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2.
Enferm Clin ; 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122768

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a weight estimation tool applicable in paediatric emergency care. METHODS: Using anthropometric data from a computerized database of the primary health care paediatric services, Bilbao (Basque Country, Spain), linear regression models were developed with the objective of estimating weight from height. Subsequently, these models were prospectively validated using a consecutive sample of children attended in the emergency department of two tertiary hospitals. Estimated weights were compared with actual weights, calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), mean difference and percentages of estimations falling within 10% and 20% of the actual weight. RESULTS: Using anthropometric data from 15522 children two weight predictive formulas were developed (Bilbao Formulas). The formulas were validated on a sample of 780 children and estimated weight values with a high degree of intraclass correlation with the real weight (ICC=.93, P<.001) and a mean difference of .63 (SD: 4.3). The percentages of estimations falling within 10% and 20% of the actual weight of the child was 62.2% (95% CI: 58.7-65.6) and 93.1% (95% CI: 91.1-94.8), respectively. Weight estimations were more accurate using Bilbao Formulas than other classical formulas. CONCLUSIONS: Bilbao Formulas would be a valid tool for estimating weight in children in the emergency department and predict weight more accurately than other more commonly used age-based formulas.

3.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 31(4): 239-244, ago. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182764

RESUMO

Objetivos: Validar distintos métodos destinados a estimar el peso en pacientes pediátricos en urgencias. Metodología: Serie de casos prospectivo con análisis transversal en pacientes de 1 mes hasta 14 años de edad en dos hospitales terciarios en el País Vasco (España). Se aplicaron 9 herramientas distintas de estimación de peso y se comparó el resultado con el peso real, calculando índices de concordancia (CCI), media de la diferencia y proporción de mediciones con un error del peso estimado inferior al 10% y 20% con respecto al peso real. Resultados: Se realizaron mediciones en 515 pacientes pediátricos. Todas las estimaciones presentaron una alta concordancia con respecto al peso real. La estimación parental del peso resultó la estrategia con menor margen de error (86,5% de mediciones con error < 10%), seguida de la Regla RCP del Hospital del Niño Jesús (63,5% de mediciones con error <10%). Las fórmulas de estimación basadas en edad o antropometría no ofrecieron proporciones superiores al 40% de mediciones con un error < 10%. Conclusiones: La estimación parental es una herramienta válida para la estimación del peso en niños. Cuando no está disponible esa opción, la Regla de RCP del Hospital del Niño Jesús sería la herramienta de elección


Objectives: To determine the validity of different ways of estimating body weight in children attended in the emergency department. Methods: Prospective cross-sectional study of a series of patients between 1 month and 14 years of age attended in 2 tertiary care hospitals in the Basque Country, Spain. We used 9 different ways to estimate body weight and compared the estimates to real weight by calculating the mean intraclass correlation coefficient, the mean difference between real and estimated weights, and the proportion of measurements within 10% and 20% of the real weight. Results: Five hundred fifteen pediatric patients were weighed and their weights estimated. All estimates had a high degree of agreement with real weight. A parent's weight estimate performed best: 86.5% of parental estimates were within 10% of the real weight. The next best estimate was achieved with the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) rule developed at Hospital del Niño Jesús: 65% of the estimates were within the 10% margin. Fewer than 40% of the weight estimates based on formulas using anthropometric measurements were within the 10% margin. Conclusions: A parent's estimate of weight is a valid approximation in children of all ages. When this estimate is not available, the CPR rule of Hospital del Niño Jesús would be the method of choice


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/métodos , Medicina de Emergência Pediátrica/métodos , Medicina de Emergência Pediátrica/organização & administração , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Antropometria/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Transversais , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Emergencias ; 31(4): 239-244, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347803

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the validity of different ways of estimating body weight in children attended in the emergency department. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective cross-sectional study of a series of patients between 1 month and 14 years of age attended in 2 tertiary care hospitals in the Basque Country, Spain. We used 9 different ways to estimate body weight and compared the estimates to real weight by calculating the mean intraclass correlation coefficient, the mean difference between real and estimated weights, and the proportion of measurements within 10% and 20% of the real weight. RESULTS: Five hundred fifteen pediatric patients were weighed and their weights estimated. All estimates had a high degree of agreement with real weight. A parent's weight estimate performed best: 86.5% of parental estimates were within 10% of the real weight. The next best estimate was achieved with the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) rule developed at Hospital del Niño Jesús: 65% of the estimates were within the 10% margin. Fewer than 40% of the weight estimates based on formulas using anthropometric measurements were within the 10% margin. CONCLUSION: A parent's estimate of weight is a valid approximation in children of all ages. When this estimate is not available, the CPR rule of Hospital del Niño Jesús would be the method of choice.

5.
Emergencias ; 31(2): 115-122, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963740

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Arterial puncture for blood gas analysis is a painful procedure in the emergency department (ED). Local subcutaneous injection of anesthetics containing amino amides or esters is the usual painrelief technique applied before arterial puncture, but it is little used in some care settings, such as the ED. We aimed to analyze the literature on anesthetic approaches other than the traditional one of local injection of amino-amide or amino-ester compounds for pain relief during arterial puncture and to assess the efficacy of the alternatives. MATERIAL AND METHODS: . A systematic review of the literature was conducted in 6 bibliographic databases. We selected randomized clinical trials (RCTs) published in English or Spanish between 2000 and 2018. The trials compared self-reported pain immediately after arterial puncture for blood gas analysis. Some form of anesthesia other than local injection of an amino-amide or -ester compound was compared to another anesthetic technique, placebo, or no anesthetic. RESULTS: We found 16 RCTs. Four compared the effect of topical anesthetic creams containing amino amides and/or amino esters, two assessed ultrasound-guided puncture, four used small-caliber needles or special syringes, one used a needle-free high-pressure anesthetic injection system, and five studied cryoanesthesia by application of ice or aerosols. CONCLUSION: The only effective alternative approaches to pain relief during arterial puncture for blood gas analysis were the use of very fine-caliber needles, the use of needle-free pressure injectors for subcutaneous delivery of amino amides, and the application of ice for at least 3 minutes.


Assuntos
Anestesia Local/métodos , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/efeitos adversos , Dor Processual/prevenção & controle , Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Medição da Dor , Dor Processual/diagnóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 31(2): 115-122, abr. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182529

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivo: La punción arterial para gasometría es una técnica dolorosa. La estrategia anestésica de elección consiste en la inyección local de amidas o esteres por vía subcutánea, pero resulta poco frecuente en algunos ámbitos asistenciales, como los servicios de urgencias. El objetivo de este trabajo es en describir las estrategias anestésicas distintas a la técnica clásica de inyección local de amidas o esteres y evaluar su eficacia en la punción arterial para gasometría. Método: Se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura a través de 6 bases de datos bibliográficas. Fueron seleccionados ensayos clínicos publicados entre 2000 y 2018, en inglés o español, que comparasen el dolor autopercibido por el paciente inmediatamente después de una punción arterial para gasometría en función de si se les aplicó alguna medida anestésica diferente a la inyección subcutánea de amidas o esteres frente a otro procedimiento anestésico local, un placebo o ninguna intervención anestésica. Resultados: Se localizaron 16 ensayos clínicos aleatorizados: 4 evaluaron la aplicación de anestésicos tópicos compuestos a base de esteres o amidas, 2 la punción ecoguiada, 4 el empleo de agujas de pequeño calibre o jeringuillas especiales, 1 el uso de inyectores a presión sin aguja y 5 la crioanestesia mediante hielo o aerosoles. Conclusión: Tan sólo el uso de agujas de calibre muy fino, la sustitución de jeringuillas clásicas por inyectores a presión sin aguja para la administración de amidas o esteres subcutáneas o la aplicación previa de hielo durante al menos 3 minutos se mostraron eficaces en la reducción del dolor derivado de la punción arterial para gasometría


Background and objective: Arterial puncture for blood gas analysis is a painful procedure in the emergency department (ED). Local subcutaneous injection of anesthetics containing amino amides or esters is the usual painrelief technique applied before arterial puncture, but it is little used in some care settings, such as the ED. We aimed to analyze the literature on anesthetic approaches other than the traditional one of local injection of amino-amide or amino-ester compounds for pain relief during arterial puncture and to assess the efficacy of the alternatives. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted in 6 bibliographic databases. We selected randomized clinical trials (RCTs) published in English or Spanish between 2000 and 2018. The trials compared self-reported pain immediately after arterial puncture for blood gas analysis. Some form of anesthesia other than local injection of an amino-amide or -ester compound was compared to another anesthetic technique, placebo, or no anesthetic. Results: We found 16 RCTs. Four compared the effect of topical anesthetic creams containing amino amides and/or amino esters, two assessed ultrasound-guided puncture, four used small-caliber needles or special syringes, one used a needle-free high-pressure anesthetic injection system, and five studied cryoanesthesia by application of ice or aerosols. Conclusion: The only effective alternative approaches to pain relief during arterial puncture for blood gas analysis were the use of very fine-caliber needles, the use of needle-free pressure injectors for subcutaneous delivery of amino amides, and the application of ice for at least 3 minutes


Assuntos
Humanos , Amidas/administração & dosagem , Injeções Subcutâneas/métodos , Gasometria/instrumentação , Resultado do Tratamento , Gasometria/métodos , Crioanestesia/instrumentação , Manejo da Dor
7.
Enferm. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 28(6): 359-364, nov.-dic. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-181656

RESUMO

OBJETIVOS: Analizar el dolor asociado a la inserción de catéteres venosos y extracción de sangre arterial en pacientes adultos que acuden a urgencias, y explorar posibles factores relacionados con su intensidad. MÉTODO: Estudio observacional multicéntrico. Se incluyeron consecutivamente pacientes que requerían un catéter venoso periférico y/o una extracción de sangre arterial para gasometría. Se preguntó por el dolor experimentado después de cada técnica, empleando la escala NRS-11. RESULTADOS: Se evaluaron 780 canalizaciones venosas y 101 gasometrías. Las venopunciones obtuvieron una puntuación media de 2,8 (IC 95%: 2,6-3) y las gasometrías de 3,6 (IC 95%: 3,1-4). El nivel de dolor iatrogénico se asoció a la dificultad técnica media o alta del procedimiento (p < 0,001), a la elección de la arteria humeral en lugar de la radial (p = 0,02) en las gasometrías y se correlacionó con el dolor basal en las venopunciones (p < 0,001). El nivel de dolor en función de otras variables como el sexo, la procedencia o el calibre de la aguja no presentó diferencias estadísticamente significativas. CONCLUSIONES: El dolor derivado de la cateterización venosa y la punción arterial para gasometría es leve-moderado y moderado, respectivamente, y su intensidad se asocia a variables como la dificultad del procedimiento, el lugar de punción o el dolor basal. Un mayor conocimiento de los efectos dolorosos derivados de cada procedimiento de enfermería durante la asistencia en urgencias y de los factores que se asocian a la autopercepción del mismo podría ayudar a determinar cuándo y cómo debería intervenirse para mitigar este efecto indeseado


OBJECTIVES: To analyse vein catheterisation and blood gas test-related pain among adult patients in the emergency department and to explore pain score-related factors. METHOD: An observational and multicentre research study was performed. Patients undergoing vein catheterisation or arterial puncture for gas test were included consecutively. After each procedure, patients scored the pain experienced using the NRS-11. RESULTS: 780 vein catheterisations and 101 blood gas tests were analysed. Venipuncture was scored with an average score of 2.8 (95% CI: 2.6-3), and arterial puncture with 3.6 (95%CI 3.1-4). Iatrogenic pain scores were associated with moderate - high difficulty procedures (P<.001); with the choice of the humeral rather than the radial artery (P=.02) in the gas test and correlated to baseline pain in venipunctures (P<.001). Pain scores related to other variables such as sex, place of origin or needle gauge did not present statistically significant differences. CONCLUSIONS: Vein catheterisation and blood gas test-related pain can be considered mild to moderately and moderately painful procedures, respectively. The pain score is associated with certain variables such as the difficulty of the procedure, the anatomic area of the puncture or baseline pain. A better understanding of painful effects related to emergency nursing procedures and the factors associated with pain self-perception could help to determine when and how to act to mitigate this undesired effect


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Gasometria/instrumentação , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Dor/etiologia , Medição da Dor , Flebotomia/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência
8.
Enferm Clin ; 28(6): 359-364, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29279250

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyse vein catheterisation and blood gas test-related pain among adult patients in the emergency department and to explore pain score-related factors. METHOD: An observational and multicentre research study was performed. Patients undergoing vein catheterisation or arterial puncture for gas test were included consecutively. After each procedure, patients scored the pain experienced using the NRS-11. RESULTS: 780 vein catheterisations and 101 blood gas tests were analysed. Venipuncture was scored with an average score of 2.8 (95% CI: 2.6-3), and arterial puncture with 3.6 (95%CI 3.1-4). Iatrogenic pain scores were associated with moderate - high difficulty procedures (P<.001); with the choice of the humeral rather than the radial artery (P=.02) in the gas test and correlated to baseline pain in venipunctures (P<.001). Pain scores related to other variables such as sex, place of origin or needle gauge did not present statistically significant differences. CONCLUSIONS: Vein catheterisation and blood gas test-related pain can be considered mild to moderately and moderately painful procedures, respectively. The pain score is associated with certain variables such as the difficulty of the procedure, the anatomic area of the puncture or baseline pain. A better understanding of painful effects related to emergency nursing procedures and the factors associated with pain self-perception could help to determine when and how to act to mitigate this undesired effect.


Assuntos
Gasometria/instrumentação , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Medição da Dor , Dor/etiologia , Flebotomia/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
9.
Emergencias ; 29(3): 161-166, 2017 06.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28825235

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy of an ethyl chloride aerosol spray to a placebo spray applied in the emergency department to the skin to reduce pain from arterial puncture for blood gas analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Single-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial in an emergency department of Hospital de Basurto in Bilbao, Spain. We included 126 patients for whom arterial blood gas analysis had been ordered. They were randomly assigned to receive application of the experimental ethyl chloride spray (n=66) or a placebo aerosol spray of a solution of alcohol in water (n=60). The assigned spray was applied just before arterial puncture. The main outcome variable was pain intensity reported on an 11-point numeric rating scale. RESULTS: The median (interquartile range) pain level was 2 (1-5) in the experimental arm and 2 (1-4.5) in the placebo arm (P=.72). CONCLUSION: Topical application of an ethyl chloride spray did not reduce pain caused by arterial puncture.


Assuntos
Anestesia Local/métodos , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Artérias/lesões , Cloreto de Etil/administração & dosagem , Dor/prevenção & controle , Punções/efeitos adversos , Administração Cutânea , Adolescente , Adulto , Aerossóis , Idoso , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/etiologia , Medição da Dor , Método Simples-Cego , Falha de Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
10.
Emergencias (St. Vicenç dels Horts) ; 29(3): 161-166, jun. 2017. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-163934

RESUMO

Objetivos. Evaluar la eficacia del cloruro de etilo en aerosol aplicado sobre la piel frente a placebo para disminuir el dolor provocado por una punción arterial durante la realización de una gasometría en el servicio de urgencias (SU). Método. Ensayo clínico aleatorizado, simple ciego y controlado con placebo realizado en el SU del Hospital de Basurto (Bilbao, España). Se incluyeron 126 pacientes a los que se les había solicitado una gasometría arterial, asignándoles al azar al grupo de tratamiento tópico experimental con cloruro de etilo en aerosol (n = 66) o al grupo control con mezcla hidroalcohólica en aerosol (n = 60), ambos administrados inmediatamente antes de la punción arterial. La variable de resultado principal fue la intensidad del dolor autopercibido por el paciente medida por la escala NRS-11. Resultados. El dolor percibido por el paciente tuvo una mediana (rango intercuartílico) de 2 (1-5) en el grupo tratado con cloruro de etilo y de 2 (1-4,5) en el grupo placebo (p = 0,72). Conclusiones. La aplicación de cloruro de etilo tópico no reduce el dolor por punción arterial (AU)


Objective. To compare the efficacy of an ethyl chloride aerosol spray to a placebo spray applied in the emergency department to the skin to reduce pain from arterial puncture for blood gas analysis. Material and methods. Single-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial in an emergency department of Hospital de Basurto in Bilbao, Spain. We included 126 patients for whom arterial blood gas analysis had been ordered. They were randomly assigned to receive application of the experimental ethyl chloride spray (n=66) or a placebo aerosol spray of a solution of alcohol in water (n=60). The assigned spray was applied just before arterial puncture. The main outcome variable was pain intensity reported on an 11-point numeric rating scale. Results. The median (interquartile range) pain level was 2 (1-5) in the experimental arm and 2 (1-4.5) in the placebo arm (P=.72). Conclusion. Topical application of an ethyl chloride spray did not reduce pain caused by arterial puncture (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Punções/métodos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Cloreto de Etil/farmacocinética , Gasometria/métodos , Administração Tópica , Crioterapia/métodos , Medição da Dor
12.
Metas enferm ; 16(6): 62-66, jul. 2013.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-113852

RESUMO

La Enfermería, profesión compuesta mayoritariamente por mujeres, constituye todavía hoy un colectivo laboral expuesto a desigualdades de género. En los últimos tiempos, el ritmo, la exigencia, la demanda y la carga de trabajo de los profesionales enfermeros es cada vez más elevado; al igual que en otras profesiones de predominio femenino. Sobre las enfermeras recae de forma mayoritaria la responsabilidad de conciliarla vida laboral y la doméstica, situación que supone una sobrecarga de trabajo y produce una disminución de la calidad de vida y, en ocasiones, obliga a reducir la jornada laboral a tiempo parcial. Por otra parte, las profesionales de la Enfermería conforman un grupo de riesgo laboral conocido, expuesto fundamentalmente a riesgos físicos, biológicos, químicos y psicosociales. Todas estas variables han de tenerse en consideración para prevenir la aparición de complicaciones y mejorarlos niveles de salud de las enfermeras (AU)


Nursing, a professional setting formed by women in its majority, still represents today a working group exposed to gender inequality. Recently, there has been a gradual increase in the rhythm, requirements, demands, and workload of professional nurses, and the same occurs in other professions with female prevalence. The responsibility of balancing work and domestic life lies heavily upon nurses, a situation which represents a work overload, and leads t a reduction in quality of life and, occasionally, forces to reduce the working day to part-time. Moreover, nursing professionals form a group with known occupational risks, primarily exposed to physical,biologic, chemical and psychosocial risks. All these variables must be taken into account in order to prevent complications, and to improve the health levels of nurses (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Riscos Ocupacionais , Identidade de Gênero , Preconceito
13.
Metas enferm ; 12(10): 71-74, dic. 2009. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-88917

RESUMO

Objetivo: analizar el consumo de tabaco entre trabajadoresadministrativos, medir las diferencias de género y surelación con los factores de riesgo cardiovasculares (FRCV).Material y métodos: muestra compuesta por 432 administrativosaparejados por edad (216 hombres y 216 mujeres).Los datos se obtuvieron de reconocimientos médicoslaborales en trabajadores administrativos de Vizcaya y se analizaronlas siguientes variables: edad, género y hábito de fumar.Los fumadores se estratificaron en tres grupos según elconsumo de tabaco. Posteriormente, se realizó una comparaciónentre ambos géneros a través del test de homogeneidadde porcentajes con un índice de confianza del 95%.Resultados: no existen diferencias significativas entre hombresy mujeres administrativos en lo referente al hábito tabáquicoexcepto en el grupo de grandes fumadores (>20 cig/día).Conclusiones: no se evidencian diferencias de género entrelos administrativos en lo que al consumo de tabaco se refiere,si bien en el grupo de grandes fumadores se observancifras superiores en los hombres y, por consiguiente, un mayorriesgo cardiovascular. Además, los porcentajes halladosen este estudio coinciden con los presentes en la poblaciónde la Comunidad Autónoma del País Vasco (CAPV) y son similaresa los observados en la población española (AU)


Objective: to analyse tobacco consumption amongst administrativeemployees, measure gender differences andtheir relationship with cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF).Material and methods: our sample is composed of 432administrative employees paired by age (216 men and 216women). Data were obtained from occupational medicalcheck-ups of administrative employees from Vizcaya and thefollowing variables were analysed: age, gender and smoking.Smokers were stratified into 3 groups based on theirtobacco consumption. Subsequently, both genders werecompared using the percentage Homogeneity Test with a95% confidence index.Results: there are no significant differences between maleand female administrative employees in regards to smokingexcept in the case of heavy smokers (> 20 cigarettes/day).Conclusions: no gender differences were evidenced betweenadministrative employees in terms of smoking, eventhough in the group of heavy smoker higher values wereobserved in men and, therefore, they presented a highercardiovascular risk. Furthermore, the percentages found inthis study mirror those of the population of the AutonomousCommunity of the Basque Country and are similar tothose observed in the Spanish population (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fatores Sexuais , 16054 , Espanha
14.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 23(supl.1): 29-37, dic. 2009.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-140894

RESUMO

La población española ha crecido en los últimos 10 años en más de 6 millones de personas, de las cuales más de las tres cuartas partes son inmigrantes. Aunque en buena medida se trata de un fenómeno de inmigración económica ligado al intenso ritmo de crecimiento de la economía española, los determinantes sociológicos del proceso confieren al colectivo inmigrante un perfil cuya consideración es relevante para la valoración del impacto de la inmigración en el gasto público y en el sistema de protección social. El crecimiento de la población inmigrante, con menor edad media y tasas de natalidad más altas, permite compensar transitoriamente los desequilibrios demográficos del sistema de pensiones. Por otra parte, las características sociológicas y económicas del colectivo determinan demandas específicas al sistema de protección social. La integración de los inmigrantes se ve facilitada por el acceso a los servicios básicos, educación y salud, lo que, por otra parte, pudiera influir positivamente en el flujo migratorio. El rápido crecimiento de la población ha supuesto en el corto plazo una congestión de los servicios sanitarios, especialmente de la atención primaria, como consecuencia de la desigual distribución de los inmigrantes en el territorio. El gasto imputable a los inmigrantes es menos que proporcional a su peso en la población y se concentra en cuatro comunidades autónomas (AU)


The Spanish population has grown by over 6 million people in the last 10 years and immigrants account for 4.5 million of this increase. Although this influx has largely been motivated by economic reasons, stimulated by the sharp growth of the Spanish economy, sociological factors must also be considered to assess the impact of immigration shock on public expenditure and the social welfare system. On the one hand, the demographic growth caused by immigration temporarily balances the pension system, as immigrants have a lower average age and a higher fertility rate. On the other hand, the demographic and economic features of the immigrant community make additional demands on the social welfare system. Universal access to basic public services such as the education and health systems is a crucial asset in the integration policy aimed at the immigrant collective, and compensates for its possible effect as an incentive to immigrate. In the short term, the huge population growth has led to health services’ congestion, especially in primary health care, because of the unequal geographic distribution of immigrants. The health expenditure imputable to immigrants is lower than their share in the total population and is highly concentrated in four autonomous regions (AU)


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inventário de Personalidade , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Alienação Social , Apoio Social , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Marrocos/etnologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Espanha/epidemiologia
15.
Gac Sanit ; 23 Suppl 1: 29-37, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19879022

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of birth place, migrant status and the modulatory role of social support on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and the presence of anxiety/depression symptoms. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of three samples composed of 2,776 persons: 1,239 Moroccans in Morocco, 149 Moroccans in the Basque Country (Spain) and 1,388 autochthonous individuals. HRQoL and the presence of anxiety/depression symptoms were evaluated using the Short-Form-36 (SF-36) and the Mental Health Inventory-5 (MHI-5). Social support was evaluated with the Duke scale. Multivariate analyses were performed with dichotomic logistic regression (SPSS 16). RESULTS: Immigrant status, compared with living in Morocco, was a protective factor in practically all SF-36 dimensions but was also a risk factor for the development of anxiety/depression symptoms. Differences in HRQoL between Moroccans and the autochthonous population in the Basque Country were attenuated when variables of social support were included in the multivariate models. Low social support and dissatisfaction with social life increased the risk of low HRQoL scores and the presence of anxiety/depression symptoms among Moroccans in the Basque Country. CONCLUSIONS: Some health indicators are more favorable in Moroccans in the Basque Country than in those living in Morocco, but the frequency of anxiety/depression is higher in Moroccan immigrants. The key factor to understanding social inequalities in health among Moroccan immigrants is social support. Strategies to maintain optimal health in these immigrant collectives should include public policies of social inclusion.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos/etnologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Inventário de Personalidade , Qualidade de Vida , Alienação Social , Apoio Social , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Rev Enferm ; 31(2): 14-8, 2008 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18496962

RESUMO

Workers' health is of vital importance in order for workers to work at their utmost on their jobs. The prevalence of specific pathologies affects the normal functioning of workers, provoking incapacities and absences from work. The authors measure the prevalence of chronic type illnesses among cleaning and administrative personnel. The authors analyze differences based on gender and they evaluate its influence on the work assigned. In both labor groups, there exists a significant difference in the prevalence of varicose veins and scoliosis favorable in the feminine sex, a fact which corresponds to gender reasons and not to the type of work carried out. Arterial hypertension, on the other hand, is more prevalent among men in both groups, making them be exposed to a greater cardiovascular risk. The remaining pathologies found did not show any significant gender differences.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Administração de Recursos Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Escoliose/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Sexo , Varizes/epidemiologia , Doenças Vasculares/epidemiologia
17.
Metas enferm ; 11(4): 18-23, mayo 2008. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-94427

RESUMO

Las enfermedades cardiovasculares son la primera causa de morbimortalidad de los países occidentales, motivo por el que están consideradas un grave problema de salud comunitaria. La dislipemia y la obesidad son dos de los factores de riesgo cardiovascular (FRCV) más importantes, relacionados con el estilo de vida y asociados a la aparición de enfermedades coronarias. Objetivos: valorar el riesgo cardiovascular de los trabajadores de limpieza, a partir de la identificación del perfil bioquímico de este colectivo laboral y del análisis de la influencia del sexo en el mismo. Metodología: estudio transversal descriptivo para compararlos perfiles bioquímicos de los trabajadores de la limpieza en función del sexo. A partir de los datos del reconocimiento médico de 611 trabajadores de limpieza de la provincia de Vizcaya, se seleccionó una muestra de 252 individuos apareados por sexo y edad. Variables analizadas: índice de masa corporal (IMC), glucemia, creatinina, ácido úrico, triglicéridos, colesterol total, HDL colesterol, GOT, GPT, GGT e índice aterogénico. Las comparaciones entre sexos se han realizado a través del test de homogeneidad de porcentajes con expresión del intervalo de confianza de la diferencia de porcentajes. En el caso de las franjas etarias se ha utilizado el test X2 de tendencia lineal con expresión del valor de p, siempre para un nivel mínimo de confianza del 95% (p<0,05).Resultados: el 54,76% de los hombres tiene el ácido úrico elevado y el 13,49% tiene hipertrigliceridemia, con significación de la diferencia de porcentajes en la comparación con el grupo de mujeres. Son también significativas en este (..) (AU)


Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbimortality in Western countries, and is thus considered a serious problem in terms of community health. Dyslipedimia and obesity are two of the most important factors of cardiovascular risk (VRF) related with the subject’s style of life and associated with the onset of coronary conditions. Objectives: to assess cardiovascular risk in housekeeping personnel from the assessment of the biochemical profile of this work group and the analysis of the influence sex hason this group of employees. Methodology: a descriptive cross-sectional study that compares the biochemical profiles of housekeeping workers depending on their sex. 611 housekeeping employees from the province of Vizcaya were preselected on the basis of a physical examination. Of these, 252 subjects were selected and paired by sex and age. Study variables included body mass index (BMI) glycaemia, creatinine, and uric acid, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL, cholesterol, GOT, GPT, GGTand atherogenic index. Comparisons between the sexes were carried out using the homogeneity test of percentages stating the confidence interval of percentage difference. In the (..) (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Limpeza , Fatores de Risco , Biomarcadores/análise
18.
Metas enferm ; 11(3): 8-12, abr. 2008. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-94418

RESUMO

Objetivos: determinar la prevalencia de sobrepeso/obesidad en este colectivo laboral, valorar la influencia del sexo y la edad y considerar el riesgo cardiovascular asociado. Material y métodos: se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo transversal. El marco muestral fueron los 639 administrativos de 16 ayuntamientos de la provincia de Vizcaya durante el año 2003, de donde fueron seleccionados 432 individuos apareados por edad (216 hombres y 216 mujeres). Las variables de estudio fueron: sexo, edad, índice de masa corporal, valores bioquímicos y tensión arterial. Para el tratamiento y análisis de los datos se utilizaron índices de estadística descriptiva y el test de homogeneidad de porcentajes con expresión del intervalo de confianza de la diferencia de porcentajes para la comparación entre sexos. Resultados: un 67,13% de las mujeres tenía normo peso frente a un 39,81% de los hombres. Los hombres presentaban mayores porcentajes de sobrepeso (tipo I y II) y de obesidad tipo I que las mujeres. Los hombres tenían valores significativamente mayores que las mujeres de creatinina, ácido úrico, triglicéridos y enzimas hepáticas. La prevalencia de HTA fue significativamente mayor en hombres que en mujeres (11,57%frente a 4,63%).Conclusiones: el sobrepeso y la obesidad en trabajadores administrativos de Vizcaya ofrecen diferencias significativas entre sexos, siendo las mujeres las que presentaron mayores porcentajes de normo peso. Esta situación sugiere un menor riesgo cardiovascular en las mujeres administrativas con respecto a sus compañeros de trabajo. Para lograr un peso adecuado se estima de vital importancia la utilización de los programas de salud que se ofrecen en las instituciones sanitarias; especialmente los diseñados por los Diplomados en Enfermería (AU)


Objectives: to determine the prevalence of overweight/obesity in this type of workers, to assess the influence of the gender and the age on the condition, and to consider the associated cardiovascular risk. Material and methods: a cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out. The sample was composed of 639 administrative clerks from 16 City Halls in the province of Vizcaya during 2003, of which 432 were selected and paired by age (216 men and 216 women). The study variables were: sex, age, body mass index, biochemical values, and blood pressure. Descriptive statistics indexes and the Homogeneity T-test of percentages expressing the confidence interval of the percentage difference for comparison of both genders were used to process and analyse data. Results: 67,13% of the women had a normal weight against 39,81% of men. Men presented higher percentages of overweight(type I and II) and type I Obesity than women. Men had significantly higher values than women of creatinine, uric acid, triglycerides and liver enzymes. The prevalence of highblood pressure was significantly higher in men than in women(11,57% vs 4,63%).Conclusions: overweight and obesity in office clerks in Vizcaya present significant differences between the sexes, with women presenting the higher percentages of normal weight. This demonstrates that female office clerks have less risk of cardiovascular disease than their male counterparts. To achieve an ideal weight, it is essential to follow the health programs offered at healthcare centres, especially those designed by Nursing graduates (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , 16054 , Fatores de Risco , Biomarcadores/análise
19.
Rev. Rol enferm ; 31(2): 94-98, feb. 2008. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-79028

RESUMO

La salud de los trabajadores resulta de vital importancia para un óptimo rendimiento laboral. La prevalencia de ciertas patologías afecta al normal funcionamiento del trabajador, provocando incapacidades y absentismo laboral. Por ello se mide la prevalencia de enfermedades de tipo crónico en dos grupos laborales, trabajadores de limpieza y administrativos, analizando las diferencias de género y valorando la influencia del trabajo desarrollado. Las patologías crónicas más prevalentes halladas en ambos colectivos son: asma, alergias, psoriasis, escoliosis, varices, trastornos músculo-esqueléticos (TME) e HTA(AU)


Workers’ health is of vital importance in order for workers to work at their utmost on their jobs. The prevalence of specific pathologies affects the normal functioning of workers, provoking incapacities and absences from work. The authors measure the prevalence of chronic type illnesses among cleaning and administrative personnel. The authors analyze differences based on gender and they evaluate its influence on the work assigned. In both labor groups, there exists a significant difference in the prevalence of varicose veins and scoliosis favorable in the feminine sex, a fact which corresponds to gender reasons and not to the type of work carried out. Arterial hypertension, on the other hand, is more prevalent among men in both groups, making them be exposed to a greater cardiovascular risk. The remaining pathologies found did not show any significant gender differences(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Licença Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Serviço de Limpeza , Riscos Ocupacionais
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