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1.
Environ Res ; 197: 110992, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical activity can be affected by both meteorological conditions and surrounding greenness, but few studies have evaluated the effects of these environmental factors on physical activity simultaneously. This multi-city comparative study aimed to assess the synergetic effects of apparent temperature and surrounding greenness on physical activity in four European cities. Specifically, we aimed to identify an interaction between surrounding greenness and apparent temperature in the effects on physical activity. METHODS: Data were collected from 352 adult residents of Barcelona (Spain), Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom), Doetinchem (The Netherlands), and Kaunas (Lithuania) as part of the PHENOTYPE study. Participants wore a smartphone for seven consecutive days between May-December 2013 and provided additional sociodemographic survey data. Hourly average physical activity (Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET)) and surrounding greenness (NDVI) were derived from the Calfit mobile application collecting accelerometer and location data. Hourly apparent temperature was calculated from temperature and relative humidity, which were obtained from local meteorological stations along with other meteorological covariates (rainfall, windspeed, and sky darkness). We assessed the interaction effects of apparent temperature and surrounding greenness on hourly physical activity for each city using linear mixed models, while adjusting for meteorological, demographic, and time-related variables. RESULTS: We found significant interactions between apparent temperature and surrounding greenness on hourly physical activity in three of four cities, aside from the coastal city of Barcelona. Significant quadratic effects of apparent temperature were found in the highest level of surrounding greenness for Stoke-on-Trent and Doetinchem, with 4% decrease in median MET observed for a 10°C departure from optimal temperature (15.2°C and 14.6°C, respectively). Significant linear effects were found for higher levels of surrounding greenness in Kaunas, whereby an increase of 10°C was associated with ∼4% increase in median MET. CONCLUSION: Apparent temperature and surrounding greenness interacted in the effect on hourly physical activity across three of four European cities, with varying effect between cities. While quadratic effects of temperature suggest diminishing levels of physical activity in the highest greenness levels in cities of temperate climates, the variation in surrounding greenness between cities could be further explored, particularly by looking at indoor-outdoor locations. The study findings support the need for evidence-based physical activity promotion and urban design.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Cidades , Lituânia , Países Baixos , Fenótipo , Espanha , Temperatura , Reino Unido
2.
Maturitas ; 145: 49-55, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) affects the body through pathways that exhibit positive as well as negative health effects such as immunoregulation and vitamin D production. Different vitamin D metabolites are associated with higher or lower concentrations of estrogens and may thus alter the female sex hormone balance. OBJECTIVE: To study whether exposure to UVR, as a modifiable lifestyle factor, is associated with levels of sex hormones (17ß-estradiol, estrone, estrone 3-sulfate, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate), gonadotropins (follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone) as well as sex hormone binding globulin in postmenopausal women, and thus investigate whether managing UVR exposure can influence the hormone balance, with potential benefits for the biological aging process. METHODS: The study included 580 postmenopausal women from six European countries, participating in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (2010-2014). Average UVR exposure during the month before blood sampling was estimated based on personal sun behavior and ambient levels. Hormone concentrations were measured in serum using state-of-the-art methods. Subsequently we applied linear mixed-effects models, including center as random intercept, hormone concentrations (one at a time) as outcome and UVR, age, skin type, body mass index, vitamin D from dietary sources, smoking, age at completed full-time education and season of blood sampling as fixed-effect predictors. RESULTS: One interquartile range increase in UVR exposure was associated with decreased levels of 17ß-estradiol (-15.6 pmol/L, 95 % Confidence Interval (CI): -27.69, -3.51) and estrone (-13.36 pmol/L, 95 % CI: -26.04, -0.68) and increased levels of follicle stimulating hormone (9.34IU/L, 95 % CI: 2.91, 15.77) and luteinizing hormone (13.86 IU/daL, 95 % CI: 2.48, 25.25). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to UVR is associated with decreased estrogens and increased gonadotropins in postmenopausal women, a status associated with osteoporosis, lung function decline and other adverse health effects. This study indicates that managing UVR exposure has potential to influence the hormone balance and counteract adverse health conditions after menopause.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Hormônios/sangue , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Raios Ultravioleta , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
3.
Environ Pollut ; 271: 116393, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388678

RESUMO

The quality characteristics of urban green spaces (UGS) have been suggested to play a critical role in their use and their potentials to exert health effects. However, epidemiological studies evaluating such a role are scarce. These studies have generally focused on a limited number of quality dimensions. We studied the association between 10 UGS quality dimensions, assessed through a comprehensive multidimensional tool, and physical activity, overweight/obesity, and UGS use. Our study was based on 2053 adults participating in the Barcelona Health Survey (2016) and the quality of 149 UGS located in Barcelona, Spain. For each participant, we abstracted the average and maximum quality score separately for each of the 10 quality dimensions and an overall quality score for the UGS within 300 m of the participant's residential address. Data on the study outcomes were obtained through face-to-face interviews. We developed logistic regression and negative binomial models to assess our evaluated associations and conducted mediation analyses between the different outcomes. We observed that the overall quality of UGS was associated with higher likelihood of engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (OR:1.13; 95% CI:1.00-1.27), lower risk of overweight/obesity (OR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.79-0.98), and increased use of UGS (exponentiated regression coefficient: 1.08; 95% CI:1.01-1.15). For the quality dimensions, we observed different patterns of associations depending on the outcome; however, bird biodiversity and amenities seem to be relevant to all of our evaluated outcomes. The mediation analysis suggested that UGS use mediate the association between quality and physical activity, while physical activity mediates the association between quality and overweight/obesity. The novel results from this study will allow decision-makers better design UGS and directly pinpoint relevant quality dimensions to promote physical activity, reduce the risk of overweight/obesity and boost the use of UGS amongst citizens.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Parques Recreativos , Adulto , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Espanha
4.
Epidemiology ; 31(5): 718-727, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Night-shift work, exposure to artificial light-at-night (ALAN) and particularly blue light spectrum, and the consequent circadian disruption may increase the risk of breast and prostate cancer. Colorectal cancer risk may also be increased among night-shift workers. We investigated the association between exposure to ALAN according to light spectrum and colorectal cancer among subjects who had never worked at night in a general population case-control study in Spain. METHODS: We examined information on 661 incident histologically verified colorectal cancer cases and 1,322 controls from Barcelona and Madrid, 2007-2013. Outdoor ALAN exposure was based on images from the International Space Station (ISS) including data on remotely sensed upward light intensity. We derived adjusted odds ratio (OR) estimates and confidence intervals (CI) for visual light, blue light, and spectral sensitivities of the five human photopigments assigned to participant's geocoded longest residence. RESULTS: Exposure to blue light spectrum was positively associated with colorectal cancer (OR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.2-2.2; highest vs. lowest tertile). ORs were similar (OR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3-2.3) when further adjusting for area socioeconomic status, diet patterns, smoking, sleep, and family history. We observed no association for outdoor visual light (full spectrum) (OR = 1.0; 95% CI, 0.7-1.2; highest vs. lowest tertile). Analysis of the five photopigments gave similar results with increased risks for shorter wavelengths overlapping with the blue spectrum and no association for longer wavelengths. CONCLUSIONS: Outdoor blue light spectrum exposure that is increasingly prevalent in recent years may be associated with colorectal cancer risk. See video abstract: http://links.lww.com/EDE/B708.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Exposição Ambiental , Iluminação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Iluminação/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
5.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(6): 67009, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemical and nonchemical environmental exposures are increasingly suspected to influence the development of obesity, especially during early life, but studies mostly consider single exposure groups. OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed to systematically assess the association between a wide array of early-life environmental exposures and childhood obesity, using an exposome-wide approach. METHODS: The HELIX (Human Early Life Exposome) study measured child body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, skinfold thickness, and body fat mass in 1,301 children from six European birth cohorts age 6-11 y. We estimated 77 prenatal exposures and 96 childhood exposures (cross-sectionally), including indoor and outdoor air pollutants, built environment, green spaces, tobacco smoking, and biomarkers of chemical pollutants (persistent organic pollutants, metals, phthalates, phenols, and pesticides). We used an exposure-wide association study (ExWAS) to screen all exposure-outcome associations independently and used the deletion-substitution-addition (DSA) variable selection algorithm to build a final multiexposure model. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity combined was 28.8%. Maternal smoking was the only prenatal exposure variable associated with higher child BMI (z-score increase of 0.28, 95% confidence interval: 0.09, 0.48, for active vs. no smoking). For childhood exposures, the multiexposure model identified particulate and nitrogen dioxide air pollution inside the home, urine cotinine levels indicative of secondhand smoke exposure, and residence in more densely populated areas and in areas with fewer facilities to be associated with increased child BMI. Child blood levels of copper and cesium were associated with higher BMI, and levels of organochlorine pollutants, cobalt, and molybdenum were associated with lower BMI. Similar results were found for the other adiposity outcomes. DISCUSSION: This first comprehensive and systematic analysis of many suspected environmental obesogens strengthens evidence for an association of smoking, air pollution exposure, and characteristics of the built environment with childhood obesity risk. Cross-sectional biomarker results may suffer from reverse causality bias, whereby obesity status influenced the biomarker concentration. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP5975.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Poluentes Ambientais , Expossoma , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Ácidos Ftálicos , Gravidez , Pregas Cutâneas , Fumar/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura
6.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(6): 67014, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness, and its progression with age, is an important indicator of cardiovascular aging. Greenspace exposure may protect against arterial stiffness by promoting physical activity, fostering social cohesion, and reducing stress and exposure to air pollution and noise. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of long-term exposure to outdoor greenspace with arterial stiffness and its progression over time. METHODS: This prospective cohort study was based on 4,349 participants (55-83 years of age) of the Whitehall II Study, United Kingdom. Arterial stiffness was assessed in two medical examinations (2007-2009 and 2012-2013) by measuring the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV). Residential surrounding greenspace was characterized using satellite-based indices of greenspace including normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), and vegetation continuous fields (VCF) across buffers of 500 and 1,000m surrounding the participants' residential locations at each follow-up. The association between the greenspace indicators and baseline cf-PWV and 4-year progression of cf-PWV was assessed using linear mixed-effects models with the participant as a random effect, controlling for demographic, lifestyle, and (individual and area) socioeconomic factors. RESULTS: No statistically significant associations were observed between residential surrounding greenspace and baseline or 4-y progression of cf-PWV; interquartile range (IQR) increases in NDVI, EVI, and VCF in the 500-m buffer were associated with -0.04m/s [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.12, 0.04], -0.03m/s (95% CI: -0.10, 0.05), and -0.02m/s (95% CI: -0.08, 0.04) in baseline cf-PWV and 0.06m/s (95% CI: -0.02, 0.14), 0.05m/s (95% CI: -0.03, 0.14), and 0.00m/s (95% CI: -0.09, 0.09) in 4-y progression in cf-PWV, respectively. The associations were similar when using 1,000-m buffers. CONCLUSIONS: We did not observe any consistent association between residential surrounding greenspace and arterial stiffness. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP6159.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Rigidez Vascular/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluição do Ar , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Reino Unido
7.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(2): 572-586, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several environmental contaminants were shown to possibly influence fetal growth, generally from single exposure family studies, which are prone to publication bias and confounding by co-exposures. The exposome paradigm offers perspectives to avoid selective reporting of findings and to control for confounding by co-exposures. We aimed to characterize associations of fetal growth with the pregnancy chemical and external exposomes. METHODS: Within the Human Early-Life Exposome project, 131 prenatal exposures were assessed using biomarkers and environmental models in 1287 mother-child pairs from six European cohorts. We investigated their associations with fetal growth using a deletion-substitution-addition (DSA) algorithm considering all exposures simultaneously, and an exposome-wide association study (ExWAS) considering each exposure independently. We corrected for exposure measurement error and tested for exposure-exposure and sex-exposure interactions. RESULTS: The DSA model identified lead blood level, which was associated with a 97 g birth weight decrease for each doubling in lead concentration. No exposure passed the multiple testing-corrected significance threshold of ExWAS; without multiple testing correction, this model was in favour of negative associations of lead, fine particulate matter concentration and absorbance with birth weight, and of a positive sex-specific association of parabens with birth weight in boys. No two-way interaction between exposure variables was identified. CONCLUSIONS: This first large-scale exposome study of fetal growth simultaneously considered >100 environmental exposures. Compared with single exposure studies, our approach allowed making all tests (usually reported in successive publications) explicit. Lead exposure is still a health concern in Europe and parabens health effects warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Expossoma , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Exposição Materna , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez
8.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 223(1): 45-55, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The epidemiological evidence on green spaces and obesity is inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: To study the association of access to green spaces and surrounding greenness with obesity in Spain. METHODS: We enrolled 2354 individuals 20-85 years from urban areas of seven provinces of Spain between 2008-13. Subjects were randomly selected population controls of the MCC-Spain case-control study. We geocoded current residences and defined exposures in a buffer of 300 m around them: i) access to green space, identified using Urban Atlas, and ii) levels of surrounding greenness, measured by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. We examined excess weight/obesity as binary outcomes based on body mass index and waist-hip ratio. We examined effect modification by genetic factors, sex and individual socio-economic status and mediation by physical activity and concentrations of PM2.5 and NO2. To assess potential effect modification by genetic factors, we used a polygenic risk score based on obesity polymorphisms detected in genome-wide association studies. We used logistic mixed-effects models with a random effect for catchment area adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Access to green space was associated with a reduced risk of excess weight/obesity after adjusting for confounders [excess weight: OR (95%CI) = 0.82 (0.63, 1.07), p-value = 0.143; abdominal obesity: OR (95%CI) = 0.68 (0.45, 1.01), p-value = 0.057]. In the stratified analysis, this association was only observed in women. Associations between surrounding greenness and excess weight/obesity were null or modest based on a 1 IQR increase in NDVI [excess weight: OR (95%CI) = 0.99 (0.88, 1.11), p-value = 0.875; abdominal obesity: OR (95%CI) = 0.91 (0.79, 1.05), p-value = 0.186]. The observed associations were not mediated by physical activity or air pollution. DISCUSSION: Access to green space may be associated with decreased risk of excess weight/obesity among women in Spain. Mechanisms explaining this association remain unclear.


Assuntos
Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Planejamento Ambiental , Exposição Ambiental , Saúde Ambiental , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Environ Int ; 134: 105237, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677802

RESUMO

Exposure to natural outdoor environments (NOE) has been shown in population-level studies to reduce anxiety and psychological distress. This study investigated how exposure to one's everyday natural outdoor environments over one week influenced mood among residents of four European cities including Barcelona (Spain), Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom), Doetinchem (The Netherlands) and Kaunas (Lithuania). Participants (n = 368) wore a smartphone equipped with software applications to track location and mood (using mobile ecological momentary assessment (EMA) software), for seven consecutive days. We estimated random-effects ordered logistic regression models to examine the association between mood (positive and negative affect), and exposure to green space, represented by two binary variables indicating exposure versus no exposure to NOE using GPS tracking and satellite and aerial imagery, 10 and 30 min prior to participants' completing the EMA. Models were adjusted for home city, day of the week, hour of the day, EMA survey type, residential NOE exposure, and sex, age, education level, mental health status and neighbourhood socioeconomic status. In addition, we tested for heterogeneity of effect by city, sex, age, residential NOE exposure and mental health status. Within 10 min of NOE exposure, compared to non-exposure, we found that overall there was a positive relationship with positive affect (OR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.81) of EMA surveys, and non-significant negative association with negative affect (OR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.58, 1.10). When stratifying, associations were consistently found for Stoke-on-Trent inhabitants and men, while findings by age group were inconsistent. Weaker and less consistent associations were found for exposure 30 min prior to EMA. Our findings support increasing evidence of psychological and mental health benefits of exposure to natural outdoor environments, especially among urban populations such as those included in our study.


Assuntos
Afeto , Cidades , Humanos , Lituânia , Masculino , Países Baixos , Espanha , Reino Unido
10.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 2): 113231, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome is an important risk factor for non-communicable diseases, particularly type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke. Long-term exposure to greenspace could be protective of metabolic syndrome, but evidence for such an association is lacking. Accordingly, we investigated the association between long-term exposure to greenspace and risk of metabolic syndrome. METHODS: The present longitudinal study was based on data from four clinical examinations between 1997 and 2013 in 6076 participants of the Whitehall II study, UK (aged 45-69 years at baseline). Long-term exposure to greenspace was assessed by satellite-based indices of greenspace including Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Vegetation Continuous Field (VCF) averaged across buffers of 500 and 1000 m surrounding the participants' residential location at each follow-up. The ascertainment of metabolic syndrome was based on the World Health Organization (WHO) definition. Hazard ratios for metabolic syndrome were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models, controlling for age, sex, ethnicity, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: Higher residential surrounding greenspace was associated with lower risk of metabolic syndrome. An interquartile range increase in NDVI and VCF in the 500 m buffer was associated with 13% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1%, 23%) and 14% (95% CI: 5%, 22%) lower risk of metabolic syndrome, respectively. Greater exposure to greenspace was also associated with each individual component of metabolic syndrome, including a lower risk of high levels of fasting glucose, large waist circumference, high triglyceride levels, low HDL cholesterol, and hypertension. The association between residential surrounding greenspace and metabolic syndrome may have been mediated by physical activity and exposure to air pollution. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the present study suggest that middle-aged and older adults living in greener neighbourhoods are at lower risk of metabolic syndrome than those living in neighbourhoods with less greenspace.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Idoso , Poluição do Ar , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Classe Social , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
11.
Environ Res ; 174: 95-104, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055170

RESUMO

The human exposome affects child development and health later in life, but its personal external levels, variability, and correlations are largely unknown. We characterized the personal external exposome of pregnant women and children in eight European cities. Panel studies included 167 pregnant women and 183 children (aged 6-11 years). A personal exposure monitoring kit composed of smartphone, accelerometer, ultraviolet (UV) dosimeter, and two air pollution monitors were used to monitor physical activity (PA), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon, traffic-related noise, UV-B radiation, and natural outdoor environments (NOE). 77% of women performed the adult recommendation of ≥150 min/week of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), while only 3% of children achieved the childhood recommendation of ≥60 min/day MVPA. 11% of women and 17% of children were exposed to daily PM2.5 levels higher than recommended (≥25µg/m3). Mean exposure to noise ranged from Lden 51.1 dB in Kaunas to Lden 65.2 dB in Barcelona. 4% of women and 23% of children exceeded the recommended maximum of 2 Standard-Erythemal-Dose of UV-B at least once a week. 33% of women and 43% of children never reached the minimum NOE contact recommendation of ≥30 min/week. The variations in air and noise pollution exposure were dominated by between-city variability, while most of the variation observed for NOE contact and PA was between-participants. The correlations between all personal exposures ranged from very low to low (Rho < 0.30). The levels of personal external exposures in both pregnant women and children are above the health recommendations, and there is little correlation between the different exposures. The assessment of the personal external exposome is feasible but sampling requires from one day to more than one year depending on exposure due to high variability between and within cities and participants.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Criança , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Expossoma , Feminino , Humanos , Material Particulado , Gravidez
12.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(4): 47007, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The exposome is defined as the totality of environmental exposures from conception onwards. It calls for providing a holistic view of environmental exposures and their effects on human health by evaluating multiple environmental exposures simultaneously during critical periods of life. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association of the urban exposome with birth weight. METHODS: We estimated exposure to the urban exposome, including the built environment, air pollution, road traffic noise, meteorology, natural space, and road traffic (corresponding to 24 environmental indicators and 60 exposures) for nearly 32,000 pregnant women from six European birth cohorts. To evaluate associations with either continuous birth weight or term low birth weight (TLBW) risk, we primarily relied on the Deletion-Substitution-Addition (DSA) algorithm, which is an extension of the stepwise variable selection method. Second, we used an exposure-by-exposure exposome-wide association studies (ExWAS) method accounting for multiple hypotheses testing to report associations not adjusted for coexposures. RESULTS: The most consistent statistically significant associations were observed between increasing green space exposure estimated as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and increased birth weight and decreased TLBW risk. Furthermore, we observed statistically significant associations among presence of public bus line, land use Shannon's Evenness Index, and traffic density and birth weight in our DSA analysis. CONCLUSION: This investigation is the first large urban exposome study of birth weight that tests many environmental urban exposures. It confirmed previously reported associations for NDVI and generated new hypotheses for a number of built-environment exposures. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3971.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Expossoma , Cidades , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
13.
Environ Int ; 126: 494-503, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30849577

RESUMO

To assess environmental exposures at the individual level, new assessment methods and tools are required. We developed an exposure assessment system (ExpoApp) for smartphones. ExpoApp integrates: (i) geo-location and accelerometry measurements from a waist attached smartphone, (ii) data from portable monitors, (iii) geographic information systems, and (iv) individual's information. ExpoApp calculates time spent in microenvironments, physical activity level, inhalation rate, and environmental exposures and doses (e.g., green spaces, inhaled ultrafine particles- UFP). We deployed ExpoApp in a panel study of 158 adults from five cities (Amsterdam and Utrecht- the Netherlands, Basel- Switzerland, Norwich- UK, and Torino- Italy) with an UFP monitor. To evaluate ExpoApp, participants also carried a reference accelerometer (ActiGraph) and completed a travel-activity diary (TAD). System reliability and validity of measurements were evaluated by comparing the monitoring failure rate and the agreement on time spent in microenvironments and physical activity with the reference tools. There were only significant failure rate differences between ExpoApp and ActiGraph in Norwich. Agreement on time in microenvironments and physical activity level between ExpoApp and reference tools was 86.6% (86.5-86.7) and 75.7% (71.5-79.4), respectively. ExpoApp estimated that participants inhaled 16.5 × 1010 particles/day of UFP and had almost no contact with green spaces (24% of participants spent ≥30 min/day in green spaces). Participants with more contact with green spaces had higher inhaled dose of UFP, except for the Netherlands, where the relationship was the inverse. ExpoApp is a reliable system and provides accurate individual's measurements, which may help to understand the role of environmental exposures on the origin and course of diseases.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Aplicativos Móveis , Material Particulado/análise , Adulto , Cidades , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Masculino , Tamanho da Partícula , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Viagem
14.
Lancet Planet Health ; 3(2): e81-e92, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several single-exposure studies have documented possible effects of environmental factors on lung function, but none has relied on an exposome approach. We aimed to evaluate the association between a broad range of prenatal and postnatal lifestyle and environmental exposures and lung function in children. METHODS: In this analysis, we used data from 1033 mother-child pairs from the European Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX) cohort (consisting of six existing longitudinal birth cohorts in France, Greece, Lithuania, Norway, Spain, and the UK of children born between 2003 and 2009) for whom a valid spirometry test was recorded for the child. 85 prenatal and 125 postnatal exposures relating to outdoor, indoor, chemical, and lifestyle factors were assessed, and lung function was measured by spirometry in children at age 6-12 years. Two agnostic linear regression methods, a deletion-substitution-addition (DSA) algorithm considering all exposures simultaneously, and an exposome-wide association study (ExWAS) considering exposures independently, were applied to test the association with forced expiratory volume in 1 s percent predicted values (FEV1%). We tested for two-way interaction between exposures and corrected for confounding by co-exposures. FINDINGS: In the 1033 children (median age 8·1 years, IQR 6·5-9·0), mean FEV1% was 98·8% (SD 13·2). In the ExWAS, prenatal perfluorononanoate (p=0·034) and perfluorooctanoate (p=0·030) exposures were associated with lower FEV1%, and inverse distance to nearest road during pregnancy (p=0·030) was associated with higher FEV1%. Nine postnatal exposures were associated with lower FEV1%: copper (p=0·041), ethyl-paraben (p=0·029), five phthalate metabolites (mono-2-ethyl 5-carboxypentyl phthalate [p=0·016], mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate [p=0·023], mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate [p=0·0085], mono-4-methyl-7-oxooctyl phthalate [p=0·040], and the sum of di-ethylhexyl phthalate metabolites [p=0·014]), house crowding (p=0·015), and facility density around schools (p=0·027). However, no exposure passed the significance threshold when corrected for multiple testing in ExWAS, and none was selected with the DSA algorithm, including when testing for exposure interactions. INTERPRETATION: Our systematic exposome approach identified several environmental exposures, mainly chemicals, that might be associated with lung function. Reducing exposure to these ubiquitous chemicals could help to prevent the development of chronic respiratory disease. FUNDING: European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (HELIX project).


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal
15.
Environ Int ; 122: 346-356, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503316

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence of the health benefits of exposure to natural environments, including green and blue spaces. The association with physical functioning and its decline at older age remains to be explored. The aim of the present study was to investigate the longitudinal association between the natural environment and the decline in physical functioning in older adults. We based our analyses on three follow-ups (2002-2013) of the Whitehall II study, including 5759 participants (aged 50 to 74 years at baseline) in the UK. Exposure to natural environments was assessed at each follow-up as (1) residential surrounding greenness across buffers of 500 and 1000 m around the participants' address using satellite-based indices of greenness (Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)) and (2) the distance from home to the nearest natural environment, separately for green and blue spaces, using a land cover map. Physical functioning was characterized by walking speed, measured three times, and grip strength, measured twice. Linear mixed effects models were used to quantify the impact of green and blue space on physical functioning trajectories, controlled for relevant covariates. We found higher residential surrounding greenness (EVI and NDVI) to be associated with slower 10-year decline in walking speed. Furthermore, proximity to natural environments (green and blue spaces combined) was associated with slower decline in walking speed and grip strength. We observed stronger associations between distance to natural environments and decline in physical functioning in areas with higher compared to lower area-level deprivation. However, no association was observed with distance to green or blue spaces separately. The associations with decline in physical functioning were partially mediated by social functioning and mental health. Our results suggest that higher residential surrounding greenness and living closer to natural environments contribute to better physical functioning at older ages.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Meio Ambiente , Características de Residência , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Microbiome ; 6(1): 218, 2018 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30522523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The oral cavity comprises a rich and diverse microbiome, which plays important roles in health and disease. Previous studies have mostly focused on adult populations or in very young children, whereas the adolescent oral microbiome remains poorly studied. Here, we used a citizen science approach and 16S profiling to assess the oral microbiome of 1500 adolescents around Spain and its relationships with lifestyle, diet, hygiene, and socioeconomic and environmental parameters. RESULTS: Our results provide a detailed snapshot of the adolescent oral microbiome and how it varies with lifestyle and other factors. In addition to hygiene and dietary habits, we found that the composition of tap water was related to important changes in the abundance of several bacterial genera. This points to an important role of drinking water in shaping the oral microbiota, which has been so far poorly explored. Overall, the microbiome samples of our study can be clustered into two broad compositional patterns (stomatotypes), driven mostly by Neisseria and Prevotella, respectively. These patterns show striking similarities with those found in unrelated populations. CONCLUSIONS: We hypothesize that these stomatotypes represent two possible global optimal equilibria in the oral microbiome that reflect underlying constraints of the human oral niche. As such, they should be found across a variety of geographical regions, lifestyles, and ages.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Água Potável/microbiologia , Metagenômica/métodos , Boca/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Higiene , Estilo de Vida , Neisseria/classificação , Neisseria/genética , Neisseria/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Prevotella/classificação , Prevotella/genética , Prevotella/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Professores Escolares , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Espanha
17.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 221(8): 1097-1106, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30076044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the main cause of cancer mortality among women. Green spaces have been recently associated with reduced cancer mortality among women. Mechanisms explaining the beneficial effect of green spaces include increased levels of physical activity and reduced exposure to air pollution, which have been both associated with cancer development. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the associations between presence of urban green areas, presence of agricultural areas and surrounding greenness and risk of breast cancer, and to assess whether these associations are mediated by physical activity and/or air pollution levels. METHODS: We geocoded the current residence of 1129 breast cancer cases and 1619 controls recruited between 2008 and 2013 in ten provinces of Spain, as part of the MCC-Spain study. We assigned different indicators of exposure to green spaces in a buffer of 300 m, and in nested buffers of 100 m and 500 m around the residence: presence of urban green areas according to Urban Atlas, presence of agricultural areas according to CORINE Land Cover 2006, and surrounding greenness according to the average of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. We used logistic mixed-effects regression models with a random effect for hospital adjusting for potential confounders. We explored the effect of several potential effect modifiers. We assessed mediation effect by physical activity and levels of air pollution. RESULTS: Presence of urban green areas was associated with reduced risk of breast cancer after adjusting for age, socio-economic status at individual and at area level, education, and number of children [OR (95%CI) = 0.65 (0.49-0.86)]. There was evidence of a linear trend between distance to urban green areas and risk of breast cancer. On the contrary, presence of agricultural areas and surrounding greenness were associated with increased risk of breast cancer [adjusted OR (95%CI) = 1.33 (1.07-1.65) and adjusted OR (95%CI) = 1.27 (0.92-1.77), respectively]. None of the associations observed were mediated by levels of physical activity or levels or air pollution. CONCLUSIONS: The association between green spaces and risk of breast cancer is dependent on land-use. The confirmation of these results in other settings and the study of potential mechanisms for the associations observed are needed to advance the understanding on the potential effects of green spaces on health.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Características de Residência , Adulto , Idoso , Agricultura , Poluição do Ar , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Florestas , Jardins , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parques Recreativos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha
18.
Environ Health Perspect ; 126(7): 077005, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30024382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The urban exposome is the set of environmental factors that are experienced in the outdoor urban environment and that may influence child development. OBJECTIVE: The authors' goal was to describe the urban exposome among European pregnant women and understand its socioeconomic determinants. METHODS: Using geographic information systems, remote sensing and spatio-temporal modeling we estimated exposure during pregnancy to 28 environmental indicators in almost 30,000 women from six population-based birth cohorts, in nine urban areas from across Europe. Exposures included meteorological factors, air pollutants, traffic noise, traffic indicators, natural space, the built environment, public transport, facilities, and walkability. Socioeconomic position (SEP), assessed at both the area and individual level, was related to the exposome through an exposome-wide association study and principal component (PC) analysis. RESULTS: Mean±standard deviation (SD) NO2 levels ranged from 13.6±5.1 µg/m3 (in Heraklion, Crete) to 43.2±11 µg/m3 (in Sabadell, Spain), mean±SD walkability score ranged from 0.22±0.04 (Kaunas, Lithuania) to 0.32±0.07 (Valencia, Spain) and mean±SD Normalized Difference Vegetation Index ranged from 0.21±0.05 in Heraklion to 0.51±0.1 in Oslo, Norway. Four PCs explained more than half of variation in the urban exposome. There was considerable heterogeneity in social patterning of the urban exposome across cities. For example, high-SEP (based on family education) women lived in greener, less noisy, and less polluted areas in Bradford, UK (0.39 higher PC1 score, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.31, 0.47), but the reverse was observed in Oslo (-0.57 PC1 score, 95% CI: -0.73, -0.41). For most cities, effects were stronger when SEP was assessed at the area level: In Bradford, women living in high SEP areas had a 1.34 higher average PC1 score (95% CI: 1.21, 1.48). CONCLUSIONS: The urban exposome showed considerable variability across Europe. Pregnant women of low SEP were exposed to higher levels of environmental hazards in some cities, but not others, which may contribute to inequities in child health and development. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2862.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Cidades , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Environ Health Perspect ; 126(7): 077003, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30028296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence on beneficial associations of green space with cognitive function in older adults is very scarce and mainly limited to cross-sectional studies. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the association between long-term residential surrounding greenness and cognitive decline. METHODS: This longitudinal study was based on three waves of data from the Whitehall II cohort, providing a 10-y follow-up (1997-1999 to 2007-2009) of 6,506 participants (45-68 y old) from the United Kingdom. Residential surrounding greenness was obtained across buffers of 500 and around the participants' residential addresses at each follow-up using satellite images on greenness (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI) from a summer month in every follow-up period. Cognitive tests assessed reasoning, short-term memory, and verbal fluency. The cognitive scores were standardized and summarized in a global cognition z-score. To quantify the impact of greenness on repeated measurements of cognition, linear mixed effect models were developed that included an interaction between age and the indicator of greenness, and controlled for covariates including individual and neighborhood indicators of socioeconomic status (SES). RESULTS: In a fully adjusted model, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in NDVI was associated with a difference in the global cognition z-score of 0.020 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.003, 0.037; p=0.02] in the 500-m buffer and of 0.021 (95% CI: 0.003, 0.039; p=0.02) in the 1,000-m buffer over 10 y. The associations with cognitive decline over the study period were stronger among women than among men. CONCLUSIONS: Higher residential surrounding greenness was associated with slower cognitive decline over a 10-y follow-up period in the Whitehall II cohort of civil servants. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2875.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Características de Residência , Classe Social , Adulto , Idoso , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escócia/epidemiologia , País de Gales/epidemiologia
20.
Environ Health Perspect ; 126(4): 047011, 2018 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29687979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Night shift work, exposure to light at night (ALAN) and circadian disruption may increase the risk of hormone-dependent cancers. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the association of exposure to ALAN during sleeping time with breast and prostate cancer in a population based multicase-control study (MCC-Spain), among subjects who had never worked at night. We evaluated chronotype, a characteristic that may relate to adaptation to light at night. METHODS: We enrolled 1,219 breast cancer cases, 1,385 female controls, 623 prostate cancer cases, and 879 male controls from 11 Spanish regions in 2008-2013. Indoor ALAN information was obtained through questionnaires. Outdoor ALAN was analyzed using images from the International Space Station (ISS) available for Barcelona and Madrid for 2012-2013, including data of remotely sensed upward light intensity and blue light spectrum information for each geocoded longest residence of each MCC-Spain subject. RESULTS: Among Barcelona and Madrid participants with information on both indoor and outdoor ALAN, exposure to outdoor ALAN in the blue light spectrum was associated with breast cancer [adjusted odds ratio (OR) for highest vs. lowest tertile, OR=1.47; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.17] and prostate cancer (OR=2.05; 95% CI: 1.38, 3.03). In contrast, those exposed to the highest versus lowest intensity of outdoor ALAN were more likely to be controls than cases, particularly for prostate cancer. Compared with those who reported sleeping in total darkness, men who slept in "quite illuminated" bedrooms had a higher risk of prostate cancer (OR=2.79; 95% CI: 1.55, 5.04), whereas women had a slightly lower risk of breast cancer (OR=0.77; 95% CI: 0.39, 1.51). CONCLUSION: Both prostate and breast cancer were associated with high estimated exposure to outdoor ALAN in the blue-enriched light spectrum. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1837.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Luz/efeitos adversos , Iluminação/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ritmo Circadiano , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Próstata/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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