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1.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(30): 10276-10280, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31106469

RESUMO

Controlled nitrogen-doping is a powerful methodology to modify the properties of carbon nanostructures and produce functional materials for electrocatalysis, energy conversion and storage, and sensing, among others. Herein, we report a wall- and hybridisation-selective synthetic methodology to produce double-walled carbon nanotubes with an inner tube doped exclusively with graphitic sp2 -nitrogen atoms. Our measurements shed light on the fundamental properties of nitrogen-doped nanocarbons opening the door for developing their potential applications.

2.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(19): 4375-4382, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31020369

RESUMO

The use of electrochemiluminescence (ECL), i.e., chemiluminescence triggered by electrochemical stimulus, as emitting light source for microscopy is an emerging approach with different applications ranging from the visualization of nanomaterials to cell mapping. In this trend article, we give an overview of the state of the art in this new field with the purpose to illustrate all the possible applications so far explored as well as describing the mechanism underlying this transduction technique. The results discussed here would highlight the great potential of the combination between ECL and microscopy and how this marriage can turn into an innovative approach with specific application in analytical sciences. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Luminescência , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Microscopia/métodos , Eletrodos , Nanoestruturas , Análise de Célula Única
3.
J Phys Chem A ; 123(11): 2171-2177, 2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30803227

RESUMO

This research focuses on the adsorption and molecular scale communication mechanism of PbS-BDY (BDY, boron dipyrromethene), a nanohybrid system of nanocrystal (NC) and a π-conjugated molecule, investigated through the electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) spooling spectra and multivariate analysis. The results show that the charge transmitted from the excited state of BDY+ to the surface states of PbS NCs leads to emission quenching of BDY and emission enhancement of PbS NCs at 986 nm. Also, the essence tendency of unpassivated sulfur atoms on (100) facets of the PbS NCs acts as a force for adsorption of PbS NCs on the surface of Pt electrode. This phenomenon was proved by conjugation of BDY as an ECL active compound to the PbS NCs and multivariate analysis of augmented data at different scan rates. The obtained results from multivariate analysis reveal that adsorption of PbS-BDY and charge transfer from BDY to surface states of PbS NCs are independent of the scan rate.

4.
Anal Chem ; 90(21): 12959-12963, 2018 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30399650

RESUMO

We report on the use of boron doped diamond electrodes for the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of the coreactant peroxydisulfate and the luminophore ruthenium(II)-tris(2,2'-bipyridine). Compared to common electrode materials (i.e., Pt, Au, glassy carbon), boron doped diamond has a large overpotential for the evolution of hydrogen in aqueous electrolyte solutions. This intrinsic feature enables reductive-oxidation ECL with peroxydisulfate to be obtained without interference from hydrogen evolution and with high reproducible signals and stable emission. We investigated the effects of the peroxydisulfate concentration and the pH on the ECL emission to find the optimal conditions for enhancing the signal.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(44): 14753-14760, 2018 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30336008

RESUMO

Herein is reported a surface-confined microscopy based on electrochemiluminescence (ECL) that allows to image the plasma membrane of single cells at the interface with an electrode. By analyzing photoluminescence (PL), ECL and AFM images of mammalian CHO cells, we demonstrate that, in contrast to the wide-field fluorescence, ECL emission is confined to the immediate vicinity of the electrode surface and only the basal membrane of the cell becomes luminescent. The resulting ECL microscopy reveals details that are not resolved by classic fluorescence microscopy, without any light irradiation and specific setup. The thickness of the ECL-emitting regions is ∼500 nm due to the unique ECL mechanism that involves short-lifetime electrogenerated radicals. In addition, the reported ECL microscopy is a dynamic technique that reflects the transport properties through the cell membranes and not only the specific labeling of the membranes. Finally, disposable transparent carbon nanotube (CNT)-based electrodes inkjet-printed on classic microscope glass coverslips were used to image cells in both reflection and transmission configurations. Therefore, our approach opens new avenues for ECL as a surface-confined microscopy to develop single cell assays and to image the dynamics of biological entities in cells or in membranes.

7.
Cancer Discov ; 8(11): 1458-1473, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30185628

RESUMO

In many solid tumors, parasympathetic input is provided by the vagus nerve, which has been shown to modulate tumor growth. However, whether cholinergic signaling directly regulates progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has not been defined. Here, we found that subdiaphragmatic vagotomy in LSL-Kras +/G12D;Pdx1-Cre (KC) mice accelerated PDAC development, whereas treatment with the systemic muscarinic agonist bethanechol restored the normal KC phenotype, thereby suppressing the accelerated tumorigenesis caused by vagotomy. In LSL-Kras +/G12D;LSL-Trp53 +/R172H;Pdx1-Cre mice with established PDAC, bethanechol significantly extended survival. These effects were mediated in part through CHRM1, which inhibited downstream MAPK/EGFR and PI3K/AKT pathways in PDAC cells. Enhanced cholinergic signaling led to a suppression of the cancer stem cell (CSC) compartment, CD11b+ myeloid cells, TNFα levels, and metastatic growth in the liver. Therefore, these data suggest that cholinergic signaling directly and indirectly suppresses growth of PDAC cells, and therapies that stimulate muscarinic receptors may be useful in the treatment of PDAC.Significance: Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy or Chrm1 knockout accelerates pancreatic tumorigenesis, in part via expansion of the CSC compartment. Systemic administration of a muscarinic agonist suppresses tumorigenesis through MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling, in early stages of tumor growth and in more advanced, metastatic disease. Therefore, CHRM1 may represent a potentially attractive therapeutic target. Cancer Discov; 8(11); 1458-73. ©2018 AACR. This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1333.

8.
Cancer Gene Ther ; 2018 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30042499

RESUMO

TFF2 is a small, secreted protein with anti-inflammatory properties. We previously have shown that TFF2 gene delivery via adenovirus (Ad-Tff2) suppresses colon tumor growth in colitis associated cancer. Therefore, systemic administration of TFF2 peptide could potentially provide a similar benefit. Because TFF2 shows a poor pharmacokinetic, we sought to modify the TFF2 peptide in a manner that would lower its clearance rate but retain bioactivity. Given the absence of a sequence-based prediction of TFF2 functionality, we chose to genetically fuse the C-terminus of TFF2 with the carboxyl-terminal peptide of human chorionic gonadotropin ß subunit, and inserted into adenoviral vector that expresses Flag. The resulting Ad-Tff2-CTP-Flag construct translates into a TFF2 fused with two CTP and three Flag motifs. Administered Ad-Tff2-CTP-Flag decreased tumorigenesis and suppressed the expansion of myeloid cells in vivo. The fusion peptide TFF2-CTP-Flag delivered by adenovirus Ad-Tff2-CTP-Flag as well purified recombinant fusion TFF2-CTP-Flag was retained in the blood longer compared with wild-type TFF2 delivered by Ad-Tff2 or recombinant TFF2. Consistently, purified recombinant fusion TFF2-CTP-Flag suppressed expansion of myeloid cells by down-regulating cyclin D1 mRNA in vitro. Here, we demonstrate for the very first time the retained bioactivity and possible pharmacokinetic advantages of TFF2 with a modified C-terminus.

9.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(39): 4999-5002, 2018 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29707706

RESUMO

Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) generated by a monolayer of a spirobifluorene derivative covalently bound onto an indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate is reported for the first time. Our approach allows the efficient preparation homogeneous and patterned substrates through micromolding in capillaries (MIMIC), and opens novel scenarios for multicolour ECL applications.

10.
Cancer Cell ; 33(1): 75-90.e7, 2018 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29249692

RESUMO

Catecholamines stimulate epithelial proliferation, but the role of sympathetic nerve signaling in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is poorly understood. Catecholamines promoted ADRB2-dependent PDAC development, nerve growth factor (NGF) secretion, and pancreatic nerve density. Pancreatic Ngf overexpression accelerated tumor development in LSL-Kras+/G12D;Pdx1-Cre (KC) mice. ADRB2 blockade together with gemcitabine reduced NGF expression and nerve density, and increased survival of LSL-Kras+/G12D;LSL-Trp53+/R172H;Pdx1-Cre (KPC) mice. Therapy with a Trk inhibitor together with gemcitabine also increased survival of KPC mice. Analysis of PDAC patient cohorts revealed a correlation between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression, nerve density, and increased survival of patients on nonselective ß-blockers. These findings suggest that catecholamines drive a feedforward loop, whereby upregulation of neurotrophins increases sympathetic innervation and local norepinephrine accumulation.

11.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(46): 16830-16837, 2017 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29064235

RESUMO

We report here the development of coreactant-based electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) as a surface-confined microscopy to image single cells and their membrane proteins. Labeling the entire cell membrane allows one to demonstrate that, by contrast with fluorescence, ECL emission is only detected from fluorophores located in the immediate vicinity of the electrode surface (i.e., 1-2 µm). Then, to present the potential diagnostic applications of our approach, we selected carbon nanotubes (CNT)-based inkjet-printed disposable electrodes for the direct ECL imaging of a labeled plasma receptor overexpressed on tumor cells. The ECL fluorophore was linked to an antibody and enabled to localize the ECL generation on the cancer cell membrane in close proximity to the electrode surface. Such a result is intrinsically associated with the unique ECL mechanism and is rationalized by considering the limited lifetimes of the electrogenerated coreactant radicals. The electrochemical stimulus used for luminescence generation does not suffer from background signals, such as the typical autofluorescence of biological samples. The presented surface-confined ECL microscopy should find promising applications in ultrasensitive single cell imaging assays.

12.
Chemistry ; 23(61): 15283-15288, 2017 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28868759

RESUMO

Synergy between graphitic nanocarbon, obtainable from food waste through cracking of biomethane, and iron oxide nanoparticles provides access to efficient bifunctional electro catalysts. Dissolution of potassium-intercalated graphitic nanocarbons yields graphenide solutions with calibrated, small lateral size-reduced graphenes that are used subsequently as reducing agents of iron metal salts. This results in the strong binding of small size (2-5 nm) nanoparticles on the carbon framework homogeneously within the composite material, accessibility of the catalytic centers, and good conductivity provided by the underlying carbon framework. The iron oxide nanocarbon electrocatalyst performances are highlighted by the overall overpotential of approximately 1 V needed to reach the benchmark threshold of 10 mA cm-2 for the oxygen reduction reaction and the particular activity towards oxygen evolution reaction (η≈0.4 V at 10 mA cm-2 ), comparable to that of the precious RuO2 and IrO2 catalysts. This iron oxide/nanocarbon electrocatalyst is versatile, remarkably active, stable, and truly sustainable.

13.
ACS Sens ; 2(9): 1310-1318, 2017 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28836760

RESUMO

With the aim of developing miniaturized enzymatic biosensors suitable for in vitro diagnostic applications, such as monitoring of metabolites at single cell level, glucose and lactate biosensors were fabricated by immobilizing enzymes (glucose oxidase and lactate oxidase, respectively) on 10 µm Pt ultramicroelectrodes. These electrodes are meant to be employed as probes for scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM), which is a unique technique for high-spatial-resolution electrochemical-based analysis. The use of enzymatic moieties improves sensitivity, time scale response, and information content of the microprobes; however, protein immobilization is a key step in the biosensor preparation that greatly affects the overall performance. A crucial aspect is the miniaturization of the sensing, preserving their sensitivity. In this work, we investigated the most common enzyme immobilization techniques. Several fabrication routes are reported and the main figures of merit, such as sensitivity, detection limit, response time, reproducibility, spatial resolution, biosensor efficiency, permeability, selectivity, and the ability to block electro-active interfering species, are investigated and compared. With the intent of using the microprobes for in vitro functional imaging of single living cells, we carefully evaluate the spatial resolution achieved by our modified electrodes on 2D SECM imaging. Metabolic activity of single MCF10A cells were obtained by monitoring the glucose concentrations in close proximity of single living cell, using the UME-based biosensor probes prepared. A voltage-switch approach was implemented to disentangle the topographical contribution of the cells enabling quantitative measurements of cellular uptakes.

14.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 56(24): 6946-6951, 2017 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28318084

RESUMO

Twisted two-dimensional aromatic frameworks have been prepared by overcrowding the nodes with bulky and rigid substituents. The highly distorted aromatic framework with alternating out-of-plane substituents results in diminished interlayer interactions that favor the exfoliation and dispersion of individual layers in organic media.

15.
Cancer Res ; 77(8): 2134-2147, 2017 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28202523

RESUMO

Many tumors display intracellular heterogeneity with subsets of cancer stem cells (CSC) that sustain tumor growth, recurrence, and therapy resistance. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) have been shown to support and regulate CSC function. Here, we investigate the interactions between CSCs and CAFs in mammary gland tumors driven by combined activation of Wnt/ß-catenin and Hgf/Met signaling in mouse mammary epithelial cells. In this setting, CSCs secrete the Hedgehog ligand SHH, which regulate CAFs via paracrine activation of Hedgehog signaling. CAFs subsequently secrete factors that promote expansion and self-renewal of CSCs. In vivo treatment of tumors with the Hedgehog inhibitor vismodegib reduce CAF and CSC expansion, resulting in an overall delay of tumor formation. Our results identify a novel intracellular signaling module that synergistically regulates CAFs and CSCs. Targeting CAFs with Hedgehog inhibitors may offer a novel therapeutic strategy against breast cancer. Cancer Res; 77(8); 2134-47. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/patologia , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Anilidas/farmacologia , Animais , Comunicação Celular/fisiologia , Feminino , Camundongos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/metabolismo , Piridinas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt , beta Catenina/metabolismo
16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(48): 15636-15641, 2016 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27934028

RESUMO

A novel co-reactant-free electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) system is developed where Ru(bpy)32+ emission is obtained on boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. The method exploits the unique ability of BDD to operate at very high oxidation potential in aqueous solutions and to promote the conversion of inert SO42- into the reactive co-reactant S2O82-. This novel procedure is rather straightforward, not requiring any particular electrode geometry, and since the co-reactant is only generated in situ, the interference with biological samples is minimized. The underlying mechanism is similar to that of the Ru(bpy)32+/S2O82- system; however, the intensity of the emitted signal increases linearly with [SO42-] up to ∼0.6 M, with possible implications for analytical uses of the proposed procedure.

17.
Nat Commun ; 7: 13549, 2016 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27941752

RESUMO

Considering the depletion of fossil-fuel reserves and their negative environmental impact, new energy schemes must point towards alternative ecological processes. Efficient hydrogen evolution from water is one promising route towards a renewable energy economy and sustainable development. Here we show a tridimensional electrocatalytic interface, featuring a hierarchical, co-axial arrangement of a palladium/titanium dioxide layer on functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The resulting morphology leads to a merging of the conductive nanocarbon core with the active inorganic phase. A mechanistic synergy is envisioned by a cascade of catalytic events promoting water dissociation, hydride formation and hydrogen evolution. The nanohybrid exhibits a performance exceeding that of state-of-the-art electrocatalysts (turnover frequency of 15000 H2 per hour at 50 mV overpotential). The Tafel slope of ∼130 mV per decade points to a rate-determining step comprised of water dissociation and formation of hydride. Comparative activities of the isolated components or their physical mixtures demonstrate that the good performance evolves from the synergistic hierarchical structure.

18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(49): 15935-15942, 2016 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27960352

RESUMO

The impact of nanotechnology on analytical science is hardly overlooked. In the search for ever-increasing sensitivity in biomedical sensors, nanoparticles have been playing a unique role as, for instance, ultrabright labels, and unravelling the intimate mechanisms which govern their functioning is mandatory for the design of ultrasentitive devices. Herein, we investigated the mechanism of electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) in a family of core-shell silica-PEG nanoparticles (DDSNs), variously doped with a Ru(bpy)32+ triethoxysilane derivative, and displaying homogeneous morphological, hydrodynamic, and photophysical properties. ECL experiments, performed in the presence of 2-(dibutylamino)ethanol (DBAE) as coreactant, showed two parallel mechanisms of ECL generation: one mechanism (I) which involves exclusively the radicals deriving from the coreactant oxidation and a second one (II) involving also the direct anodic oxidation of the Ru(II) moieties. The latter mechanism includes electron (hole) hopping between neighboring redox centers as evidenced in our previous studies and supported by a theoretical model we have recently proposed. Quite unexpectedly, however, we found that the efficiency of the two mechanisms varies in opposite directions within the DDSNs series, with mechanism I or mechanism II prevailing at low and high doping levels, respectively. Since mechanism II has an intrinsically lower efficiency, the ECL emission intensity was also found to grow linearly with doping only at relatively low doping levels while it deviates negatively at higher ones. As the ζ-potential of DDSNs increases with the doping level from negative to slightly positive values, as a likely consequence of the accumulating cationic charge within the silica core, we attributed the observed change in the ECL generation mechanism along the DDSN series to a modulation of the electrostatic and hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions between the DDSNs and the radical cationic species involved in the ECL generation. The results we report therefore show that the ECL intensity of a nanosized system cannot be merely incremented acting on doping, since other parameters come into play. We think that these results could serve as valuable indications to design more efficient ECL nano- and microsized labels for ultrasensitive bioanalysis.

19.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(22): 15025-38, 2016 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27194584

RESUMO

The synthesis of two A2B2 porphyrins, {5,15-bis-[4-(octyloxy)phenyl]-porphyrinato}zinc(ii) () and {5,15-bis-(carbazol-3-yl-ethynyl)-10,20-bis-[4-(octyloxy)phenyl]-porphinato}-zinc(ii) (), is reported. Their photophysical properties were studied by steady-state absorption and emission. Substituting the carbazolylethynyl moieties at two of the meso positions results in a large bathochromic shift of all the absorption bands, a notable increase in the absorption coefficient of the Q(0,0) band, and higher fluorescence quantum yield compared to porphyrin , with two unsubstituted meso positions. Cyclic voltammetry and digital simulation show that electrogenerated radical ions of are more stable than those of . The lack of substituents at the meso positions of leads to dimerization reactions of the radical cation. Despite this, the annihilation reaction of and produces very similar electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) intensity. Spectroelectrochemical experiments demonstrate that the electroreduction of leads to a strong absorption band that might quench the ECL.

20.
Tumour Biol ; 37(3): 3913-23, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26482609

RESUMO

Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most fatal gynecological malignancy due to its high proliferative and invasive capacities. A heregulin (HRG)/HER3 autocrine loop increases proliferative and metastatic properties of EOC cells, suggesting that modulators of this signaling pathway may prove effective to trammel growth and motility of these cells. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor silibinin on proliferative and invasive characteristics of EOC cell lines OVCAR8 and SKOV3 through suppression of the HRG/HER3 pathway. To achieve this, the effects of silibinin on proliferation, DNA synthesis, clonogenicity, cell cycle progression, cathepsin B enzymatic activity, and migration and invasion were explored in vitro. Silibinin suppressed proliferation, DNA synthesis, and clonogenic abilities of OVCAR8 and SKOV3 cells through inhibition of the autocrine HRG/HER3 circuit. Silibinin-mediated attenuation of the HER3 signaling disabled the HER3/AKT/survivin axis and thereby, induced G1/S cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, silibinin reduced invasive potentials of the EOC cells through quelling the HRG/HER3 pathway and suppression of cathepsin B activity. Altogether, these results suggest that silibinin is a potential anti-cancer drug to inhibit proliferative and invasive characteristics of the EOC cells that exhibit an autocrine HRG/HER3 pathway.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neuregulina-1/metabolismo , Receptor ErbB-3/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Silimarina/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Western Blotting , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , DNA de Neoplasias/biossíntese , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Feminino , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G1 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G1 do Ciclo Celular/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Invasividade Neoplásica , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/genética , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/patologia , Neuregulina-1/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Receptor ErbB-3/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Silibina , Survivina
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