacial syndrome and may suggest that ACTG1 could be added to the list of genes for assessing microlissencephaly.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Actinas/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Aborto Eugênico , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Criança , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/patologia , Exoma , Éxons , Feminino , Feto , Expressão Gênica , Heterozigoto , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Íntrons , Masculino , Microcefalia/diagnóstico , Microcefalia/patologia
14.
Brain ; 137(Pt 6): 1676-700, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24860126

RESUMO

Complex cortical malformations associated with mutations in tubulin genes: TUBA1A, TUBA8, TUBB2B, TUBB3, TUBB5 and TUBG1 commonly referred to as tubulinopathies, are a heterogeneous group of conditions with a wide spectrum of clinical severity. Among the 106 patients selected as having complex cortical malformations, 45 were found to carry mutations in TUBA1A (42.5%), 18 in TUBB2B (16.9%), 11 in TUBB3 (10.4%), three in TUBB5 (2.8%), and three in TUBG1 (2.8%). No mutations were identified in TUBA8. Systematic review of patients' neuroimaging and neuropathological data allowed us to distinguish at least five cortical malformation syndromes: (i) microlissencephaly (n = 12); (ii) lissencephaly (n = 19); (iii) central pachygyria and polymicrogyria-like cortical dysplasia (n = 24); (iv) generalized polymicrogyria-like cortical dysplasia (n = 6); and (v) a 'simplified' gyral pattern with area of focal polymicrogyria (n = 19). Dysmorphic basal ganglia are the hallmark of tubulinopathies (found in 75% of cases) and are present in 100% of central pachygyria and polymicrogyria-like cortical dysplasia and simplified gyral malformation syndromes. Tubulinopathies are also characterized by a high prevalence of corpus callosum agenesis (32/80; 40%), and mild to severe cerebellar hypoplasia and dysplasia (63/80; 78.7%). Foetal cases (n = 25) represent the severe end of the spectrum and show specific abnormalities that provide insights into the underlying pathophysiology. The overall complexity of tubulinopathies reflects the pleiotropic effects of tubulins and their specific spatio-temporal profiles of expression. In line with previous reports, this large cohort further clarifies overlapping phenotypes between tubulinopathies and although current structural data do not allow prediction of mutation-related phenotypes, within each mutated gene there is an associated predominant pattern of cortical dysgenesis allowing some phenotype-genotype correlation. The core phenotype of TUBA1A and TUBG1 tubulinopathies are lissencephalies and microlissencephalies, whereas TUBB2B tubulinopathies show in the majority, centrally predominant polymicrogyria-like cortical dysplasia. By contrast, TUBB3 and TUBB5 mutations cause milder malformations with focal or multifocal polymicrogyria-like cortical dysplasia with abnormal and simplified gyral pattern.


Assuntos
Agenesia do Corpo Caloso/diagnóstico , Lisencefalia/diagnóstico , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/diagnóstico , Microcefalia/diagnóstico , Mutação/genética , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Agenesia do Corpo Caloso/epidemiologia , Agenesia do Corpo Caloso/genética , Cerebelo/anormalidades , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Lisencefalia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/epidemiologia , Microcefalia/epidemiologia , Microcefalia/genética , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Neurogenetics ; 14(3-4): 215-24, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24072599

RESUMO

Polymicrogyria (PMG) is a clinically heterogeneous malformation of cortical development, characterized by a loss of the normal gyral pattern that is replaced by many small and infolded gyri separated by shallow sulci that are partly fused in their depths. Causes of PMG are heterogeneous and include acquired and genetic causes. There are more than 100 syndromes possibly associated with PMG but mutations in specific genes such as SRPX2, GPR56, TUBB2B, TUBB3, NHEJ1, TUBA1A, TUBA8, and WDR62 have been reported only in a minority of patients.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Homozigoto , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/genética , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/patologia , Mutação , Feminino , Feto , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão
16.
Nat Genet ; 45(6): 639-47, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23603762

RESUMO

The genetic causes of malformations of cortical development (MCD) remain largely unknown. Here we report the discovery of multiple pathogenic missense mutations in TUBG1, DYNC1H1 and KIF2A, as well as a single germline mosaic mutation in KIF5C, in subjects with MCD. We found a frequent recurrence of mutations in DYNC1H1, implying that this gene is a major locus for unexplained MCD. We further show that the mutations in KIF5C, KIF2A and DYNC1H1 affect ATP hydrolysis, productive protein folding and microtubule binding, respectively. In addition, we show that suppression of mouse Tubg1 expression in vivo interferes with proper neuronal migration, whereas expression of altered γ-tubulin proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae disrupts normal microtubule behavior. Our data reinforce the importance of centrosomal and microtubule-related proteins in cortical development and strongly suggest that microtubule-dependent mitotic and postmitotic processes are major contributors to the pathogenesis of MCD.


Assuntos
Dineínas do Citoplasma/genética , Cinesina/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Animais , Células COS , Movimento Celular , Cercopithecus aethiops , Exoma , Estudos de Associação Genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Lisencefalia/genética , Lisencefalia/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/genética , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/patologia , Camundongos , Microcefalia/patologia , Modelos Moleculares , Neuroimagem , Linhagem , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 21(4): 381-5, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22948023

RESUMO

De novo mutations in the TUBA1A gene are responsible for a wide spectrum of neuronal migration disorders, ranging from lissencephaly to perisylvian pachygyria. Recently, one family with polymicrogyria (PMG) and mutation in TUBA1A was reported. Hence, the purpose of our study was to determine the frequency of TUBA1A mutations in patients with PMG and better define clinical and imaging characteristics for TUBA1A-related PMG. We collected 95 sporadic patients with non-syndromic bilateral PMG, including 54 with perisylvian PMG and 30 PMG with additional brain abnormalities. Mutation analysis of the TUBA1A gene was performed by sequencing of PCR fragments corresponding to TUBA1A-coding sequences. Three de novo missense TUBA1A mutations were identified in three unrelated patients with PMG representing 3.1% of PMG and 10% of PMGs with complex cerebral malformations. These patients had bilateral perisylvian asymmetrical PMG with dysmorphic basal ganglia cerebellar vermian dysplasia and pontine hypoplasia. These mutations (p.Tyr161His; p.Val235Leu; p.Arg390Cys) appear distributed throughout the primary structure of the alpha-tubulin polypeptide, but their localization within the tertiary structure suggests that PMG-related mutations are likely to impact microtubule dynamics, stability and/or local interactions with partner proteins. These findings broaden the phenotypic spectrum associated with TUBA1A mutations to PMG and further emphasize that additional brain abnormalities, that is, dysmorphic basal ganglia, hypoplastic pons and cerebellar dysplasia are key features for the diagnosis of TUBA1A-related PMG.


Assuntos
Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical do Grupo II/genética , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/genética , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/diagnóstico , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical do Grupo II/diagnóstico , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Linhagem , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Tubulina (Proteína)/química , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo
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