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1.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 45(6): 593-603, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430786

RESUMO

Microvesicles (MVs) are small membrane enclosed structures released into the extracellular space by virtually all cell types. Their composition varies according to the cell origin and the stimulus which caused their formation. They harbor functional molecules and participate in intercellular communication. Endothelium, inflammatory cells, and cancer cells produce procoagulant MVs which contribute to cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT) in animal models. The tissue factor (TF) conveyed by these MVs was shown to play a key role in different animal models of experimental CAT. Alternatively, other molecular mechanisms involving polyphosphates or phosphatidylethanolamine could also be involved. In clinical practice, an association between an increase in the number of TF-positive or the procoagulant activity of these MVs and the occurrence of CAT has indeed been demonstrated in pancreatic-biliary cancers, suggesting that they could behave as a biomarker predictive for CAT. However, to date, this association was not confirmed in other types of cancer. Potential causes explaining this limited associated between MVs and CAT are (1) the diversity of mechanisms associating MVs and different types of cancer; (2) a more complex role of MVs in hemostasis integrating their anticoagulant and fibrinolytic activity; and (3) the lack of sensitivity, reproducibility, and standardization of current methodologies permitting measurement of MVs. Each of these hypotheses constitutes an interesting exploration path for a future reassessment of the clinical interest of the MVs in CAT.


Assuntos
Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/patologia , Neoplasias/complicações , Trombose/etiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/patologia , Trombose/patologia
2.
Thromb Res ; 182: 64-74, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450010

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The TF-FVIIa complex is the primary activator of coagulation. Elevated levels of microvesicle (MV) bearing tissue factor (TF)-dependent procoagulant activity are detectable in patients with an increased risk of thrombosis. Several methods have been described to measure MV TF activity but they are hampered by limited sensitivity and specificity. The aim of this work was to increase the sensitivity of the MV TF activity assay (called Chapel Hill assay). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Improvements of the MV TF activity assay included i/ speed and time of centrifugation, ii/ use of a more potent inhibitory anti-TF antibody iii/ use of FVII and a fluorogenic substrate to increase specificity. RESULTS: The specificity of the MV TF activity assay was demonstrated by the absence of activity on MV derived from a knock-out-TF cell line using an anti-human TF monoclonal antibody called SBTF-1, which shows a higher TF inhibitory effect than the anti-human TF monoclonal antibody called HTF-1. Experiments using blood from healthy individuals, stimulated or not by LPS, or plasma spiked with 3 different levels of MV, demonstrated that the new assay was more sensitive and this allowed detection of MV TF activity in platelet free plasma (PFP) samples from healthy individuals. However, the assay was limited by an inter-assay variability, mainly due to the centrifugation step. CONCLUSIONS: We have improved the sensitivity of the MV TF activity assay without losing specificity. This new assay could be used to evaluate levels of TF-positive MV as a potential biomarker of thrombotic risk in patients.

3.
J Extracell Vesicles ; 7(1): 1494482, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30034644

RESUMO

Among extracellular vesicles, leukocyte-derived microvesicles (LMVs) have emerged as complex vesicular structures. Primarily identified as procoagulant entities, they were more recently ascribed to plasmin generation capacity (MV-PGC). The objectives of this work were (1) to develop a new hybrid bio-assay combining the specific isolation of LMVs and measurement of their PGC, and compare its performance to the original method based on centrifugation, (2) to validate MV-PGC in septic shock, combining increased levels of LMVs and fibrinolytic imbalance. Using plasma sample spiked with LMVs featuring different levels of PGC, we demonstrated that CD15-beads specifically extracted LMVs. The MV dependency of the test was demonstrated using electron microscopy, high speed centrifugation, nanofiltration and detergent-mediated solubilization and the MV-PGC specificity using plasmin-specific inhibitors, or antibodies blocking elastase or uPA. Thanks to a reaction booster (ε-ACA), we showed that the assay was more sensitive and reproducible than the original method. Moreover, it exhibited a good repeatability, inter-operator and inter-experiment reproducibility. The new immunomagnetic bio-assay was further validated in patients with septic shock. As a result, we showed that MV-PGC values were significantly lower in septic shock patients who died compared to patients who survived, both at inclusion and 24 h later (1.4 [0.8-3.0] vs 3.1 [1.7-18] A405 × 10-3/min, p = 0.02; 1.4 [1-1.6] vs 5.2 [2.2-16] A405 × 10-3/min, p = 0.004). Interestingly, combining both MV-PGC and PAI-1 in a ratio significantly improved the predictive value of PAI-1. This strategy, a hybrid capture bioassay to specifically measure LMV-PGC using for the first time, opens new perspectives for measuring subcellular fibrinolytic potential in clinical settings with fibrinolytic imbalance.

4.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 43(2): 129-134, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27923263

RESUMO

Microparticles (MPs) are submicronic vesicles which are formed by budding of the cellular membrane of virtually any cell type in response to cell activation or apoptosis. Both circulating MPs and MPs generated within tissues harbor molecules with a large repertoire of biological activities and transfer material to target cells. Depending on their cellular origin, the stimuli triggering their formation, or their localization, they may participate in the maintenance of organ or vascular homeostasis as well as inducing dysfunction. MPs have mostly been described as having procoagulant properties. However, the fact that some MP subsets are able to efficiently generate plasmin suggests that the role of MPs in hemostasis is more complex than initially thought. In this review, we summarize key findings showing that MPs provide a heterogeneous catalytic surface for plasmin generation, according to their cellular origin. We further address the specific features of the MP-dependent fibrinolytic system. Potential consequences of this MP-associated fibrinolytic activity in pathology are illustrated in cancer.


Assuntos
Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/metabolismo , Fibrinólise/fisiologia , Hemostasia/fisiologia , Humanos
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