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Clin Res Cardiol ; 109(1): 34-45, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037410


OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether patients with an acute heart failure (AHF) episode triggered by infection present different outcomes compared to patients with no trigger and the effects of early antibiotic administration (EAA) and hospitalisation. METHODS: Two groups were made according to the AHF trigger: infection (G1) or none identified (G2). The primary outcome was 13-week (91-days) all-cause mortality, and secondary outcomes were 13-week post-discharge mortality, readmission or combined endpoint. Comparisons are presented as unadjusted and adjusted (MEESSI risk score) hazard ratios (uHR/aHR) for G1 compared to G2 patients, also estimated by weeks. Stratified analysis by EAA (provided/not provided) and patient disposition (discharged/hospitalised) was performed. RESULTS: We included 6727 patients (G1 = 3973; G2 = 2754). The 13-week mortality uHR was 1.11 (0.99-1.25; p = 0.06; with significant increases in the first 3 weeks), and the aHR was 0.91 (0.81-1.02; p = 0.11). There were no differences in unadjusted secondary post-discharge outcomes; however, G1 outcomes significantly improved after adjustment: aHR 0.83 (0.71-0.96; p = 0.01) for mortality, 0.92 (0.84-0.99; p = 0.04) for readmission, and 0.92 (0.85-0.99; p = 0.04) for the combined endpoint. We found a differentiated effect of hospitalisation (p < 0.05 for interaction; better post-discharge readmission and combined outcomes in G1), and a trend (p = 0.06) to lower mortality in G1 patients with EAA. Additionally, there were some differences between groups in baseline and acute episode characteristics. CONCLUSION: AHF triggered by infection is not associated with a higher mid-term mortality and has better post-discharge outcomes; however, the first 3 weeks are an extremely vulnerable period. Since hospitalisation could have a role in limiting adverse post-discharge events, and EAA in reducing mortality, these relationships should be prospectively explored in further studies.

Eur J Intern Med ; 70: 24-32, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451322


OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between length of hospitalisation (LOH) and post-discharge outcomes in acute heart failure (AHF) patients and to ascertain whether there are different patterns according to department of initial hospitalisation. METHODS: Consecutive AHF patients hospitalised in 41 Spanish centres were grouped based on the LOH (<6/6-10/11-15/>15 days). Outcomes were defined as 90-day post-discharge all-cause mortality, AHF readmissions, and the combination of both. Hazard ratios (HRs), adjusted by chronic conditions and severity of decompensation, were calculated for groups with LOH >6 days vs. LOH <6 days (reference), and stratified by hospitalisation in cardiology, internal medicine, geriatrics, or short-stay units. RESULTS: We included 8563 patients (mean age: 80 (SD = 10) years, 55.5% women), with a median LOH of 7 days (IQR 4-11): 2934 (34.3%) had a LOH <6 days, 3184 (37.2%) 6-10 days, 1287 (15.0%) 11-15 days, and 1158 (13.5%) >15 days. The 90-day post-discharge mortality was 11.4%, readmission 32.2%, and combined endpoint 37.4%. Mortality was increased by 36.5% (95%CI = 13.0-64.9) when LOH was 11-15 days, and by 72.0% (95%CI = 42.6-107.5) when >15 days. Conversely, no differences were found in readmission risk, and the combined endpoint only increased 21.6% (95%CI = 8.4-36.4) for LOH >15 days. Stratified analysis by hospitalisation departments rendered similar post-discharge outcomes, with all exhibiting increased mortality for LOH >15 days and no significant increments in readmission risk. CONCLUSIONS: Short hospitalisations are not associated with worse outcomes. While post-discharge readmissions are not affected by LOH, mortality risk increases as the LOH lengthens. These findings were similar across hospitalisation departments.

Ann Emerg Med ; 74(2): 204-215, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147102


STUDY OBJECTIVE: The Multiple Estimation of Risk Based on the Emergency Department Spanish Score in Patients With Acute Heart Failure (MEESSI-AHF) is a validated clinical decision tool that characterizes risk of mortality in emergency department (ED) acute heart failure patients. The objective of this study is to compare the distribution of risk categories between hospitalized and discharged ED patients with acute heart failure. METHODS: We included consecutive acute heart failure patients from 34 Spanish EDs. Patients were retrospectively classified according to MEESSI-AHF risk categories. We calculated the odds of hospitalization (versus direct discharge from the ED) across MEESSI-AHF risk categories. Next, we assessed the following 30-day postdischarge outcomes: ED revisit, hospitalization, death, and their combination. We used Cox hazards models to determine the adjusted association between ED disposition decision and the outcomes among patients who were stratified into low- and increased-risk categories. RESULTS: We included 7,930 patients (80.5 years [SD 10.1 years]; women 54.7%; hospitalized 75.3%). Compared with that for low-risk MEESSI-AHF patients, odds ratios for hospitalization of patients in intermediate-, high-, and very-high-risk categories were 1.83 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.64 to 2.05), 3.05 (95% CI 2.48 to 3.76), and 3.98 (95% CI 3.13 to 5.05), respectively. However, almost half (47.6%) of all discharged patients were categorized as being at increased risk by MEESSI-AHF, and 19.0% of all the increased-risk patients were discharged from the ED. Among the low-risk MEESSI-AHF patients, the 30-day postdischarge mortality did not differ by ED disposition (hazard ratio [HR] for discharged patients with respect to hospitalized ones 0.65; 95% CI 0.70 to 1.11), nor did it differ in the increased-risk group (HR 0.88; 95% CI 0.63 to 1.23). The discharged low-risk MEESSI-AHF patients had higher risks of 30-day ED revisit and hospitalization (HR 1.86, 95% CI 1.57 to 2.20; and HR 1.92, 95% CI 1.54 to 2.40, respectively) compared with the admitted patients, as did the discharged patients in the increased-risk group (HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.39 to 1.89; and HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.68, respectively), with similar results for the combined endpoint. CONCLUSION: The disposition decisions made in current clinical practice for ED acute heart failure patients calibrate with MEESSI-AHF risk categories, but nearly half of the patients currently discharged from the ED fall into increased-risk MEESSI-AHF categories.

Eur J Intern Med ; 65: 69-77, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076345


BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence and impact of risk of malnutrition on short-term mortality among seniors presenting with acute heart failure (AHF) in emergency setting. The objective was to determine the impact of risk of malnutrition on 30-day mortality risk among older patients who attended in Emergency Departments (EDs) for AHF. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of the OAK-3 Registry including all consecutive patients ≥65 years attending in 16 Spanish EDs for AHF. Risk of malnutrition was defined by the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) < 12 points. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were used to assess the association between risk of malnutrition and 30-day mortality. RESULTS: We included 749 patients (mean age: 85 (SD 6); 55.8% females). Risk of malnutrition was observed in 594 (79.3%) patients. The rate of 30-day mortality was 8.8%. After adjusting for MEESSI-AHF risk score clinical categories (model 1) and after adding all variables showing a significantly different distribution among groups (model 2), the risk of malnutrition was an independent factor associated with 30-day mortality (adjusted OR by model 1 = 3.4; 95%CI 1.2-9.7; p = .020 and adjusted OR by model 2 = 3.1; 95%CI 1.1-9.0; p = .033) compared to normal nutritional status. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of malnutrition assessed by the MNA-SF is associated with 30-day mortality in older patients with AHF who were attended in EDs. Routine screening of risk of malnutrition may help emergency physicians in decision-making and establishing a care plan.

Emerg Med J ; 31(9): 706-13, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23793945


BACKGROUND: The mainstay of treatment for acutely decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is intravenous diuretic therapy either as a bolus or via continuous infusion. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the clinical effects and safety of three strategies of intravenous furosemide administration used in emergency departments (EDs) for ADHF. METHODS: We performed a multicentre, randomised, parallel-group study. Patients with ADHF were randomised within 2 h of ED arrival to receive furosemide by continuous infusion (10 mg/h, group 1) or boluses (20 mg/6 h, group 2; or 20 mg/8 h, group 3). The primary end point was total diuresis, and secondary end points were dyspnoea, orthopnoea, extension of rales and peripheral oedema, blood pressure, respiratory and heart rates, and pulse oximetry, which were measured at arrival and 3, 6, 12 and 24 h after treatment onset. We also measured serum creatinine, sodium and potassium levels at arrival and after 24 h. RESULTS: Group 1 patients (n=36) showed greater 24 h diuresis (3705 mL) than those in groups 2 (n=37) and 3 (n=36) (3093 and 2670 mL, respectively; p<0.01), and this greater diuretic effect was observed earlier. However, no differences were observed among groups in the nine secondary clinical end points evaluated. Creatinine deterioration developed in 15.6% of patients, hyponatraemia in 9.2%, and hypokalaemia in 19.3%, with the only difference among groups observed in hypokalaemia (group 1, 36.3%; group 2, 13.5%; group 3, 8.3%; p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with ADHF attending the ED, boluses of furosemide have a smaller diuretic effect but provide similar clinical relief, similar preservation of renal function, and a lower incidence of hypokalaemia than continuous infusion. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: This randomised trial was registered in the European Clinical Trial Database (EudraCT) with the reference number 2008-004488-20.

Diuréticos/administração & dosagem , Furosemida/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Renal/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , Diuréticos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Furosemida/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipopotassemia/etiologia , Hiponatremia/etiologia , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Insuficiência Renal/sangue , Inquéritos e Questionários