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1.
J Vasc Surg ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035774

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pre-emptive thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) improves late survival and limits progression of disease after type B aortic dissection, but the potential value of pre-emptive TEVAR has not been evaluated after type A dissection extending beyond the aortic arch (DeBakey type I). The purpose of this study was to compare disease progression and need for aortic intervention in survivors of acute, extended type A (ExTA) dissections after initial repair of the ascending aorta versus acute type B aortic dissections. METHODS: Consecutive patients presenting with ExTA or type B dissections between 2011 and 2018 were studied. Forty-three patients with ExTA and 44 with type B dissections who survived to discharge and had follow-up imaging studies were included in the analysis. Study end points included progression of aortic disease (>5 mm growth or extension), need for intervention, and death. RESULTS: The groups were not different for age, sex, atherosclerotic risk factors, or extent of dissection distal to the left subclavian artery. Following emergent ascending aortic repair, five ExTA patients (12%) underwent TEVAR within 4 months after discharge. Despite optimal medical treatment, 29 type B patients (66%) underwent early or late TEVAR (P < .001). During a mean follow-up of 38 ± 30 months, 38 ExTA patients (88%) did not require intervention-23 (53%) of whom showed no disease progression. In comparison, during a mean follow-up of 18 ± 6 months, 14 type B patients (32%) did not require intervention-nine (20%) of whom showed no disease progression (P = .003). There was one aortic-related late death in the ExTA group and two in the type B group. Compared with ExTA patients, type B patients had significantly worse intervention-free survival and intervention/growth-free survival (log rank, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: In contrast with type B dissections, these midterm results demonstrate that one-half of ExTA aortic dissections show no disease progression in the thoracic or abdominal aorta, and few require additional interventions. After initial repair of the ascending aorta, pre-emptive TEVAR does not seem to be justified in patients with acute, ExTA dissections.

2.
J Vasc Surg ; 69(6): 1704-1709, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30792055

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Routine computed tomography (CT) imaging in trauma patients has led to increased recognition of blunt vertebral artery injuries (BVIs). We sought to determine the prevalence of strokes, injury progression, and need for intervention in patients with BVI. METHODS: Consecutive patients presenting with BVI during 2 years were identified from the institutional trauma registry. Inpatient records, imaging studies, and follow-up data were reviewed in detail from the electronic medical record. RESULTS: There were 76 BVIs identified in 70 patients (64% male; mean age, 47 ± 19 years); bilateral injuries occurred in 6 patients. Five patients who arrived at the hospital intubated had evidence of posterior circulation infarcts on admission CT, whereas one additional patient had evidence of a posterior circulation infarct attributed to complications of late spinal surgery. Four of the five patients with infarcts on admission CT survived to discharge, but only one had residual stroke symptoms. Minor (grade 1 or grade 2) injuries occurred in 25 (36%) patients; severe (grade 3 or grade 4) injuries occurred in 45 (64%). Twelve patients died of associated injuries (eight with severe BVI, four with minor BVI). Stepwise logistic regression analysis selected age (odds ratio, 1.14; confidence interval, 1.04-1.25; P < .001) and intubation on arrival (odds ratio, 450.4; confidence interval, 17.41-1645.51; P < .001) as independent predictors of hospital stroke and death. Of the 58 surviving to discharge, 31 (53%) returned for follow-up CT scans. Six of 10 (60%) patients with minor injuries had resolution or improvement compared with 3 of 21 (14%) with severe injuries (P = .027). One patient (10%) with a minor BVI and two patients (10%) with severe BVI had radiologic progression, but none were clinically significant. During a mean follow-up of 15 ± 13 months, none of the study patients had treatment (surgical or interventional) for BVI, and there were no delayed strokes. Only five patients in this series had vertebral pseudoaneurysms, which limits conclusions about this type of BVI. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that BVI-related strokes are present at the time of admission and do not have clinical sequelae. No late strokes occurred in this series, and no surgical or interventional treatments were required even in the presence of radiographic worsening. The relatively few cases of vertebral pseudoaneurysms in this series limit any conclusions about these specific lesions. However, these data indicate that follow-up imaging of nonaneurysmal BVI is not necessary in adults who are found to be asymptomatic on follow-up.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Procedimentos Desnecessários , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Dissecação da Artéria Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Assintomáticas , Bases de Dados Factuais , Progressão da Doença , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/mortalidade , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/terapia , Artéria Vertebral/lesões , Dissecação da Artéria Vertebral/mortalidade , Dissecação da Artéria Vertebral/terapia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/mortalidade , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/terapia
3.
Vasc Med ; : 1358863X18788952, 2018 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30124120

RESUMO

An embolic event originating from thrombus on an otherwise un-diseased or minimally diseased proximal artery (Phantom Thrombus) is a rare but significant clinical challenge. All patients from a single center with an imaging defined luminal thrombus with a focal mural attachment site on an artery were evaluated retrospectively. We excluded all patients with underlying anatomic abnormalities of the vessel at the attachment site. Six patients with a mean age of 62.5 years were identified over a 2.5-year period. All patients had completed treatment for or had a current diagnosis of malignancy and none were on antiplatelets or other anticoagulants. Four thrombi originated in the aorta proximal to the renal arteries and one originated distal. One thrombus was found in the common carotid artery and one was in an arterialized vein graft. Mean follow-up was 22 months. None of the patients underwent removal or exclusion of the embolic source. With systemic anticoagulation, four of the phantom thrombi were resolved on imaging within 8 weeks, one resolved after 72 weeks. One phantom thrombus reoccurred after 6 months on reduced anticoagulant dosing. There was one acute and one death in follow-up (26 months). One patient required a partial foot amputation secondary to tissue necrosis from the initial thromboembolic event. Arterial thrombi forming on otherwise normal vessels are a distinct clinical entity. In patients with a phantom thrombus, a strategy of therapeutic anticoagulation for management of the embolic source seems to be safe and effective over both the short and intermediate-term.

4.
Ann Surg ; 268(4): 665-673, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30048318

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to document trends in the performance of open arterial vascular surgery procedures (OAVP) by general surgery residents (GSR). BACKGROUND: The ACGME Review Committee for Surgery considers vascular surgery (VS) to be an "essential content area." However, the operative experience in VS for GSRs is threatened by 1) increasing numbers of GSRs, 2) increasing numbers of VS trainees, and 3) the proliferation of endovascular surgery. METHODS: The last 16 years of ACGME national reports of case logs for completing GSRs were reviewed. Total vascular operations and OAVPs performed as "surgeon" were recorded and analyzed. The number of individuals completing ACGME programs in general and vascular surgery annually over that period were also recorded and analyzed. To better understand long-term and more recent trends, trends were analyzed for the 15-year period spanned by the 16 years of data as well as the most recent 10- and 5-year periods. RESULTS: The number of individuals completing both general and vascular surgery programs increased significantly. Over 15 years, the total vascular operations performed by GSRs significantly declined as did the total OAVPs and the OAVPs in 7 of 9 categories. In just the last 5 years, significant declines occurred in 5 OAVP categories. CONCLUSIONS: Operative experience in OAVPs for GSRs has significantly declined. Because fundamental VS skills are necessary for operative general surgery, VS should remain an essential content area. However, programs cannot solely depend on operative experience to teach fundamental VS skills.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Especialidades Cirúrgicas/educação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/educação , Escolha da Profissão , Competência Clínica , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Estados Unidos , Carga de Trabalho
5.
J Am Coll Surg ; 225(1): 9-18, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28161484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aorto-enteric fistulas (AEF) represent a lethal subset of aortic graft infections. The optimal management of AEF remains unclear. We aimed to identify predictors of morbidity and mortality. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a single-center retrospective review of consecutive AEF repairs. Demographics, comorbidities, and perioperative variables were obtained. Descriptive statistics, chi-square, Kruskall-Wallis, and Cox proportional-hazards modeling were used where appropriate. RESULTS: Between June 1995 and October 2014, 50 patients (30 male; 60%) presented with AEF, with a median age of 70 years (interquartile range [IQR] 61 to 75 years). Median follow-up for the entire cohort was 14 months (IQR 5 to 27 months). Thirty-four (68%) subjects underwent aortic reconstruction with femoral vein; 12 (24%) with extra-anatomic bypass and aortic ligation; 3 (6%) with rifampin-soaked Dacron graft; and 1 (2%) with cryopreserved aortic allograft. The duodenum was the most common location of the enteric defect (n = 40, 80%). Duodenal leak complicated 6 (12%) of the primary enteric repairs, but none of the complex enteric repairs performed with resection and/or bypass. Twenty-three patients (46%) died by 60 days. Advanced age, chronic renal insufficiency, any complications, and gastrointestinal (GI) complications (n = 13, 26%) were all associated with an increase in overall mortality on univariate analysis (p < 0.05). Gastrointestinal complications (hazard ratio [HR] 3.23; 95% CI 1.27 to 8.25; p = 0.015) and advanced age (HR 1.07; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.13; p = 0.01) were the only independent predictors of mortality on multivariable regression models. CONCLUSIONS: Over 20 years, approximately 50% of patients with AEF repairs died within 60 days. Gastrointestinal complications increase the risk of mortality more than 3-fold, representing an attractive surgically modifiable risk factor. Future multicenter studies are required to clarify optimal methods of arterial and GI reconstruction in AEF.


Assuntos
Doenças da Aorta/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular , Gastroenteropatias/mortalidade , Fístula Intestinal/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/mortalidade , Fístula Vascular/cirurgia , Idoso , Doenças da Aorta/mortalidade , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Fístula Intestinal/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fístula Vascular/mortalidade
7.
J Am Coll Surg ; 224(2): 199-203, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27773774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: True aneurysms of the gastroduodenal (GDA) and pancreaticoduodenal (PDA) arteries have been attributed to increased collateral flow due to tandem celiac artery stenosis or occlusion. Although GDA and PDA aneurysm exclusion is recommended because of the high reported risk of rupture, it remains uncertain whether simultaneous celiac artery reconstruction is necessary to preserve end-organ flow. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients admitted from 1996 to 2015 with true aneurysms of the GDA or PDA. RESULTS: Twenty patients with true aneurysms of the PDA (n = 16) or GDA (n = 4) were identified. Mean age was 61.5 years (range 35 to 85 years) and 11 (55%) were women. Nine (45%) presented with rupture, 8 (40%) presented with pain, and 3 (15%) were asymptomatic. All 9 patients who presented with rupture had contained retroperitoneal hematomas, and none experienced rebleeding. Fifteen (75%) patients had an associated celiac artery >60% stenosis or occlusion, and 2 (10%) had both celiac and superior mesenteric artery stenoses. Thirteen (65%) patients underwent successful endovascular coiling, only 1 of which had a prophylactic celiac artery bypass. Three (15%) patients underwent open aneurysm exclusion and celiac bypass, and 4 (20%) others were observed. There were no aneurysm-related deaths in this series, and none of the patients who underwent coiling without celiac revascularization had hepatic ischemia or other mesenteric morbidity develop during a median follow-up of 6 months (maximum 200 months). CONCLUSIONS: Gastroduodenal artery and PDA aneurysms present most commonly with pain or bleeding, and all should be considered for repair, regardless of size. Aneurysm exclusion is safely and effectively achieved with endovascular coiling. Although associated celiac artery stenosis is found in the majority of cases, celiac revascularization might not be necessary.


Assuntos
Aneurisma/terapia , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/cirurgia , Artéria Celíaca/cirurgia , Duodeno/irrigação sanguínea , Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Pâncreas/irrigação sanguínea , Estômago/irrigação sanguínea , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aneurisma/complicações , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/complicações , Embolização Terapêutica/instrumentação , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 40: 198-205, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27908824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disparate outcomes in critical limb ischemia (CLI) persist between ethnicities. The contribution of modifiable factors versus intrinsic biologic differences remains unclear. Hence, we aimed to quantify the associations between ethnicity and anatomic patterns of arterial occlusive disease in CLI, adjusting for known atherosclerotic risk factors. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, single-center review of consecutive patients presenting to the vascular surgery service with CLI. Arterial lesions were defined by location (aortoiliac = aorta and iliac arteries; femoral = common, profunda, and superficial femoral arteries; and popliteal-tibial = infrapopliteal and tibial arteries). Stenoses ≥50% were deemed hemodynamically significant. Associations between the patients' baseline arteriographic patterns, demographics, and medical comorbidities were defined using Kruskal-Wallis, χ2, and Mantel-Haenszel χ2 tests. RESULTS: Between August 2010 and January 2014, 286 CLI patients (n = 172 male, n = 176 tissue loss) were evaluated by the Vascular Surgery service. Two hundred seventy subjects had baseline arteriograms for analysis (black n = 134, 50%; Hispanic n = 78, 29%; Caucasian n = 58, 21%.) All ethnicities presented most frequently with simultaneous disease in all infrainguinal segments (n = 124, 46%). Of Hispanics, 30% (n = 23) presented with isolated infrapopliteal disease, which was higher than any other ethnic group (P = 0.02, χ2). Caucasians (n = 8, 14%) presented more frequently with isolated aortoiliac occlusive disease than either Hispanics (n = 0, 0%) or blacks (n = 2, 1%; P = 0.06). Diabetes mellitus was most prevalent among Hispanics (n = 72, 85%) relative to blacks (n = 77, 55%) and Caucasians (n = 32, 52%; P < 0.001, χ2). Median hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was also highest among Hispanics (7.3%, interquartile range [IQR] 6.2-9.9) versus blacks and Caucasians (6.6%, IQR 5.8-8.2 and 6.0%, IQR 5.6-7.6; P = 0.002, Kruskal-Wallis). Tobacco abuse was most frequent among Caucasians (n = 53, 87%) and blacks (n = 113, 81%). Forty-eight (57%) of Hispanics abused tobacco (P = 0.001, χ2.) Subgroup analysis of subjects stratified by baseline HbA1c revealed that there was no relationship between ethnicity and isolated infrapopliteal disease among subjects with HbA1c ≤8.8% (P = 0.58, Mantel-Haenszel χ2). Conversely, patients with poorer glycemic control (HbA1c ≥ 8.9%) were more frequently Hispanic and had a higher probability of having isolated infrapopliteal disease (P = 0.005, Mantel-Haenszel χ2). CONCLUSIONS: Hispanic patients present more frequently with isolated infrapopliteal arterial disease relative to other ethnicities, which may contribute to disparate CLI outcomes. Isolated infrapopliteal disease appears to be driven mostly be poorer glycemic control rather than inherent biologic differences between ethnicities. Future studies aimed at understanding disparate outcomes due to race after lower extremity revascularization may benefit from stratification by the severity of diabetes mellitus. Understanding the distribution of atherosclerotic disease may improve the ability to predict outcomes in limb-threatening ischemia.


Assuntos
Artérias/diagnóstico por imagem , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , Aterosclerose/etnologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Isquemia/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia/etnologia , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Comorbidade , Estado Terminal , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/etnologia , Texas/epidemiologia
9.
J Vasc Surg ; 64(5): 1212-1218, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27397897

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Medical management of acute aortic dissections limited to the descending thoracic aorta (AD-desc) is associated with acceptable outcomes. Uncertainty remains about whether acute type B aortic dissections involving the aortic arch (AD-arch) have an increased risk of retrograde extension into the ascending aorta or other dissection-related complications. This study compared outcomes of AD-arch with AD-desc managed medically. METHODS: Consecutive patients admitted from 2005 to 2014 with acute aortic dissections not involving the ascending aorta were retrospectively analyzed. Primary end points included dissection-related death and operative intervention. RESULTS: The study included 99 patients (63% men; mean age, 60 ± 14 years) with acute aortic dissections. Dissections were limited to the aorta distal to the left subclavian artery (AD-desc) in 79 patients (80%), and 20 (20%) had involvement of the left subclavian (n = 16), left common carotid (n = 1), or innominate (n = 3) arteries (AD-arch). Dissections ended proximal to the celiac artery in 30 patients (30%), between the celiac artery and aortic bifurcation in 36 (36%), and distal to the aortic bifurcation in 33 (33%). During medical management, further proximal extension into the arch occurred in two AD-arch patients and one AD-desc patient (P < .05), but proximal dissection into the ascending aorta occurred in only one AD-arch patient with Marfan disease. Compared with patients with AD-desc, those with AD-arch were younger (53 ± 12.5 vs 62 ± 16 years; P < .01) and had more frequent early interventions (40% vs 19%; P = .047), cardiac complications (35% vs 11%; P < .01), and neurologic events (25% vs 6%; P < .01). Seven AD-arch patients (35%) and nine AD-desc patients (11%) died of dissection-related causes (P < .01). Among survivors, late interventions were performed in four of eight AD-arch patients (50%) and in six of 58 AD-desc patients (10%; P = .02). Medical treatment without intervention was successful in four AD-arch patients (20%) and in 52 AD-desc patients (66%; P < .001). Multivariate logistic regression retained arch involvement as the sole predictor of dissection-related death (odds ratio, 4.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-13.4) and failure of medical treatment (odds ratio, 7.7; 95% confidence interval, 2.5-29). The distal extent of dissection had no bearing on outcome. CONCLUSIONS: AD-arch dissections are associated with a higher risk of cardiac and neurologic events, need for early intervention, and dissection-related death than AD-desc dissections. Because further proximal dissections into the ascending aorta were rare in this study, medical management appears to be safe as the initial treatment of AD-arch dissections. However, surgeons should be aware of the increased risk of complications and the potential need for urgent interventions in these patients.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante/terapia , Aorta Torácica , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/terapia , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Aneurisma Dissecante/complicações , Aneurisma Dissecante/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Dissecante/mortalidade , Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/complicações , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/mortalidade , Aortografia/métodos , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/efeitos adversos , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Razão de Chances , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tennessee , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares
10.
J Am Coll Surg ; 223(1): 174-83, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27049785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traumatic axillosubclavian artery injuries (ASAIs) are uncommon but devastating. There is increasing acceptance of covered stent use for ASAIs. However, epidemiologic and long-term outcomes data are limited. We investigated national trends in ASAI management and our institutional outcomes after emergent covered stent placement and open surgical repairs for ASAIs. STUDY DESIGN: A review of the National Trauma Data Bank from 2010 to 2012 was performed for epidemiologic data. International Classification of Diseases and procedure codes were used to identify ASAIs and therapy type. A single-center, retrospective review of consecutive patients with ASAIs between January 2010 and August 2014 was also performed. RESULTS: National Trauma Data Bank review included 511,286 patients with 520 ASAIs, yielding an incidence of 0.1%. Endovascular therapy was used in 76 patients (14.7%) vs open repair in 280 patients (53.8%). Nonoperative or unknown treatment was used in 164 (31.5%). From 2010 to 2012, endovascular interventions increased from 11.3% to 17.2% (p < 0.05). Endovascular therapy was used more frequently in blunt compared with penetrating trauma (59.2% vs 40.8%; p < 0.005). Our institutional review identified 10 ASAIs treated with covered stents with a median follow-up of 117 days (interquartile range 13 to 447 days) and 70% lost to follow-up. No treatment-related mortality or amputation occurred. Stent occlusion occurred in 30% at a median of 132 days (interquartile range 30 to 223 days). Three patients with ASAIs were initially treated with open surgery, 2 died and the third required ligation. CONCLUSIONS: Covered stents are being used increasingly for ASAIs nationwide, despite variable reports of durability. Follow-up is poor in urban trauma centers and might be responsible for the variable patency. Population-based efforts to improve compliance among trauma patients can help improve covered stent patency in ASAI.


Assuntos
Artéria Axilar/lesões , Procedimentos Endovasculares/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Stents , Artéria Subclávia/lesões , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/terapia , Adulto , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Procedimentos Endovasculares/tendências , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/epidemiologia
11.
J Am Coll Surg ; 222(4): 410-6, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27016968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Early Specialization Program (ESP) in surgery was designed by the American Board of Surgery, the American Board of Thoracic Surgery, and the Residency Review Committees for Surgery and Thoracic Surgery to allow surgical trainees dual certification in general surgery (GS) and either vascular surgery (VS) or cardiothoracic surgery (CTS) after 6 to 7 years of training. After more than 10 years' experience, this analysis was undertaken to evaluate efficacy. STUDY DESIGN: American Board of Surgery and American Board of Thoracic Surgery records of VS and CTS ESP trainees were queried to evaluate qualifying exam and certifying exam performance. Case logs were examined and compared with contemporaneous non-ESP trainees. Opinions of programs directors of GS, VS, and CTS and ESP participants were solicited via survey. RESULTS: Twenty-six CTS ESP residents have completed training at 10 programs and 16 VS ESP at 6 programs. First-time pass rates on American Board of Surgery qualifying and certifying exams were superior to time-matched peers; greater success in specialty specific examinations was also found. Trainees met required case minimums for GS despite shortened time in GS. By survey, 85% of programs directors endorsed satisfaction with ESP, and 90% endorsed graduate readiness for independent practice. Early Specialization Program participants report increased mentorship and independence, greater competence for practice, and overall satisfaction with ESP. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals in ESP programs in VS and CTS were successful in passing GS and specialty exams and achieving required operative cases, despite an accelerated training track. Programs directors and participants report satisfaction with the training and confidence that ESP graduates are prepared for independent practice. This documented success supports ESP training in any surgical subspecialty, including comprehensive GS.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Especialização , Especialidades Cirúrgicas/educação , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Certificação , Competência Clínica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estados Unidos
13.
J Vasc Surg ; 62(2): 457-63, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25937608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgeon radiation dose during complex fluoroscopically guided interventions (FGIs) has not been well studied. We sought to characterize radiation exposure to surgeons during FGIs based on procedure type, operator position, level of operator training, upper vs lower body exposure, and addition of protective shielding. METHODS: Optically stimulable, luminescent nanoDot (Landauer, Inc, Glenwood, Ill) detectors were used to measure radiation dose prospectively to surgeons during FGIs. The nanoDot dosimeters were placed outside the lead apron of the primary and assistant operators at the left upper chest and left lower pelvis positions. For each case, the procedure type, the reference air kerma, the kerma-area product, the relative position of the operator, the level of training of the fellow, and the presence or absence of external additional shielding devices were recorded. Three positions were assigned on the right-hand side of the patient in decreasing relative proximity to the flat panel detector (A, B, and C, respectively). Position A (main operator) was closest to the flat panel detector. Position D was on the left side of the patient at the brachial access site. The nanoDots were read using a microSTARii medical dosimetry system (Landauer, Inc) after every procedure. The nanoDot dosimetry system was calibrated for scattered radiation in an endovascular suite with a National Institute of Standards and Technology traceable solid-state radiation detector (Piranha T20; RTI Electronics, Fairfield, NJ). Comparative statistical analysis of nanoDot dose levels between categories was performed by analysis of variance with Tukey pairwise comparisons. Bonferroni correction was used for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: There were 415 nanoDot measurements with the following case distribution: 16 thoracic endovascular aortic repairs/endovascular aneurysm repairs, 18 fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repairs (FEVARs), 13 embolizations, 41 lower extremity interventions, 10 fistulograms, 13 visceral interventions, and 3 cerebrovascular procedures. The mean operator effective dose for FEVARs was higher than for other case types (P < .03), 20 µSv at position A and 9 µSv at position B. For all case types, position A (9.0 µSv) and position D (20 µSv) received statistically higher effective doses than position B (4 µSv) or position C (0.4 µSv) (P < .001). However, the mean operator effective dose for position D was not statistically different from that for position A. The addition of the lead skirt significantly decreased the lower body dose (33 ± 3.4 µSv to 6.3 ± 3.3 µSv) but not the upper body dose (6.5 ± 3.3 µSv to 5.7 ± 2.2 µSv). Neither ceiling-mounted shielding nor level of fellow training affected operator dose. CONCLUSIONS: Surgeon radiation dose during FGIs depends on case type, operator position, and table skirt use but not on the level of fellow training. On the basis of these data, the primary operator could perform approximately 12 FEVARs/wk and have an annual dose <10 mSv, which would not exceed lifetime occupational dose limits during a 35-year career. With practical case loads, operator doses are relatively low and unlikely to exceed occupational limits.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Endovasculares , Fluoroscopia , Exposição Ocupacional , Doses de Radiação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares , Humanos , Monitoramento de Radiação
14.
J Vasc Surg ; 61(4): 902-6, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25601500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endovascular aortic aneurysm repairs (EVARs) with fenestrated (FEVAR) stent grafts are high radiation dose cases, yet no skin injuries were found retrospectively in our 61 cases with a mean peak skin dose (PSD) of 6.8 Gy. We hypothesize that skin injury is under-reported. This study examined deterministic effects in FEVARs after procedural changes implemented to detect skin injury. METHODS: All FEVARs during a 6-month period with a radiation dose of 5 Gy reference air kerma (RAK; National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements threshold for substantial radiation dose level [SRDL]) were included. Patients were questioned about skin erythema, epilation, and necrosis, with a physical examination of the back completed daily until discharge and then at 2 and 4 weeks and at 3 and 6 months. PSD distributions were calculated with custom software using input data from fluoroscopic machine logs. These calculations have been validated against Gafchromic (Ashland Inc, Covington, Ky) film measurements. Dose was summed for the subset of patients with multiple procedures ≤6 months of the SRDL event, consistent with the joint commission recommendations. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients, 21 FEVARs and one embolization, reached an RAK of 5 Gy. The embolization procedure was excluded from review. The average RAK was 7.6 ± 2.0 Gy (range, 5.1-11.4 Gy), with a mean PSD of 4.8 ± 2.0 Gy (range, 2.3-10.4 Gy). Fifty-two percent of patients had multiple endovascular procedures ≤6 months of the SRDL event. The mean RAK for this subset was 10.0 ± 2.9 Gy (range, 5.5-15.1 Gy), with a mean PSD of 6.6 ± 1.9 Gy (range, 3.4-9.4 Gy). One patient died before the first postoperative visit. No radiation skin injuries were found. Putative risk factors for skin injury were evaluated and included smoking (32%), diabetes (14%), cytotoxic drugs (9%), and fair skin type (91%). No other risk factors were present (hyperthyroidism, collagen vascular disorders). CONCLUSIONS: Deterministic skin injuries are uncommon after FEVAR, even at high RAK levels, regardless of cumulative dose effects. This study addresses the concern of missed injuries based on the retrospective clinical examination findings that were published in our previous work. Even with more comprehensive postoperative skin examinations and patient questioning, the fact that no skin injuries were found suggests that radiation-induced skin injuries are multifactorial and not solely dose dependent.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Aortografia/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese Vascular/métodos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Doses de Radiação , Radiodermatite/etiologia , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico , Prótese Vascular , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese Vascular/instrumentação , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Eritema/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Necrose , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Desenho de Prótese , Radiodermatite/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Pele/patologia , Stents , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Vasc Surg ; 61(1): 80-7, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25095747

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Fenestrated endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (FEVAR) is an alternative to open repair in patients with complex abdominal aortic aneurysms who are neither fit nor suitable for standard open or endovascular repair. Chimney and snorkel grafts are other endovascular alternatives but frequently require bilateral upper extremity access that has been associated with a 3% to 10% risk of stroke. However, upper extremity access is also frequently required for FEVAR because of the caudal orientation of the visceral vessels. The purpose of this study was to assess the use of upper extremity access for FEVAR and the associated morbidity. METHODS: During a 5-year period, 148 patients underwent FEVAR, and upper extremity access for FEVAR was used in 98 (66%). Outcomes were compared between those who underwent upper extremity access and those who underwent femoral access alone. The primary end point was a cerebrovascular accident or transient ischemic attack, and the secondary end point was local access site complications. The mean number of fenestrated vessels was 3.07 ± 0.81 (median, 3) for a total of 457 vessels stented. Percutaneous upper extremity access was used in 12 patients (12%) and open access in 86 (88%). All patients who required a sheath size >7F underwent high brachial open access, with the exception of one patient who underwent percutaneous axillary access with a 12F sheath. The mean sheath size was 10.59F ± 2.51F (median, 12F), which was advanced into the descending thoracic aorta, allowing multiple wire and catheter exchanges. RESULTS: One hemorrhagic stroke (one of 98 [1%]) occurred in the upper extremity access group, and one ischemic stroke (one of 54 [2%]) occurred in the femoral-only access group (P = .67). The stroke in the upper extremity access group occurred 5 days after FEVAR and was related to uncontrolled hypertension, whereas the stroke in the femoral group occurred on postoperative day 3. Neither patient had signs or symptoms of a stroke immediately after FEVAR. The right upper extremity was accessed six times without a stroke (0%) compared with the left being accessed 92 times with one stroke (1%; P = .8). Four patients (4%) had local complications related to upper extremity access. One (1%) required exploration for an expanding hematoma after manual compression for a 7F sheath, one (1%) required exploration for hematoma and neurologic symptoms after open access for a 12F sheath, and two patients (2%) with small hematomas did not require intervention. Two (two of 12 [17%]) of these complications were in the percutaneous access group, which were significantly more frequent than in the open group (two of 86 [2%]; P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: Upper extremity access appears to be a safe and feasible approach for patients undergoing FEVAR. Open exposure in the upper extremity may be safer than percutaneous access during FEVAR. Unlike chimney and snorkel grafts, upper extremity access during FEVAR is not associated with an increased risk of stroke, despite the need for multiple visceral vessel stenting.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/terapia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/métodos , Cateterismo Periférico/métodos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Extremidade Superior/irrigação sanguínea , Idoso , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico , Prótese Vascular , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese Vascular/instrumentação , Cateterismo Periférico/efeitos adversos , Cateterismo Periférico/instrumentação , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Feminino , Hematoma/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Desenho de Prótese , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Stents , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Dispositivos de Acesso Vascular
16.
J Vasc Surg ; 61(1): 162-9, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25073577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to quantify the effect of multidisciplinary care (MDC) on amputation-free survival (AFS) and wound healing within a chronic critical limb ischemia (CLI) population. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, single-center cohort study of consecutive CLI patients presenting to the Vascular Surgery Service. Patients who received initial and follow-up wound care from the MDC were compared with patients who received standard wound care (SWC). The MDC team consisted of vascular, plastic, and podiatric surgeons who jointly managed wound care and directed any other consults or services as deemed necessary. SWC consisted of an inconsistent mix of providers without a defined manager, including nurses, wound care midlevel providers, general surgeons, internists, or the patients themselves. The referring physician determined the allocation of patients. The primary outcome variable was AFS, with a secondary evaluation of wound healing. The effects of baseline demographics, comorbid medical conditions, laboratory values, ischemic lesion severity and location, Rutherford classification, and participation in MDC were assessed. Significant univariate predictors (P < .10) of AFS were entered into a multivariate Cox regression model and assessed at an α = .05. RESULTS: Between August 2010 and June 2012, 146 CLI patients (91 male [63%]) were evaluated by the Vascular Surgery Service and were followed up for a median of 539 days (interquartile range 314-679 days). Ischemic tissue loss was present in 85 patients (38 at Rutherford category 5, and 47 at Rutherford category 6). Within this cohort, 51 (60%) had MDC, and 34 (40%) had SWC. Fifty-eight patients (68%) underwent revascularization (open in 17, endovascular in 35, and hybrid in 6), 14 (8%) were managed with primary major amputation, and 13 (15%) declined revascularization. AFS was superior for patients in the MDC arm vs the SWC arm (593.3 ± 53.5 days vs 281.0 ± 38.2 days; log-rank, P = .02). Wound-healing times favored the MDC arm over the SWC arm (444.5 ± 33.2 days vs 625.2 ± 126.5 days), although this was not statistically significant (log-rank, P = .74). Multivariate modelling revealed that independent predictors of major amputation or death, or both, were nonrevascularized patients (hazard ratio [HR], 3.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.78-8.02; χ(2), P < .01), treatment by SWC (HR, 2.664; 95% CI, 1.23-5.77; χ(2), P = .012), and baseline nonambulatory status (HR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.17-2.85; χ(2), P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: MDC pathways for the management of a population of CLI patients improved AFS by greater than twofold and should be the standard of care for the CLI population. Baseline nonambulatory status and unrevascularized patients also predict worse AFS. Wound healing remains prolonged regardless of preoperative or postoperative wound care. Future study is required to evaluate the costs and functional outcomes for MDC in the management of CLI.


Assuntos
Amputação , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Isquemia/terapia , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares , Idoso , Amputação/efeitos adversos , Amputação/mortalidade , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Doença Crônica , Terapia Combinada , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Isquemia/diagnóstico , Isquemia/mortalidade , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Salvamento de Membro , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Texas , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/mortalidade , Cicatrização
17.
J Vasc Surg ; 60(6): 1520-3, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25282697

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pregnancy is cited as the most important risk factor for splenic artery aneurysm (SAA) rupture, but the true rupture rate of SAAs during pregnancy is unknown. Our objective was to evaluate the prevalence of SAAs, based on diagnostic and procedural codes, in an urban population treated in a county hospital with the highest number of births in the United States. We hypothesized that SAA rupture in pregnant women is very low and that SAAs are more likely to be diagnosed in older patients. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with a SAA during a recent 5-year period were identified using International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification, and Current Procedural Terminology (American Medical Association, Chicago, Ill) codes. Demographics, imaging, and risk factors for rupture were reviewed. RESULTS: We identified 35 patients with SAA. Patients were a median age of 63 years (interquartile range [IQR], 54-74 years), and 28 (80%) were women who were a median age of 62 years (IQR, 54-74 years). The SAAs in the 35 patients were a median size of 1.3 cm (IQR, 1-1.9 cm), and eight (23%) were >2 cm. Despite the very large number of deliveries recorded during the study period (67,616 births), no women who were pregnant or aged <45 years were identified. However, 89% of women with an SAA had previous pregnancies. Two women and one man (8.6%) experienced rupture, resulting in one death (2.9%). More than one imaging study was available for 19 patients (60%) without intervention for a median of 32 months (IQR, 7-76 months), with no significant change noted. Three patients underwent elective repair due to size criteria. Six patients (17%) had concurrent aneurysms, including three renal artery aneurysms, one aortic aneurysm, and three intracranial aneurysms. No risk factor for enlargement or rupture was particularly prevalent. CONCLUSIONS: Ruptured SAAs are exceedingly rare in young women, and no ruptured SAA were identified during pregnancy in this study. SAA are frequently diagnosed as an incidental finding in middle-aged adults and tend to remain stable over time in this population.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Roto/epidemiologia , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Artéria Esplênica , Adulto , Idoso , Aneurisma Roto/diagnóstico , Aneurisma Roto/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Hospitais de Condado , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paridade , Gravidez , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/mortalidade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Artéria Esplênica/diagnóstico por imagem , Texas/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Saúde da População Urbana
18.
J Vasc Surg ; 60(6): 1677-85, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25214365

RESUMO

Vascular surgeons are well acquainted with chronic critical limb ischemia (CLI), the most severe manifestation of peripheral arterial disease, with patients presenting with ischemic rest pain or ulcerations, or both. Epidemiologic data predict a burgeoning epidemic of CLI within the United States, commensurate with the increasing incidence and prevalence of atherosclerotic risk factors, especially age and diabetes. Untreated, the risk of major amputation (above the ankle) or death, or both, ranges between 20% and 40% at 1 year. Current open and endovascular therapies have imperfect results, diverse treatment options, and recommendations that are often conflicting and confuse physicians, industry, and patients alike. The best treatment options are ideally evaluated by prospective, randomized controlled trials. However, these have proven impractical in CLI because the rapid evolution of devices and techniques has outstripped the ability to measure outcomes and compare treatment options. Alternatively, risk-stratifying models have been proposed to allow physicians, patients, and industry to objectively evaluate new therapeutics and devices as they evolve. These models are developed from prospective cohorts to identify and quantify variables that can subsequently predict outcome in individual patients. The risk stratification models can also compare CLI outcomes between physicians and institutions, supporting quality assessments, and compensation decisions within Accountable Care Organizations under the Affordable Health Care Act (ACA). Widespread adoption of risk-stratification schemes has yet to occur, despite the critical need for such a tool in CLI, because present models lack optimal predictive ability and generalizability. The passage of the ACA amplifies the importance of developing an improved risk-stratification tool to ensure equitable quality assessments and compensation. This review presents current risk-stratification models for CLI with a summary of the respective strengths and limitations of each. Future research is needed to simplify and improve the accuracy and generalizability of risk stratification in CLI.


Assuntos
Isquemia/terapia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares , Amputação , Doença Crônica , Estado Terminal , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Isquemia/diagnóstico , Isquemia/economia , Isquemia/cirurgia , Salvamento de Membro , Seleção de Pacientes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/economia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/mortalidade
19.
J Vasc Surg ; 60(6): 1657-60, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25262437

RESUMO

A 65-year-old man presented with right arm and face weakness associated with severe coughing fits. A computed tomography angiogram revealed an occlusion of the left common and internal carotid arteries and an incomplete circle of Willis. An arch angiogram demonstrated reconstitution of the left external carotid artery, which collateralized with the intracranial left internal carotid artery. The patient underwent left subclavian-to-external carotid artery bypass with reversed saphenous vein, with complete resolution of symptoms over 1 year of follow-up. Cough-induced hemispheric transient ischemic attack is a rarely described hemodynamic phenomenon that can be managed with revascularization of the external carotid artery in select patients.


Assuntos
Artéria Carótida Externa/cirurgia , Estenose das Carótidas/cirurgia , Tosse/complicações , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/etiologia , Veia Safena/transplante , Enxerto Vascular , Idoso , Artéria Carótida Externa/fisiopatologia , Estenose das Carótidas/complicações , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico , Estenose das Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Angiografia Cerebral/métodos , Circulação Colateral , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/diagnóstico , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
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