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1.
Int J Cardiol ; 330: 43-49, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) are at increased risk of adverse outcomes. Although pre-pregnancy pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) may be considered in some women to attenuate risk, published data to support this practice are lacking. Our objective was to explore the impact of pre-pregnancy PVR on pregnancy outcomes in rTOF. METHODS: Women with rTOF and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) before and after pregnancy were included if CMR studies were completed within 3 years of pregnancy. Subjects were compared according to presence (+) or absence (-) of PVR at pre-pregnancy CMR. Pregnancy outcomes (cardiovascular, obstetric, and fetal/neonatal) were documented. RESULTS: Of the 29 study women identified, 7 were PVR+ and 22 were PVR-. Post-pregnancy, the PVR- group demonstrated interval increase in indexed right ventricular end-diastolic volumes (RVEDVi) (157 ± 28 versus 166 ± 33 ml/m2, p = 0.003) and end-systolic volumes (RVESVi) (82 ± 17 versus 89 ± 20 ml/m2, p = 0.003) as compared with pre-pregnancy, but no significant change in RV ejection fraction, RV mass, or left ventricular measurements. In the PVR+ group, there were no interval changes in RV measurements pre-versus post pregnancy. Interval rate of change in RVESVi of PVR- exceeded PVR+ women (+3.7 ± 5.0 versus -2.2 ± 5.0 ml/m2/year, p = 0.03). Pregnancy outcomes did not differ in PVR+ versus PVR- women. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancy outcomes did not differ according to PVR status in our cohort. While RV volumes remained unchanged in PVR+ women, interval RV dilation was observed in PVR- women. Additional study of a larger population with longer follow-up may further inform clinical practice regarding pre-pregnancy PVR.

2.
Am J Perinatol ; 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352586

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Guidelines do not exist to determine timing of delivery for women with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in pregnancy. The neonatal benefit of a term delivery as compared with an early term delivery is well described. We sought to examine maternal outcomes in women with CVD who delivered in the early term period (37 + 0 weeks through 38 + 6 weeks) compared with those who delivered later. STUDY DESIGN: This is a prospective cohort study examining cardiac and obstetric outcomes in women with CVD delivering between September 2011 and December 2016. The associations between gestational age at delivery and maternal, fetal, and obstetric characteristics were evaluated. RESULTS: Two-hundred twenty-five women with CVD were included, 83 (37%) delivered in the early term period and 142 (63%) delivered at term. While the early term group had significantly higher rates of any hypertension during pregnancy (18.1 vs. 7%, p = 0.01) and intrauterine growth restriction (22.9% vs. 2.8%, p < 0.001), there was no difference in high-risk cardiac or obstetric characteristics. No difference in composite cardiac morbidity was found (4.8 vs. 3.5%, p = 0.24). Women in the early term group were more likely to undergo cesarean delivery than women in the term group (43.4 vs. 24.7%, p = 0.004). CONCLUSION: There is no maternal benefit of an early term delivery in otherwise healthy women with CVD. Given the known fetal consequences of early term delivery, this study offers support to existing literature suggesting term delivery in these women. KEY POINTS: · Question of delivery timing in women with cardiac disease.. · No difference in cardiac morbidity, term versus early term.. · Term delivery in women with asymptomatic cardiac disease..

3.
Heart ; 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33234672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Pregnancy may potentiate the inherent hypercoagulability of the Fontan circulation, thereby amplifying adverse events. This study sought to evaluate thrombosis and bleeding risk in pregnant women with a Fontan. METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational cohort study across 13 international centres and recorded data on thrombotic and bleeding events, antithrombotic therapies and pre-pregnancy thrombotic risk factors. RESULTS: We analysed 84 women with Fontan physiology undergoing 108 pregnancies, average gestation 33±5 weeks. The most common antithrombotic therapy in pregnancy was aspirin (ASA, 47 pregnancies (43.5%)). Heparin (unfractionated (UFH) or low molecular weight (LMWH)) was prescribed in 32 pregnancies (30%) and vitamin K antagonist (VKA) in 10 pregnancies (9%). Three pregnancies were complicated by thrombotic events (2.8%). Thirty-eight pregnancies (35%) were complicated by bleeding, of which 5 (13%) were severe. Most bleeds were obstetric, occurring antepartum (45%) and postpartum (42%). The use of therapeutic heparin (OR 15.6, 95% CI 1.88 to 129, p=0.006), VKA (OR 11.7, 95% CI 1.06 to 130, p=0.032) or any combination of anticoagulation medication (OR 13.0, 95% CI 1.13 to 150, p=0.032) were significantly associated with bleeding events, while ASA (OR 5.41, 95% CI 0.73 to 40.4, p=0.067) and prophylactic heparin were not (OR 4.68, 95% CI 0.488 to 44.9, p=0.096). CONCLUSIONS: Current antithrombotic strategies appear effective at attenuating thrombotic risk in pregnant women with a Fontan. However, this comes with high (>30%) bleeding risk, of which 13% are life threatening. Achieving haemostatic balance is challenging in pregnant women with a Fontan, necessitating individualised risk-adjusted counselling and therapeutic approaches that are monitored during the course of pregnancy.

4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(22): e019104, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161813

RESUMO

Background Long-term survival in patients with truncus arteriosus is favorable, but there remains significant morbidity associated with ongoing reinterventions. We aimed to study the long-term outcomes of the truncal valve and identify risk factors associated with truncal valve intervention. Methods and Results We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent initial truncus arteriosus repair at our institution from 1985 to 2016. Analysis was performed on the 148 patients who were discharged from the hospital and survived ≥30 days postoperatively using multivariable competing risks Cox regression modeling. Median follow-up time was 12.6 years (interquartile range, 5.0-22.1 years) after discharge from full repair. Thirty patients (20%) underwent at least one intervention on the truncal valve during follow-up. Survival at 1, 10, and 20 years was 93.1%, 87.0%, and 80.9%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of any truncal valve intervention by 20 years was 25.6%. Independent risk factors for truncal valve intervention included moderate or greater truncal valve regurgitation (hazard ratio [HR], 4.77; P<0.001) or stenosis (HR, 4.12; P<0.001) before full truncus arteriosus repair and moderate or greater truncal valve regurgitation at discharge after full repair (HR, 8.60; P<0.001). During follow-up, 33 of 134 patients (25%) progressed to moderate or greater truncal valve regurgitation. A larger truncal valve root z-score before truncus arteriosus full repair and during follow-up was associated with worsening truncal valve regurgitation. Conclusions Long-term rates of truncal valve intervention are significant. At least moderate initial truncal valve stenosis and initial or residual regurgitation are independent risk factors associated with truncal valve intervention. Larger truncal valve root z-score is associated with significant truncal valve regurgitation and may identify a subset of patients at risk for truncal valve dysfunction over time.

5.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 33(10): e1-e48, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010859

RESUMO

The American College of Cardiology (ACC) collaborated with the American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, Heart Rhythm Society, International Society for Adult Congenital Heart Disease, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and the Society of Pediatric Echocardiography to develop Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) for multimodality imaging during the follow-up care of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). This is the first AUC to address cardiac imaging in adult and pediatric patients with established CHD. A number of common patient scenarios (also termed "indications") and associated assumptions and definitions were developed using guidelines, clinical trial data, and expert opinion in the field of CHD.1 The indications relate primarily to evaluation before and after cardiac surgery or catheter-based intervention, and they address routine surveillance as well as evaluation of new-onset signs or symptoms. The writing group developed 324 clinical indications, which they separated into 19 tables according to the type of cardiac lesion. Noninvasive cardiac imaging modalities that could potentially be used for these indications were incorporated into the tables, resulting in a total of 1,035 unique scenarios. These scenarios were presented to a separate, independent panel for rating, with each being scored on a scale of 1 to 9, with 1 to 3 categorized as "Rarely Appropriate," 4 to 6 as "May Be Appropriate," and 7 to 9 as "Appropriate." Forty-four percent of the scenarios were rated as Appropriate, 39% as May Be Appropriate, and 17% as Rarely Appropriate. This AUC document will provide guidance to clinicians in the care of patients with established CHD by identifying the reasonable imaging modality options available for evaluation and surveillance of such patients. It will also serve as an educational and quality improvement tool to identify patterns of care and reduce the number of Rarely Appropriate tests in clinical practice.

6.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 22(1): 71, 2020 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981527

RESUMO

The presentation and identification of cardiovascular disease in women pose unique diagnostic challenges compared to men, and underrecognized conditions in this patient population may lead to clinical mismanagement.This article reviews the sex differences in cardiovascular disease, explores the diagnostic and prognostic role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in the spectrum of cardiovascular disorders in women, and proposes the added value of CMR compared to other imaging modalities. In addition, this article specifically reviews the role of CMR in cardiovascular diseases occurring more frequently or exclusively in female patients, including Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, connective tissue disorders, primary pulmonary arterial hypertension and peripartum cardiomyopathy. Gaps in knowledge and opportunities for further investigation of sex-specific cardiovascular differences by CMR are also highlighted.

7.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 41(8): 1795-1799, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915291

RESUMO

Increasing numbers of women with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) are reaching reproductive age and seek counseling regarding their cardiovascular risks related to pregnancy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize changes in left ventricular (LV) strain in women with rTOF during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. Seventeen pregnancies in women with rTOF were included (mean age at repair = 3.2 years ± 5.5 years; mean age at delivery = 32.7 ± 4 years). Echocardiograms from three time periods were analyzed; baseline (prior to conception or in the first trimester), third trimester, and 4-6 weeks postpartum. Sixty-five percent of the patients had at least mild pulmonary regurgitation. Eight patients (47%) had undergone at least one pulmonary valve replacement. There were no changes in LV ejection fraction (EF) or circumferential strain across the three time periods. Significant differences were present in longitudinal strain within the three time points (p = 0.01). Postpartum strain decreased in magnitude compared to the third trimester value (- 17.7 ± 4.1 vs. - 21 ± 5, p-value = 0.003) but was not different when compared to baseline strain (- 17.7 ± 4.1 vs. - 19.4 ± 3.4; p-value = 0.15). In conclusion, in women with rTOF, changes in longitudinal strain were observed during pregnancy with a return to baseline after delivery; EF did not change. These findings provide evidence that pregnancy does not adversely impact LV mechanics in the short term in this potentially vulnerable patient population.

8.
Am Heart J ; 229: 92-99, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947058

RESUMO

The Anatomic and Physiological (AP) classification system proposed in the 2018 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) guidelines assigns 2 dimensions to each patient: anatomic class (AnatC) and physiological stage (PhyS). This approach has not been tested in practice; we assessed interrater reliability and identified sources of disagreement. METHODS: Consensus definitions for AP categories were developed with input from 4 experts. Research assistants (RAs) assigned AnatC/PhyS for patients in the Boston ACHD Biobank, a prospectively enrolled cohort of ambulatory ACHD patients ≥18 years old seen between 2012 and 2019. Two (of 4) expert reviewers then independently assigned AnatC/PhyS for 41 patients. Interrater reliability was assessed with linearly weighted kappa (κω) for agreement between (1) experts and (2) an RA and an expert. Experts examined disagreements and identified sources of variability and areas requiring clarification. RESULTS: Interexpert agreement for AnatC was excellent, with agreement on 38/41 (92.7%) cases and κω 0.88 [0.75, 1.01]. Agreement for PhyS was less robust, with consensus on 24/41 cases (59.5%), κω 0.57 [0.39, 0.75]. Expert-RA agreement was lower for AnatC (κω 0.77 [0.60, 0.95]), whereas PhyS was similar to interexpert agreement (κω 0.53 [0.34, 0.72]). There was ambiguity in the definitions of (1) arrhythmia status, (2) cyanotic CHD, and (3) valve disease. CONCLUSIONS: Although AnatC can be assessed reliably, that is not true for the PhyS part of the AP classification proposed in the 2018 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines. Reliability of PhyS would be strengthened by more precise definitions readily interpretable in clinical practice.

11.
Cardiol Clin ; 38(3): 365-377, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622491

RESUMO

Repaired tetralogy of Fallot is one of the most common conditions managed by adult congenital heart disease providers. Recent comprehensive review articles and book chapters are devoted to this topic. The purpose of this article is to address several common clinical questions encountered in the management of patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. These answers are not intended to supplant Practice Guidelines.

12.
Heart ; 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669396

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Women with Turner syndrome (TS) are frequently counselled against pregnancy due to lack of data and unclear aortic dissection risk. However, with advances in fertility therapy, more women with TS are contemplating pregnancy. This study compared rates of adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes among: (1) pregnant and non-pregnant women with TS and (2) pregnant women with TS with/without structural heart disease. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of pregnant and age-matched non-pregnant controls with TS (2005-2017) across 10 CV centres was done. Data were collected at initial evaluation in pregnancy and outcomes were assessed to 6 months postpartum. Adverse CV events were defined as CV death, aortic dissection/rupture and/or aortic intervention. Non-pregnant age-matched controls were followed over the same time period. RESULTS: Sixty-eight pregnancies were included (60 women, mean age 33 years, 48% primigravid, 49% fertility therapy, 80% structurally normal heart, 25% XO karyotype). Based on American Society of Reproductive Medicine criteria, 10 pregnancies occurred in women stratified to high-risk category. There were no CV events in the pregnant women or in the non-pregnant women with TS. Obstetric events complicated 12 (18%) pregnancies with 9 (13%) attributed to hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. Fetal events included small for gestational age neonates (18%), preterm delivery (15%) and fetal death (3%). CONCLUSIONS: This study helps to refine the approach to pregnancy in women with TS. Among women with TS without structural heart disease, pregnancy does not impose an increased risk of CV outcomes. Among women with TS with structural heart disease, the risk of pregnancy is not as prohibitive as previously described but does require ongoing evaluation.

13.
Circulation ; 141(23): e884-e903, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32362133

RESUMO

Cardio-obstetrics has emerged as an important multidisciplinary field that requires a team approach to the management of cardiovascular disease during pregnancy. Cardiac conditions during pregnancy include hypertensive disorders, hypercholesterolemia, myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathies, arrhythmias, valvular disease, thromboembolic disease, aortic disease, and cerebrovascular diseases. Cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of pregnancy-related mortality in the United States. Advancing maternal age and preexisting comorbid conditions have contributed to the increased rates of maternal mortality. Preconception counseling by the multidisciplinary cardio-obstetrics team is essential for women with preexistent cardiac conditions or history of preeclampsia. Early involvement of the cardio-obstetrics team is critical to prevent maternal morbidity and mortality during the length of the pregnancy and 1 year postpartum. A general understanding of cardiovascular disease during pregnancy should be a core knowledge area for all cardiovascular and primary care clinicians. This scientific statement provides an overview of the diagnosis and management of cardiovascular disease during pregnancy.

16.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(6): 977-981, 2020 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959431

RESUMO

The rationale for timing of pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) in patients with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) has focused on pre-PVR threshold values of indexed right ventricular end-diastolic volume (RVEDVi) that lead to normalization of right ventricular (RV) size after valve implantation. The goal of this study was to determine whether persistent RV dilation after PVR is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Subjects with rTOF who underwent PVR and had a cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) exam after valve implantation at a single center from 2001 to 2017 were included. The composite clinical outcome after PVR included: death, aborted sudden cardiac death, sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT), or NYHA class ≥3. In 189 rTOF subjects, the mean age at PVR was 23.5 ± 11.7 years, median follow-up was 6.0 years (IQR 3.4 to 8.7), and the primary outcome occurred in 14 subjects (7%). The 5- and 10-year event-free rates were 97% and 91%, respectively. Post-PVR RVEDVi was not associated with the composite outcome (p = 0.59). Independent predictors of the outcome were older age at PVR (hazard ratios [HR] 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02 to 1.11; p = 0.004), post-PVR lower RV ejection fraction (HR 0.91; 95% CI 0.86 to 0.97; p = 0.002), and post-PVR atrial tachyarrhythmia (HR 7.60, 95% CI 1.65 to 35.05, p = 0.009). Our study shows that post-PVR RV dilation as measured by CMR-derived RVEDVi was not associated with the composite adverse clinical outcome in this cohort. These findings challenge the validity of current guidelines for PVR, which are based on pre-procedural threshold values of RVEDVi aimed at achieving normal post-procedural RV volumes.


Assuntos
Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Valva Pulmonar/cirurgia , Tetralogia de Fallot/cirurgia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico , Dilatação Patológica/diagnóstico , Dilatação Patológica/mortalidade , Seguimentos , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Taquicardia Ventricular/diagnóstico , Taquicardia Ventricular/mortalidade , Tetralogia de Fallot/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/mortalidade
17.
Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med ; 22(1): 3, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989331

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of maternal death and cases of cardiovascular death are often associated with failure to provide timely risk-appropriate care. This review outlines considerations for creation of a team focused on the care of women with CVD during pregnancy and beyond. RECENT FINDINGS: Improved outcomes for women with complex medical or obstetric conditions managed by a multidisciplinary care team inspired national guidelines advising the creation of a Pregnancy Heart Team for women with CVD in pregnancy. The recommendations from the European Society of Cardiology provide general guidance for risk-appropriate care without elaborating on the details of these specialized care teams. A Pregnancy Heart Team led by providers from cardiology, maternal-fetal medicine, obstetrics, obstetric anesthesia, pharmacy, and nursing support a holistic approach to patient care while facilitating opportunities for cross-disciplinary education. This team should focus on frequent antepartum risk stratification, multidisciplinary delivery planning, and comprehensive preconception and postpartum care. Available evidence suggests that a consistent and integrated approach to care for women with CVD in pregnancy has the potential to decrease severe maternal morbidity and mortality. The cost-effectiveness of this approach and the impact of this comprehensive care model on a woman's long-term cardiovascular health warrant future study.

19.
Int J Cardiol ; 307: 31-35, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Longitudinal clinical surveillance by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is an established practice in children with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Non-Invasive Imaging Guidelines recommends a list of reporting elements that should be addressed during routine TTE in this population. In this study, we assessed the adherence to these recommendations. METHODS: This was a multi-center (n = 8) retrospective review of TTE reports in children ≤11 years of age who have had complete TOF repair. We included 10 patients from each participating center (n = 80) and scored 2 outpatient follow-up TTE reports on each patient. The adherence rate was based on completeness of TTE reporting elements derived from the guidelines. RESULTS: We reviewed 160 TTE reports on 80 patients. Median age was 4.4 months (IQR 1.5-6.6) and 3.6 years (IQR 1.3-6.4) at the time of complete surgical repair and first TTE report, respectively. The median adherence rate to recommended reporting elements was 61% (IQR 53-70). Of the 160 reports, 9 (7%) were ≥80% adherent and 40 (25%) were ≥70% adherent. Quantitative measurements of right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT), right ventricular (RV) size and function, and branch pulmonary arteries were least likely to be reported. CONCLUSIONS: Overall adherence to the most recent published imaging guidelines for surveillance of children with repaired TOF patients was suboptimal, especially for reporting of RVOT, RV size and function, and branch pulmonary arteries. Further studies are needed to explore the barriers to adherence to guidelines and most importantly, whether adherence is associated with clinical outcomes.

20.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 222(1): 77.e1-77.e11, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although consensus guidelines on the management of cardiovascular disease in pregnancy reserve cesarean delivery for obstetric indications, there is a paucity of data to support this approach. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to compare cardiovascular and obstetric morbidity in women with cardiovascular disease according to the plan for vaginal birth or cesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN: We assembled a prospective cohort of women delivering at an academic tertiary care center with a protocolized multidisciplinary approach to management of cardiovascular disease between September 2011 and December 2016. Our practice is to encourage vaginal birth in women with cardiovascular disease unless there is an obstetric indication for cesarean delivery. We allow women attempting vaginal birth a trial of Valsalva in the second stage with the ability to provide operative vaginal delivery if pushing leads to changes in hemodynamics or symptoms. Women were classified according to planned mode of delivery: either vaginal birth or cesarean delivery. We then used univariate analysis to compare adverse outcomes according to planned mode of delivery. The primary composite cardiac outcome of interest included sustained arrhythmia, heart failure, cardiac arrest, cerebral vascular accident, need for cardiac surgery or intervention, or death. Secondary obstetric and neonatal outcomes were also considered. RESULTS: We included 276 consenting women with congenital heart disease (68.5%), arrhythmias (11.2%), connective tissue disease (9.1%), cardiomyopathy (8.0%), valvular disease (1.4%), or vascular heart disease (1.8%) at or beyond 24 weeks' gestation. Seventy-six percent (n = 210) planned vaginal birth and 24% (n = 66) planned cesarean delivery. Women planning vaginal birth had lower rates of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, multiparity, and preterm delivery. All women attempting vaginal birth were allowed Valsalva. Among planned vaginal deliveries 86.2% (n = 181) were successful, with a 9.5% operative vaginal delivery rate. Five women underwent operative vaginal delivery for the indication of cardiovascular disease without another obstetric indication at the discretion of the delivering provider. Four of these patients tolerated trials of Valsalva ranging from 15 to 75 minutes prior to delivery. Adverse cardiac outcomes were similar between planned vaginal birth and cesarean delivery groups (4.3% vs 3.0%, P = 1.00). Rates of postpartum hemorrhage (1.9% vs 10.6%, P < .01) and transfusion (1.9% vs 9.1%, P = .01) were lower in the planned vaginal birth group. There were no differences in adverse cardiac, obstetric, or neonatal outcomes in the cohort overall or the subset of women with high-risk cardiovascular disease or a high burden of obstetric comorbidity. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that cesarean delivery does not reduce adverse cardiovascular outcomes and lend support to a planned vaginal birth for the majority of women with cardiovascular disease including those with high-risk disease.


Assuntos
Cesárea/métodos , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Cardiopatias , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez , Adulto , Arritmias Cardíacas , Cardiomiopatias , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Gerenciamento Clínico , Extração Obstétrica/métodos , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas , Humanos , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Manobra de Valsalva
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