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1.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(21): 2060-2072, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) among patients at high bleeding risk (HBR) is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this analysis was to compare 1 vs 3 months of DAPT in HBR patients undergoing drug-eluting stent implantation. METHODS: The XIENCE Short DAPT program comprised 3 prospective, multicenter, single-arm studies of HBR patients treated with a short DAPT course followed by aspirin monotherapy after PCI with a cobalt-chromium everolimus-eluting stent. In this exploratory analysis, patients who received 1-month DAPT (XIENCE 28 USA and 28 Global) were compared with those on 3-month DAPT (XIENCE 90) using propensity score stratification. Ischemic and bleeding outcomes were assessed between 1 and 12 months after index PCI. RESULTS: A total of 3,652 patients were enrolled and 1,392 patients after 1-month DAPT and 1,972 patients after 3-month DAPT were eligible for the analyses. The primary endpoint of all-cause mortality or myocardial infarction was similar between the 2 groups (7.3% vs 7.5%; difference -0.2%; 95% CI: -2.2% to 1.7%; P = 0.41). The key secondary endpoint of BARC (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium) type 2-5 bleeding was lower with 1-month DAPT compared with 3-month DAPT (7.6% vs 10.0%; difference -2.5%; 95% CI: -4.6% to -0.3%; P = 0.012). Major BARC type 3-5 bleeding did not differ at 12 months (3.6% vs 4.7%; difference -1.1%; 95% CI: -2.6% to 0.4%; P = 0.082), but was lower with 1-month DAPT at 90 days (1.0% vs 2.1%; P = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Among HBR patients undergoing PCI, 1 month of DAPT, compared with 3 months of DAPT, was associated with similar ischemic outcomes and lower bleeding risk. (XIENCE 90 Study; NCT03218787; XIENCE 28 USA Study; NCT03815175; XIENCE 28 Global Study; NCT03355742).

2.
J Invasive Cardiol ; 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34792483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Culprit lesions of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients are friable, soft, and prone to disruption during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). The presence of dissections in reference vessel segments (RVSs), adjacent to stented culprit lesions, and dynamic luminal changes in proximal or distal RVSs have not yet been investigated. We therefore sought to assess the healing patterns of edge dissections and the changes of lumen area at RVSs within 1 week post stent implantation in patients with STEMI. METHODS: In the MATRIX trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01433627), optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed at the end of pPCI and within 1 week during staged PCI. The RVS dissection was defined as: type 1 = flap; type 2 = cavity; type 3 = double barrel; and type 4 = fissure. We compared separately the fate of residual dissection and luminal area/dimension by OCT in the target vessel between pPCI and staged PCI, including 1-year clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Out of 151 patients, 46 patients had dissections in 50 RVSs and did not experience worse clinical outcome. Dissections were 44% type 1, 28% type 2, 12% type 3, and 16% type 4. Overall, 18% of the dissections healed. The mean lumen area of the RVS enlarged in 82 patients (59%) from pPCI to staged PCI. Compared with the proximal RVS, there was a significant increase in the lumen diameter at the distal RVS (0.06 ± 0.25 mm vs -0.01 ± 0.21 mm; P=.01). CONCLUSION: Dissections occur frequently after pPCI. One-fifth of them heal within 1 week and do not seem to negatively impact clinical outcomes. Distal RVS lumen area increased compared with proximal RVS, likely reflecting a different vasoconstriction pattern over time.

3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(20): 1968-1986, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although a 1-year duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is used in many patients after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation, the evidence supporting this duration is uncertain. OBJECTIVES: The authors investigated the risk-benefit profile of 1-year vs ≤6-month DAPT after DES using 2 novel scores to risk stratify bleeding and ischemic events. METHODS: Ischemic and bleeding risk scores were generated from ADAPT-DES (Assessment of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy With Drug-Eluting Stents), a multicenter, international, "all-comers" registry that enrolled 8,665 patients treated with DES. The risk-benefit profile of 1-year vs ≤6-month DAPT was then investigated across risk strata from an individual patient data pooled dataset of 7 randomized trials that enrolled 15,083 patients treated with DES. RESULTS: In the derivation cohort, the ischemic score and the bleeding score had c-indexes of 0.76 and 0.66, respectively, and both were well calibrated. In the pooled dataset, no significant difference was apparent in any ischemic endpoint between 1-year and ≤6-month DAPT, regardless of the risk strata. In the overall dataset, there was no significant difference in the risk of clinically relevant bleeding between 1-year and ≤6-month DAPT; however, among 2,508 patients at increased risk of bleeding, 1-year compared with ≤6-month DAPT was associated with greater bleeding (HR: 2.80; 95% CI: 1.12-7.13) without a reduced risk of ischemic events in any risk strata, including those with acute coronary syndromes. These results were consistent in a network meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In the present large-scale study, compared with ≤6-month DAPT, a 1-year duration of DAPT was not associated with reduced adverse ischemic events in any risk strata (including acute coronary syndromes) but was associated with greater bleeding in patients at increased risk of bleeding.

4.
Circulation ; 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747186

RESUMO

Background: No study has so far compared Amulet with the new Watchman FLX in terms of residual left atrial appendage (LAA) patency or clinical outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous LAA closure (LAAC). Methods: In the investigator-initiated SWISS APERO trial, patients undergoing LAAC were randomized (1:1) open-label to receive Amulet or Watchman 2.5 or FLX (Watchman) across 8 European centres. The primary endpoint was the composite of justified crossover to a non-randomized device during LAAC procedure or residual LAA patency detected by cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) at 45 days. The secondary endpoints included procedural complications, device related thrombus (DRT), peridevice leak (PDL) at transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and clinical outcomes at 45 days. Results: Between June 2018, and May 2021, 221 patients were randomly assigned to Amulet (111 [50.2%]) or Watchman (110 [49.8%]), of whom 25 (22.7%) patients included before October 2019 received Watchman 2.5, and 85 (77.3%) patients received Watchman FLX. The primary endpoint was assessable in 205 (92.8%) patients and occurred in 71 (67.6%) Amulet and 70 (70.0%) Watchman patients respectively (risk ratio [RR] 0.97 [95% CI 0.80- 1.16]; P=0.713). A single justified cross-over occurred in an Amulet patient who fulfilled LAA patency criteria at 45-day CCTA. Major procedure related complications occurred more frequently in the Amulet group (9.0% vs. 2.7%; P=0.047), owing to more frequent bleeding (7.2% vs.1.8%). At 45 days, the PDL rate at TEE was higher with Watchman than Amulet (27.5% vs. 13.7%, p=0.020), albeit none was major (i.e. > 5 mm), whereas DRT was detected in 1 (0.9%) patient with Amulet and 3 (3.0%) patients with Watchman at CCTA and in 2 (2.1%) and 5 (5.5%) patients at TEE, respectively. Clinical outcomes at 45 days did not differ between the groups. Conclusions: Amulet was not associated with lower rate of the composite of crossover or residual LAA patency compared with Watchman at 45-day CCTA. Amulet, was however associated with lower PDL rates at TEE, higher procedural complications and similar clinical outcomes at 45 days compared with Watchman. The clinical relevance of CCTA-detected LAA patency requires further investigation. Clinical Trial Registration: URL https://clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier NCT03399851.

5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(20): e018828, 2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622669

RESUMO

Background New-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) reduce target-vessel revascularization compared with bare-metal stents (BMS), and recent data suggest that DES have the potential to decrease the risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality. We evaluated the treatment effect of DES versus BMS according to the target artery (left anterior descending [LAD] and/or left main [LM] versus other territories [no-LAD/LM]). Methods and Results The Coronary Stent Trialist (CST) Collaboration gathered individual patient data of randomized trials of DES versus BMS for the treatment of coronary artery disease. The primary outcome was the composite of cardiac death or myocardial infarction. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs were derived from a 1-stage individual patient data meta-analysis. We included 26 024 patients across 19 trials: 13 650 (52.4%) in the LAD/LM and 12 373 (47.6%) in the no-LAD/LM group. At 6-year follow-up, there was strong evidence that the treatment effect of DES versus BMS depended on the target vessel (P-interaction=0.024). Compared with BMS, DES reduced the risk of cardiac death or myocardial infarction to a greater extent in the LAD/LM (HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.68-0.85) than in the no-LAD/LM territories (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.83-1.05). This benefit was driven by a lower risk of cardiac death (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.70-0.98) and myocardial infarction (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.65-0.85) in patients with LAD/LM disease randomized to DES. An interaction (P=0.004) was also found for all-cause mortality with patients with LAD/LM disease deriving benefit from DES (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.76-0.97). Conclusions As compared with BMS, new-generation DES were associated with sustained reduction in the composite of cardiac death or myocardial infarction if used for the treatment of LAD or left main coronary stenoses. Registration URL: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO; Unique identifier: CRD42017060520.

6.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624084

RESUMO

Intravascular thrombus formation and embolization are among the most frequent events leading to a number of cardiovascular conditions with high morbidity and mortality. The underlying causes are stasis of the circulating blood, genetic and acquired coagulation disorders, and reduced antithrombotic or prothrombotic properties of the vascular wall (Virchow's triad). In the venous system, intravascular thrombi can cause venous thrombosis and pulmonary and even peripheral embolism including ischaemic stroke [through a patent foramen ovale (PFO)]. Thrombi in the left atrium and its appendage or ventricle form in the context of atrial fibrillation and infarction, respectively. Furthermore, thrombi can form on native or prosthetic aortic valves, within the aorta (in particular at sites of ulcers, aortic dissection, and abdominal aneurysms), and in cerebral and peripheral arteries causing stroke and critical limb ischaemia, respectively. Finally, thrombotic occlusion may occur in arteries supplying vital organs such the heart, brain, kidney, and extremities. Thrombus formation and embolization can be managed with anticoagulants and devices depending on where they form and embolize and on patient characteristics. Vitamin K antagonists are preferred in patients with mechanical valves, while novel oral anticoagulants are first choice in most other cardiovascular conditions, in particular venous thromboembolism and atrial fibrillation. As anticoagulants are associated with a risk of bleeding, devices such as occluders of a PFO or the left atrial appendage are preferred in patients with an increased bleeding risk. Platelet inhibitors such as aspirin and/or P2Y12 antagonists are preferred in the secondary prevention of coronary artery disease, stroke, and peripheral artery disease either alone or in combination depending on the clinical condition. A differential and personalized use of anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors, and devices is recommended and reviewed in this article.

8.
Circulation ; 144(16): 1323-1343, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662163

RESUMO

Contemporary evidence supports device-based transcatheter interventions for the management of patients with structural heart disease. These procedures, which include aortic valve implantation, mitral or tricuspid valve repair/implantation, left atrial appendage occlusion, and patent foramen ovale closure, profoundly differ with respect to clinical indications and procedural aspects. Yet, patients undergoing transcatheter cardiac interventions require antithrombotic therapy before, during, or after the procedure to prevent thromboembolic events. However, these therapies are associated with an increased risk of bleeding complications. To date, challenges and controversies exist regarding balancing the risk of thrombotic and bleeding complications in these patients such that the optimal antithrombotic regimens to adopt in each specific procedure is still unclear. In this review, we summarize current evidence on antithrombotic therapies for device-based transcatheter interventions targeting structural heart disease and emphasize the importance of a tailored approach in these patients.

9.
Platelets ; : 1-5, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672898

RESUMO

In the setting of patients with indication to receive dual antiplatelet therapy undergoing surgery or invasive procedures, the risk of perioperative cardiac ischemic events, particularly stent thrombosis, is high, because surgery has a prothrombotic effect and antiplatelet therapy is withdrawn in order to avoid bleeding complications. Cangrelor, an intravenous P2Y12 receptor antagonist, has been tested in a randomized trial as a "bridge" to cardiac surgery from discontinuation of oral P2Y12 receptor antagonists. Thus, a consensus document extended its off-label use in this setting and before non-cardiac surgery. Currently, despite the implementation of a standardized bridging protocol with cangrelor, a residual risk of adverse outcome mainly due to bleeding events, still persist during the perioperative phase.Accordingly, a personalized management driven by platelet reactivity serial measurements and careful assessment of ischemic and bleeding risks has potential to optimize outcomes and costs as compared to a standardized bridging protocol, based on average pharmacodynamic data of oral P2Y12 inhibitors.While specific indications for bridging have been extensively addressed in the aforementioned consensus statement, the aim of the present document is the proposal of a "tailored" clinical decision-making algorithm inspired to the principle of personalized medicine dealing with complex clinical scenarios.

10.
Journal of the American Heart Association ; 10(20): 018828, Oct. 2021. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, CONASS, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1344305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) reduce target-vessel revascularization compared with bare-metal stents (BMS), and recent data suggest that DES have the potential to decrease the risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality. We evaluated the treatment effect of DES versus BMS according to the target artery (left anterior descending [LAD] and/or left main [LM] versus other territories [no-LAD/LM]). METHODS AND RESULTS: The Coronary Stent Trialist (CST) Collaboration gathered individual patient data of randomized trials of DES versus BMS for the treatment of coronary artery disease. The primary outcome was the composite of cardiac death or myocardial infarction. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs were derived from a 1-stage individual patient data meta-analysis. We included 26 024 patients across 19 trials: 13 650 (52.4%) in the LAD/LM and 12 373 (47.6%) in the no-LAD/LM group. At 6-year follow-up, there was strong evidence that the treatment effect of DES versus BMS depended on the target vessel (P interaction=0.024). Compared with BMS, DES reduced the risk of cardiac death or myocardial infarction to a greater extent in the LAD/LM (HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.68­0.85) than in the no-LAD/LM territories (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.83­1.05). This benefit was driven by a lower risk of cardiac death (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.70­0.98) and myocardial infarction (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.65­0.85) in patients with LAD/LM disease randomized to DES. An interaction (P=0.004) was also found for all-cause mortality with patients with LAD/LM disease deriving benefit from DES (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.76­0.97). CONCLUSIONS: As compared with BMS, new-generation DES were associated with sustained reduction in the composite of cardiac death or myocardial infarction if used for the treatment of LAD or left main coronary stenoses.


Assuntos
Stents , Stents Farmacológicos
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491323

RESUMO

AIMS: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a critical complication among patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing invasive management. The value of adjunctive antithrombotic strategies, such as bivalirudin or unfractionated heparin (UFH) on the risk of AKI is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among 7213 patients enrolled in the MATRIX-Antithrombin and Treatment Duration study, 128 subjects were excluded due to incomplete information on serum creatinine (sCr) or end-stage renal disease on dialysis treatment. The primary endpoint was AKI defined as an absolute (>0.5 mg/dL) or a relative (>25%) increase in sCr. AKI occurred in 601 patients (16.9%) treated with bivalirudin and 616 patients (17.4%) treated with UFH [odds ratio (OR): 0.97; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85-1.09; P = 0.58]. A >25% sCr increase was observed in 597 patients (16.8%) with bivalirudin and 616 patients (17.4%) with UFH (OR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.85-1.08; P = 0.50), whereas a >0.5 mg/dL absolute sCr increase occurred in 176 patients (5.0%) with bivalirudin vs. 189 patients (5.4%) with UFH (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.75-1.14; P = 0.46). By implementing the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria, the risk of AKI was not significantly different between bivalirudin and UFH groups (OR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.72-1.07; P = 0.21). Subgroup analyses of the primary endpoint suggested a benefit with bivalirudin in patients randomized to femoral access. CONCLUSION: Among ACS patients undergoing invasive management, the risk of AKI was not significantly lower with bivalirudin compared with UFH. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov NCT01433627.

14.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(17): 1870-1883, 2021 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503737

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate 2 abbreviated dual-antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) regimens in patients at high bleeding risk (HBR) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). BACKGROUND: Current-generation drug-eluting stents are preferred over bare-metal stents for HBR patients, but their optimal DAPT management remains unknown. METHODS: The XIENCE Short DAPT program included 3 prospective, multicenter, single-arm studies enrolling HBR patients who underwent successful PCI with a cobalt-chromium everolimus-eluting stent. After 1 month (XIENCE 28 USA and XIENCE 28 Global) or 3 months (XIENCE 90) of DAPT, event-free patients discontinued the P2Y12 inhibitor. The postmarketing approval XIENCE V USA study was used as historical control in a propensity score-stratified analysis. RESULTS: A total of 3,652 patients were enrolled. The propensity-adjusted rate of the primary endpoint of all-cause mortality or myocardial infarction was 5.4% among 1,693 patients on 3-month DAPT versus 5.4% in the 12-month DAPT historical control (Pnoninferiority = 0.0063) and 3.5% among 1,392 patients on 1-month DAPT versus 4.3% in the 6-month DAPT historical control (Pnoninferiority = 0.0005). Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) types 2 to 5 bleeding was not significantly lower with 3- or 1-month DAPT, while BARC types 3 to 5 bleeding was reduced in both experimental groups. The rate of definite or probable stent thrombosis was 0.2% in XIENCE 90 (P < 0.0001 for the performance goal of 1.2%) and 0.3% in XIENCE 28. CONCLUSIONS: Among HBR patients undergoing PCI with cobalt-chromium everolimus-eluting stents, DAPT for 1 or 3 months was noninferior to 6 or 12 months of DAPT for ischemic outcomes and may be associated with less major bleeding and a low incidence of stent thrombosis.


Assuntos
Stents Farmacológicos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Quimioterapia Combinada , Everolimo/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(18): e015560, 2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533034

RESUMO

Background The optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy after coronary drug-eluting stent placement in adults with stable coronary artery disease (SCAD) versus acute coronary syndromes (ACS) remains uncertain. Methods and Results This was a prespecified subgroup analysis of the GLOBAL LEADERS trial. Participants were randomly assigned 1:1 to the experimental or reference strategy, stratified by ACS (experimental, n=3750; reference, n=3737) versus SCAD (experimental, n=4230; reference, n=4251). The experimental strategy was 75 to 100 mg aspirin daily plus 90 mg ticagrelor twice daily for 1 month, followed by 23 months of ticagrelor monotherapy. The reference strategy was 75 to 100 mg aspirin daily plus either 75 mg clopidogrel daily (for SCAD) or 90 mg ticagrelor twice daily (for ACS) for 12 months, followed by aspirin monotherapy for 12 months. The primary end point at 2 years was a composite of all-cause mortality or non-fatal centrally adjudicated new Q-wave myocardial infarction. The key secondary safety end point was site-reported Bleeding Academic Research Consortium grade 3 or 5 bleeding. The primary end point occurred in 147 (3.92%) versus 169 (4.52%) patients with ACS (rate ratio [RR], 0.86; 95% CI, 0.69-1.08; P=0.189), and in 157 (3.71%) versus 180 (4.23%) patients with SCAD (RR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.71-1.08; P=0.221) with experimental and reference strategy, respectively (P-interaction=0.926). Bleeding Academic Research Consortium grade 3 or 5 bleeding occurred in 73 (1.95%) versus 100 (2.68%) patients with ACS (RR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.54-0.98; P=0.037), and in 90 (2.13%) versus 69 (1.62%) patients with SCAD (RR, 1.32; 95% CI, 0.97-1.81; P=0.081; P-interaction=0.007). Conclusions While there was no evidence for differences in efficacy between treatment strategies by subgroup, the experimental strategy appeared to reduce bleeding risk in patients with ACS but not in patients with SCAD. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01813435.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459481

RESUMO

AIM: Optimal dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) intends to balance ischemic and bleeding risks. Various DAPT de-escalation strategies, defined as switching from a full-dose potent to a reduced dose or less potent P2Y12 inhibitor, have been evaluated in several ACS-PCI trials. We aimed to compare DAPT de-escalation to standard DAPT with full dose potent P2Y12 inhibitors in ACS patients who underwent PCI. METHODS & RESULTS: PubMed, Google Scholar and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for eligible randomised controlled trials. Aspirin monotherapy trials were excluded. Five randomised trials (n = 10,779 patients) that assigned DAPT de-escalation (genetically guided to clopidogrel n = 1,242; platelet function guided to clopidogrel n = 1,304; unguided to clopidogrel n = 1,672; unguided to lower dose n = 1,170) versus standard DAPT (control group n = 5,391) were included in this analysis. DAPT de-escalation was associated with a significant reduction in Bleeding Academic Research Consortium ≥ 2 bleeding (HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.42-0.78; I2 = 77%) as well as major adverse cardiac events, represented in most trials by the composite of cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis and stroke (HR 0.77, 95% CI 0.62-0.96; I2 = 0%). Notwithstanding the limited power, consistency was noted across various de-escalation strategies. CONCLUSION: De-escalation of DAPT after PCI for ACS, both unguided and guided by genetic or platelet function testing, was associated with lower rates of clinically relevant bleeding and ischemic events as compared to standard DAPT with potent P2Y12 inhibitors based on five open-label RCTs reviewed.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463717

RESUMO

AIMS: Incidental detection of left atrial appendage (LAA) filling defects is a common finding on multi-detector computed tomography in aortic stenosis patients under evaluation for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). We aimed to investigate the incidence of LAA filling defects before TAVI and its impact on clinical outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a prospective registry, LAA filling defects were retrospectively evaluated and categorized into one of four sub-types: thrombus-like, heterogeneous, horizontal, and Hounsfield Unit (HU)-run-off. The primary endpoint was the composite of cardiovascular death or disabling stroke up to 1-year follow-up. Among 1621 patients undergoing TAVI between August 2007 and June 2018, LAA filling defects were present in 177 patients (11%), and categorized as thrombus-like in 22 (1.4%), heterogeneous in 37 (2.3%), horizontal in 80 (4.9%), and HU-run-off in 38 (2.4%). Compared to patients with normal LAA filling, patients with LAA filling defects had greater prevalence of atrial fibrillation (84.7% vs. 26.4%, P < 0.001) and history of cerebrovascular events (16.4% vs. 10.9%, P = 0.045). The primary endpoint occurred in 131 patients (9.2%) with normal LAA filling and in 36 patients (21.2%) with LAA filling defects (P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis suggested that the risk of disabling stroke was greatest in the thrombus-like pattern (23.0%), followed by the HU-run-off (8.0%), the heterogeneous (6.2%), and the horizontal pattern (1.2%). CONCLUSION: LAA filling defects were observed in 11% of aortic stenosis patients undergoing TAVI and associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death and disabling stroke up to 1 year following TAVI. TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. NCT01368250.

18.
EuroIntervention ; 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The radial artery is recommended by international guidelines as the default vascular access in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) managed invasively. However, crossover from radial to femoral access is required in 4-10% of cases and has been associated with worse outcomes. No standardised algorithm exists to predict the risk of radial crossover. AIMS: We sought to derive and externally validate a risk score to predict radial crossover in patients with ACS managed invasively. METHODS: The derivation cohort consisted of 4,197 patients with ACS undergoing invasive management via the randomly allocated radial access from the MATRIX trial. Using logistic regression, we selected predictors of radial crossover and developed a numerical risk score. External validation was accomplished among 3,451 and 491 ACS patients managed invasively and randomised to radial access from the RIVAL and RIFLE-STEACS trials, respectively. RESULTS: The MATRIX score (age, height, smoking, renal failure, prior coronary artery bypass grafting, ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, Killip class, radial expertise) showed a c-index for radial crossover of 0.71 (95% CI: 0.67-0.75) in the derivation cohort. Discrimination ability was modest in the RIVAL (c-index: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.59-0.67) and RIFLE-STEACS (c-index: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.57-0.75) cohorts. A cut-off of ≥41 points was selected to identify patients at high risk of radial crossover. CONCLUSIONS: The MATRIX score is a simple eight-item risk score which provides a standardised tool for the prediction of radial crossover among patients with ACS managed invasively. This tool can assist operators in anticipating and better addressing difficulties related to transradial procedures, potentially improving outcomes.

19.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347065

RESUMO

Older patients are underrepresented in prospective studies and randomized clinical trials of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Over the last decade, a few specific trials have been conducted in this population, allowing more evidence-based management. Older adults are a heterogeneous, complex, and high-risk group whose management requires a multidimensional clinical approach beyond coronary anatomic variables. This review focuses on available data informing evidence-based interventional and pharmacological approaches for older adults with ACS, including guideline-directed management. Overall, an invasive approach appears to demonstrate a better benefit-risk ratio compared to a conservative one across the ACS spectrum, even considering patients' clinical complexity and multiple comorbidities. Conversely, more powerful strategies of antithrombotic therapy for secondary prevention have been associated with increased bleeding events and no benefit in terms of mortality reduction. An interdisciplinary evaluation with geriatric assessment should always be considered to achieve a holistic approach and optimize any treatment on the basis of the underlying biological vulnerability.

20.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426673

RESUMO

For many years, bleeding has been perceived as an unavoidable consequence of strategies aimed at reducing thrombotic complications in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, the paradigm has now shifted towards bleeding being recognized as a prognostically unfavourable event to the same extent as having a new or recurrent ischaemic or thrombotic complication. As such, in parallel with progress in device and drug development for PCI, there is clinical interest in developing strategies that maximize not only the efficacy but also the safety (for example, by minimizing bleeding) of any antithrombotic treatment or procedural aspect before, during or after PCI. In this Review, we discuss contemporary data and aspects of bleeding avoidance strategies in PCI, including risk stratification, timing of revascularization, pretreatment with antiplatelet agents, selection of vascular access, choice of coronary stents and antithrombotic treatment regimens.

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