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1.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; : e28025, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571345

RESUMO

Minimal residual disease (MRD) analysis has become a powerful indicator to refine therapy in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Here, we present an MRD detection based on the next-generation sequencing of PTEN exon 7 mutations (NGS-PTEN) in 30 pediatric T-cell ALL patients. By comparing the NGS-PTEN results with current quantitative PCR of antigen receptor gene rearrangements (qPCR-Ig/TR), an overall concordance of 80% was found between the two methods. However, the NGS-PTEN qualified a lower number of high-risk patients than qPCR-Ig/TR. These findings suggest that NGS-PTEN is a promising tool that could potentially be used to support current MRD methodologies for T-ALL patients.

2.
Haematologica ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601692

RESUMO

ABL-class fusions other than BCR-ABL1 characterize about 2-3% of precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Case series indicated that patients suffering from these subtypes have a dismal outcome and may benefit from the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We analyzed clinical characteristics and outcome of 46 ABL-class fusion positive cases other than BCR-ABL1 treated according to AIEOP-BFM ALL 2000 and 2009 protocols; 13 of them received a tyrosine kinase inhibitor during different phases of treatment. ABL-class fusion positive cases had a poor early treatment response: minimal residual disease levels of >5x10-4 were observed in 71.4% of patients after induction treatment and in 51.2% after consolidation phase. For the entire cohort of 46 cases the 5-year probability of event-free survival was 49.1+8.9% and that of overall survival 69.6+7.8%; the cumulative incidence of relapse was 25.6+8.2% and treatment-related mortality 20.8+6.8%. One out of 13 cases with tyrosine kinase inhibitor added to chemotherapy relapsed while eight of 33 cases without tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment suffered from relapse, including six in 17 patients who had not received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Stem cell transplantation seems to be effective in preventing relapses (only three relapses in 25 patients), but was associated with a very high treatment-related mortality (6 patients). These data indicate a major need for an early identification of ABL-class fusion positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia cases and to establish a properly designed, controlled study aimed at investigating the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, the appropriate chemotherapy backbone and the role of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NTC00430118, NCT00613457, NCT01117441).

3.
Eur J Cancer ; 122: 61-71, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescents (aged 10-17 years) with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) have unfavourable disease features and an inferior outcome when compared with younger children, but it is still unclear if differences in disease biology and prognosis exist between adolescents older or younger than 15 years. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed outcomes of 1094 adolescents with ALL, aged 10-17 years, treated within the AIEOP-BFM ALL 2000 trial, overall and by the age groups 10-14 and 15-17 years. FINDINGS: Compared with younger children (aged 1-9 years, n = 3647), adolescents had a statistically inferior 5-year event-free survival (EFS) [74.6% (1.3) vs. 84.4% (0.6)] and overall survival (OS) [83.4% (1.1) vs. 92.7% (0.4); p < 0.001]. Clinical and biological disease characteristics did not differ between the two subgroups of adolescents, including minimal residual disease (MRD) results during initial therapy, except for ETV6-RUNX1 frequency and gender. With a median follow-up of 8.8 years, the 5-year EFS and OS were 76.2% (1.5) and 84.9% (1.3), respectively, for those aged 10-14 years and 70.0% (2.8) and 78.8% (2.5) for those aged 15-17 years (p = 0.06; 0.05). There was no significant difference in the cumulative incidence of relapses [17.8% (1.4) and 18.3% (2.4); p = 0.98], while the incidence of treatment-related deaths as a first event was 2.6% (0.6) versus 7.4% (1.6) (p < 0.001) with, in particular, a higher incidence in the high-risk arm. INTERPRETATION: Further prospective studies and biological investigations are required to define optimal treatment for adolescents, in particular for those aged 15-17 years. Newer agents (immunotherapy, targeted therapy) in early treatment phases of patients at higher risk of treatment failure could replace most toxic treatment elements, with the aim of reducing both toxicity and the risk of relapses.

4.
Biom J ; 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515830

RESUMO

The illness-death model is the simplest multistate model where the transition from the initial state 0 to the absorbing state 2 may involve an intermediate state 1 (e.g., disease relapse). The impact of the transition into state 1 on the subsequent transition hazard to state 2 enables insight to be gained into the disease evolution. The standard approach of analysis is modeling the transition hazards from 0 to 2 and from 1 to 2, including time to illness as a time-varying covariate and measuring time from origin even after transition into state 1. The hazard from 1 to 2 can be also modeled separately using only patients in state 1, measuring time from illness and including time to illness as a fixed covariate. A recently proposed approach is a model where time after the transition into state 1 is measured in both scales and time to illness is included as a time-varying covariate. Another possibility is a model where time after transition into state 1 is measured only from illness and time to illness is included as a fixed covariate. Through theoretical reasoning and simulation protocols, we discuss the use of these models and we develop a practical strategy aiming to (a) validate the properties of the illness-death process, (b) estimate the impact of time to illness on the hazard from state 1 to 2, and (c) quantify the impact that the transition into state 1 has on the hazard of the absorbing state. The strategy is also applied to a literature dataset on diabetes.

5.
Syst Rev ; 8(1): 196, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-specific low back pain (LBP) is the leading cause of disability worldwide. Acute LBP usually has a good prognosis, with rapid improvement within the first 6 weeks. However, the majority of patients develop chronic LBP and suffer from recurrences. For clinical management, a plethora of treatments is currently available but evidence of the most effective options is lacking. The objective of this study will be to identify the most effective interventions to relieve pain and reduce disability in acute and sub-acute non-specific LBP. METHODS/DESIGN: We will search electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL) from inception onwards. The eligible population will be individuals with non-specific LBP older than 18 years, both males and females, who experience pain less than 6 weeks (acute) or between 6 and 12 weeks (subacute). Eligible interventions and comparators will include all conservative rehabilitation or pharmacological treatments provided by any health professional; the only eligible study design will be a randomized controlled trial. The primary outcomes will be pain intensity and back-specific functional status. Secondary outcomes will be any adverse events. Studies published in languages other than English will also potentially be included. Two reviewers will independently screen the titles and abstracts retrieved from a literature search, as well as potentially relevant full-text articles. General characteristics, potential effect modifiers, and outcome data will be extracted from the included studies, and the risk of bias will be appraised. Conflicts at all levels of screening and abstraction will be resolved through team discussions. After describing the results of the review, if appropriate, a random effects meta-analysis and network meta-analysis will be conducted in a frequentist setting, assuming equal heterogeneity across all treatment comparisons and accounting for correlations induced by multi-arm studies using a multivariate normal model. DISCUSSION: Our systematic review will address the uncertainties in the use of pharmacological or non-pharmacological treatments, and their relative efficacy, for acute and subacute LBP. These findings will be useful for patients, healthcare providers, and policymakers. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42018102527.

6.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(25): 2246-2256, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283407

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is characterized by KMT2A (MLL) gene rearrangements and coexpression of myeloid markers. The Interfant-06 study, comprising 18 national and international study groups, tested whether myeloid-style consolidation chemotherapy is superior to lymphoid style, the role of stem-cell transplantation (SCT), and which factors had independent prognostic value. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three risk groups were defined: low risk (LR): KMT2A germline; high risk (HR): KMT2A-rearranged and older than 6 months with WBC count 300 × 109/L or more or a poor prednisone response; and medium risk (MR): all other KMT2A-rearranged cases. Patients in the MR and HR groups were randomly assigned to receive the lymphoid course low-dose cytosine arabinoside [araC], 6-mercaptopurine, cyclophosphamide (IB) or experimental myeloid courses, namely araC, daunorubicin, etoposide (ADE) and mitoxantrone, araC, etoposide (MAE). RESULTS: A total of 651 infants were included, with 6-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival of 46.1% (SE, 2.1) and 58.2% (SE, 2.0). In West European/North American groups, 6-year EFS and overall survival were 49.4% (SE, 2.5) and 62.1% (SE, 2.4), which were 10% to 12% higher than in other countries. The 6-year probability of disease-free survival was comparable for the randomized arms (ADE+MAE 39.3% [SE 4.0; n = 169] v IB 36.8% [SE, 3.9; n = 161]; log-rank P = .47). The 6-year EFS rate of patients in the HR group was 20.9% (SE, 3.4) with the intention to undergo SCT; only 46% of them received SCT, because many had early events. KMT2A rearrangement was the strongest prognostic factor for EFS, followed by age, WBC count, and prednisone response. CONCLUSION: Early intensification with postinduction myeloid-type chemotherapy courses did not significantly improve outcome for infant ALL compared with the lymphoid-type course IB. Outcome for infant ALL in Interfant-06 did not improve compared with that in Interfant-99.

7.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 21(7): 975-983, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222917

RESUMO

The role of uric acid (UA) on the arterial stiffness progression has been evaluated only in three studies. Our aim was to evaluate its role as a possible determinant of the pulse wave velocity (PWV) progression over a 3.7 ± 0.5 years follow-up period in hypertensive patients. Specific sex analysis was done due to the well-known sex interaction with UA levels. We enrolled 422 consecutive hypertensive outpatients. At baseline anamnestic, blood pressure (BP) and laboratory data as well as PWV were assessed. PWV was performed again at follow-up examination. Hyperuricemia was defined as a UA > 6 mg/dL for women and > 7 mg/dL for men. Baseline age was 53.2 ± 13 years, 58% were males, systolic and diastolic BP (SBP/DBP) 141.7 ± 17.7/86.8 ± 10.8 mm Hg, UA 5.2 ± 1.4 mg/dL, and PWV 8.5 ± 1.9 m/s. At follow-up, despite better BP values (-8.5 ± 24.6 for SBP and -7.5 ± 15.4 for DBP), PWV increases to 9.1 ± 2.3 m/s (P < 0.001) with mean ΔPWV of+ 0.5 ± 2.2 m/s. A total of 61 patients were hyperuricemic (14.4%), and they present higher PWV baseline (9.0 ± 2.5 vs 8.5 ± 1.8 m/s, P = 0.03) without significant differences in ΔPWV. Hyperuricemic female (6.2%, 11 patients) presents higher baseline PWV without significant differences in ΔPWV. No differences were found in arterial stiffness in hyperuricemic males (20.4%, 50 patients). UA showed association with baseline and ΔPWV in the whole population but it loses statistical significance at the linear regression model. Same figures were also for sex analysis. Our findings provide evidence that baseline UA levels are not determinants of PWV progression over a median follow-up of 3.8 years' in hypertensive patients.

8.
Lancet Haematol ; 6(5): e239-e253, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome is a rare, life-threatening, X-linked primary immunodeficiency characterised by microthrombocytopenia, infections, eczema, autoimmunity, and malignant disease. Lentiviral vector-mediated haemopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) gene therapy is a potentially curative treatment that represents an alternative to allogeneic HSPC transplantation. Here, we report safety and efficacy data from an interim analysis of patients with severe Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome who received lentiviral vector-derived gene therapy. METHODS: We did a non-randomised, open-label, phase 1/2 clinical study in paediatric patients with severe Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, defined by either WAS gene mutation or absent Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) expression or a Zhu clinical score of 3 or higher. We included patients who had no HLA-identical sibling donor available or, for children younger than 5 years of age, no suitable 10/10 matched unrelated donor or 6/6 unrelated cord blood donor. After treatment with rituximab and a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen of busulfan and fludarabine, patients received one intravenous infusion of autologous CD34+ cells genetically modified with a lentiviral vector encoding for human WAS cDNA. The primary safety endpoints were safety of the conditioning regimen and safety of lentiviral gene transfer into HSPCs. The primary efficacy endpoints were overall survival, sustained engraftment of genetically corrected HSPCs, expression of vector-derived WASP, improved T-cell function, antigen-specific responses to vaccinations, and improved platelet count and mean platelet volume normalisation. This interim analysis was done when the first six patients treated had completed at least 3 years of follow-up. The planned analyses are presented for the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (number NCT01515462) and EudraCT (number 2009-017346-32). FINDINGS: Between April 20, 2010, and Feb 26, 2015, nine patients (all male) were enrolled of whom one was excluded after screening; the age range of the eight treated children was 1·1-12·4 years. At the time of the interim analysis (data cutoff April 29, 2016), median follow-up was 3·6 years (range 0·5-5·6). Overall survival was 100%. Engraftment of genetically corrected HSPCs was successful and sustained in all patients. The fraction of WASP-positive lymphocytes increased from a median of 3·9% (range 1·8-35·6) before gene therapy to 66·7% (55·7-98·6) at 12 months after gene therapy, whereas WASP-positive platelets increased from 19·1% (range 4·1-31·0) to 76·6% (53·1-98·4). Improvement of immune function was shown by normalisation of in-vitro T-cell function and successful discontinuation of immunoglobulin supplementation in seven patients with follow-up longer than 1 year, followed by positive antigen-specific response to vaccination. Severe infections fell from 2·38 (95% CI 1·44-3·72) per patient-year of observation (PYO) in the year before gene therapy to 0·31 (0·04-1·11) per PYO in the second year after gene therapy and 0·17 (0·00-0·93) per PYO in the third year after gene therapy. Before gene therapy, platelet counts were lower than 20 × 109 per L in seven of eight patients. At the last follow-up visit, the platelet count had increased to 20-50 × 109 per L in one patient, 50-100 × 109 per L in five patients, and more than 100 × 109 per L in two patients, which resulted in independence from platelet transfusions and absence of severe bleeding events. 27 serious adverse events in six patients occurred after gene therapy, 23 (85%) of which were infectious (pyrexia [five events in three patients], device-related infections, including one case of sepsis [four events in three patients], and gastroenteritis, including one case due to rotavirus [three events in two patients]); these occurred mainly in the first 6 months of follow-up. No adverse reactions to the investigational drug product and no abnormal clonal proliferation or leukaemia were reported after gene therapy. INTERPRETATION: Data from this study show that gene therapy provides a valuable treatment option for patients with severe Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, particularly for those who do not have a suitable HSPC donor available. FUNDING: Italian Telethon Foundation, GlaxoSmithKline, and Orchard Therapeutics.


Assuntos
Terapia Genética , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Lentivirus/genética , Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/genética , Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Terapia Genética/métodos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Itália , Masculino , Mutação , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/sangue , Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/diagnóstico , Proteína da Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/genética
9.
Eur J Cancer ; 111: 61-68, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Even if borderline ovarian tumours (BOTs) in young women treated with fertility-sparing treatment (FST) have an excellent outcome, the type of surgery might affect relapse and fertility. We investigated the effect of surgical approach (open surgery vs. laparoscopy) and type of surgery (salpingo-oophorectomy [SO] vs. cystectomy [Cy]) on oncologic and fertility outcomes in patients with BOT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with BOT treated at San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, with FST in 1978-2013 period were included. Cox models, stratified by decade of surgery, were used to investigate the association between time to first recurrence or conception and clinical factors. RESULTS: Among 535 patients included, 271 underwent unilateral SO and 264 underwent Cy. Median follow-up was 13.5 years. Ten-year (10-yr) recurrence rate was 23% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18-29%) for SO and 31% (95% CI: 24-38%) for Cy group (P = 0.10) in patients with unilateral tumour, whereas it was 62% (95% CI: 44-79%) and 72% (95% CI: 59-84%), respectively, (P = 0.35) in patients with bilateral tumour. Multivariable analysis showed no association between recurrence and surgical approach (P = 0.44), type of surgery (P = 0.06) and a negative association with advanced stage (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.18; 95% CI: 2.11-4.78; P < 0.001) and bilateral tumours (HR = 2.48; 95% CI: 1.78-3.47; P < 0.001). Among 252 patients (47.1%) with pregnancy desire, multivariable analysis showed no association between conception success and the type of surgery, surgical approach, histology and tumour laterality. Fertility after surgery was positively associated with prior pregnancy (HR = 1.68; 95% CI: 1.17-2.41; P = 0.005) and negatively associated with the number of surgical procedures (HR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.53-0.73; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The type of surgical procedures did not influence recurrence rate or fertility. However, additional surgical procedures decreased the fertility potential. These data can support clinicians in tailoring the best strategy for FST in young patients with BOT.

10.
Haematologica ; 104(9): 1812-1821, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30705097

RESUMO

Asparagine levels in cerebrospinal fluid and serum asparaginase activity were monitored in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with pegylated-asparaginase. The drug was given intravenously at a dose of 2,500 IU/m2 on days 12 and 26. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples obtained on days 33 and 45 were analyzed centrally. Since physiological levels of asparagine in the cerebrospinal fluid of children and adolescents are 4-10 µmol/L, in this study asparagine depletion was considered complete when the concentration of asparagine was ≤0.2 µmol/L, i.e. below the lower limit of quantification of the assay used. Over 24 months 736 patients (AIEOP n=245, BFM n=491) and 903 cerebrospinal fluid samples (n=686 on day 33 and n=217 on day 45) were available for analysis. Data were analyzed separately for the AIEOP and BFM cohorts and yielded superimposable results. Independently of serum asparaginase activity levels, cerebrospinal fluid asparagine levels were significantly reduced during the investigated study phase but only 28% of analyzed samples showed complete asparagine depletion while relevant levels, ≥1 µmol/L, were still detectable in around 23% of them. Complete cerebrospinal fluid asparagine depletion was found in around 5-6% and 33-37% of samples at serum asparaginase activity levels <100 and ≥ 1,500 IU/L, respectively. In this study cerebrospinal fluid asparagine levels were reduced during pegylated-asparaginase treatment, but complete depletion was only observed in a minority of patients. No clear threshold of serum pegylated-asparaginase activity level resulting in complete cerebrospinal fluid asparagine depletion was identified. The consistency of the results found in the two independent data sets strengthen the observations of this study. Details of the treatment are available in the European Clinical Trials Database at https://www.clin-icaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/trial/2007-004270-43/IT.

11.
Eur J Cancer ; 110: 86-97, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772657

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Advances in paediatric oncology led to the increase in long-term survival, revealing the burden of therapy-related long-term side effects. We evaluated overall and cause-specific mortality in a large cohort of Italian childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) and adolescent cancer survivors identified through the off-therapy registry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CCSs alive 5 years after cancer diagnosis occurring between 1960 and 1999 were eligible; the last follow-up was between 2011 and 2014. Outcomes were reported as standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and absolute excess risks (AERs). RESULTS: Among 12,214 CCSs, 1113 (9.1%) deaths occurred. Survival at 35 years since diagnosis was 87% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 86-88) and at 45 years was 81% (95% CI: 77-84). CCSs had an 11-fold increased risk of death (SMR 95% CI: 10.7-12), corresponding to an AER of 48 (95% CI: 45-51). Mortality decreased by 60% for survivors treated most recently (1990-1999). The most frequent causes of death were recurrence of the original cancer (56%), a subsequent neoplasm (19%) and cardiovascular diseases (5.8%). Among those who survived at least 15 years after diagnosis, a secondary malignancy was the leading cause of death. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the impact of recent advances in anticancer therapy in reducing mortality, mainly attributable to recurrence but also to other causes. However, overall mortality continues to be higher than in the general population. A long-term follow-up is needed to prevent late mortality due to secondary neoplasms and non-neoplastic causes in CCSs.

12.
Nat Med ; 25(2): 234-241, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664781

RESUMO

ß-thalassemia is caused by ß-globin gene mutations resulting in reduced (ß+) or absent (ß0) hemoglobin production. Patient life expectancy has recently increased, but the need for chronic transfusions in transfusion-dependent thalassemia (TDT) and iron chelation impairs quality of life1. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation represents the curative treatment, with thalassemia-free survival exceeding 80%. However, it is available to a minority of patients and is associated with morbidity, rejection and graft-versus-host disease2. Gene therapy with autologous HSCs modified to express ß-globin represents a potential therapeutic option. We treated three adults and six children with ß0 or severe ß+ mutations in a phase 1/2 trial ( NCT02453477 ) with an intrabone administration of HSCs transduced with the lentiviral vector GLOBE. Rapid hematopoietic recovery with polyclonal multilineage engraftment of vector-marked cells was achieved, with a median of 37.5% (range 12.6-76.4%) in hematopoietic progenitors and a vector copy number per cell (VCN) of 0.58 (range 0.10-1.97) in erythroid precursors at 1 year, in absence of clonal dominance. Transfusion requirement was reduced in the adults. Three out of four evaluable pediatric participants discontinued transfusions after gene therapy and were transfusion independent at the last follow-up. Younger age and persistence of higher VCN in the repopulating hematopoietic cells are associated with better outcome.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Terapia Genética , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Talassemia beta/genética , Talassemia beta/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(10): 770-779, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30657737

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We determined the prognostic factors and utility of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation among children with newly diagnosed hypodiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated in contemporary clinical trials. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study collected data on 306 patients with hypodiploid ALL who were enrolled in the protocols of 16 cooperative study groups or institutions between 1997 and 2013. The clinical and biologic characteristics, early therapeutic responses as determined by minimal residual disease (MRD) assessment, treatment with or without MRD-stratified protocols, and allogeneic transplantation were analyzed for their impact on outcome. RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 6.6 years, the 5-year event-free survival rate was 55.1% (95% CI, 49.3% to 61.5%), and the 5-year overall survival rate was 61.2% (95% CI, 55.5% to 67.4%) for the 272 evaluable patients. Negative MRD at the end of remission induction, high hypodiploidy with 44 chromosomes, and treatment in MRD-stratified protocols were associated with a favorable prognosis, with a 5-year event-free survival rate of 75% (95% CI, 66.0% to 85.0%), 74% (95% CI, 61.0% to 89.0%), and 62% (95% CI, 55.0% to 69.0%), respectively. After exclusion of patients with high hypodiploidy with 44 chromosomes and adjustment for waiting time to transplantation and for covariables in a Poisson model, disease-free survival did not differ significantly ( P = .16) between the 42 patients who underwent transplantation and the 186 patients who received chemotherapy only, with an estimated 5-year survival rate of 59% (95% CI, 46.5% to 75.0%) versus 51.5% (95% CI, 44.7% to 59.4%), respectively. Transplantation produced no significant impact on outcome compared with chemotherapy alone, especially among the subgroup of patients who achieved a negative MRD status upon completion of remission induction. CONCLUSION: MRD-stratified treatments improved the outcome for children with hypodiploid ALL. Allogeneic transplantation did not significantly improve outcome overall and, in particular, for patients who achieved MRD-negative status after induction.

14.
BMJ Open ; 8(12): e021038, 2018 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30573476

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Masked uncontrolled hypertension (MUCH) carries an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) complications and can be identified through combined use of office (O) and ambulatory (A) blood pressure (BP) monitoring (M) in treated patients. However, it is still debated whether the information carried by ABPM should be considered for MUCH management. Aim of the MASked-unconTrolled hypERtension management based on OBP or on ambulatory blood pressure measurement (MASTER) Study is to assess the impact on outcome of MUCH management based on OBPM or ABPM. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: MASTER is a 4-year prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded-endpoint investigation. A total of 1240 treated hypertensive patients from about 40 secondary care clinical centres worldwide will be included -upon confirming presence of MUCH (repeated on treatment OBP <140/90 mm Hg, and at least one of the following: daytime ABP ≥135/85 mm Hg; night-time ABP ≥120/70 mm Hg; 24 hour ABP ≥130/80 mm Hg), and will be randomised to a management strategy based on OBPM (group 1) or on ABPM (group 2). Patients in group 1 will have OBP measured at 0, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42 and 48 months and taken as a guide for treatment; ABPM will be performed at randomisation and at 12, 24, 36 and 48 months but will not be used to take treatment decisions. Patients randomised to group 2 will have ABPM performed at randomisation and all scheduled visits as a guide to antihypertensive treatment. The effects of MUCH management strategy based on ABPM or on OBPM on CV and renal intermediate outcomes (changing left ventricular mass and microalbuminuria, coprimary outcomes) at 1 year and on CV events at 4 years and on changes in BP-related variables will be assessed. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: MASTER study protocol has received approval by the ethical review board of Istituto Auxologico Italiano. The procedures set out in this protocol are in accordance with principles of Declaration of Helsinki and Good Clinical Practice guidelines. Results will be published in accordance with the CONSORT statement in a peer-reviewed scientific journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02804074; Pre-results.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Hipertensão Mascarada/tratamento farmacológico , Albuminúria/diagnóstico , Ecocardiografia , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
15.
Biom J ; 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30290002

RESUMO

The availability of novel biomarkers in several branches of medicine opens room for refining prognosis by adding factors on top of those having an established role. It is accepted that the impact of novel factors should not rely solely on regression coefficients and their significance but also on predictive power measures, such as Brier score and ROC-based quantities. However, novel factors that are promising at the exploratory stage often result in disappointingly low impact in the predictive power. This motivated the proposal of the net reclassification improvement and the integrated discrimination improvement, as direct measures of predictive power gain due to additional factors based on the concept of reclassification tables. These measures became extremely popular in cardiovascular disease and cancer applications, given the apparently easy interpretation. However, recent contributions in the biostatistical literature enlightened the tendency to indicate as advantageous models obtained by adding unrelated factors. These measures should not be used in practice. A further measure proposed a decade ago, the net benefit, is becoming a standard in assessing the consequences in terms of costs and benefits when using a risk predictor in practice for classification. This work reviews the conceptual formulations and interpretations of the available graphical methods and summary measures for evaluating risk predictor models. The aim is to provide guidance in the evaluation process that from the model development brings the risk predictor to be used in clinical practice for binary decision rules.

16.
Haematologica ; 2018 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30262563

RESUMO

B-cell precursor-Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia modulates the bone marrow niche to become leukemia-supporting and chemoprotective by reprogramming the stromal microenvironment. New therapies targeting the leukemia/stroma interplay can be instrumental to improve disease outcome. We identified ActivinA, a TGF-ß family member, with a well-described promoting role in several solid malignancies, as a new potentially targetable leukemia-favoring factor. ActivinA resulted overexpressed in the leukemic bone marrow and its production was strongly induced in mesenchymal stromal cells after culture with leukemic cells. Moreover, mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from bone marrow of leukemic patients showed an intrinsic ability to secrete higher amounts of ActivinA compared to their normal counterpart. The pro-inflammatory leukemic bone marrow microenvironment synergized with leukemic cells to induce stromal-derived ActivinA. Gene expression analysis of ActivinA-treated leukemic cells showed that this protein was able to significantly influence motility-associated pathways. Interestingly, ActivinA promoted random motility and CXCL12-driven migration of leukemic cells, even at suboptimal chemokine concentrations, characterizing the leukemic niche. Conversely, ActivinA severely impaired CXCL12-induced migration of healthy CD34+ cells. This opposite effect can be explained by ActivinA ability to increase intracellular calcium only in leukemic cells, boosting cytoskeleton dynamics through higher rate of actin polymerization. Moreover, by stimulating leukemic cell invasiveness, ActivinA resulted a leukemia-promoting factor. Importantly, the ability of ActivinA to enhance the bone marrow engraftment and metastatic potential of leukemic cells was confirmed in a xenograft mouse model of the disease. Overall, ActivinA resulted a key factor conferring a migratory advantage to leukemic cells over healthy hematopoiesis within the leukemic niche.

18.
Blood Press ; 27(6): 368-375, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30129785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the BEAUTY study we investigated whether utilizing non-invasive monitoring of hemodynamic parameters combined with a drug selection algorithm (integrated hemodynamic management-IHM) compared to conventional drug selection may improve home BP in patients with uncontrolled hypertension. METHODS: Uncontrolled (office systolic blood pressure (SBP) > 140 mmHg and ambulatory daytime SBP >135 mmHg while taking ≥2 antihypertensive drugs) essential hypertensive patients were referred to 5 European Hypertension Excellence Centers and, if eligible, were randomized into IHM-guided vs conventional treatment adjustment. Home blood pressure (BP) was taken with 2 repeated readings at 1-2 min intervals in the morning and in the evening (before drug intake and eating) during the week preceding the visit at the outpatient clinic after 5 min rest using a validated semi-automatic oscillometric arm cuff device and with a correct cuff bladder placement. Home blood pressure was measured in a sub-group of patients (n = 84) not significantly different from the other patients. RESULTS: Home SBP changed from 152.1+/-15.8 and 149.8+/-11.8 mmHg to 131.0 +/-11.1 and 139.6+/-12.8 mmHg in IHM group (n = 46) and Control group (n = 38), respectively, showing significantly greater reduction in IHM than in Control group (d= -10.9 mmHg, 95% CI -17.77, -4.02), p = 0.002. The reduction remained significant after multiple adjustments, particularly for baseline home SBP, recruiting center, age, sex and BMI (SBPIHM-Control= -9,63 mmHg, 95% CI -14.28, -5.11) mmHg, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Drug selection algorithm based on non-invasive hemodynamic monitoring induced larger reduction in home BP compared to conventional drug selection in uncontrolled hypertensive patients referred to European Hypertension Excellence Centers. Although the main BEAUTY study was negative, these home BP measurements taken by patients themselves may suggest that the integrated hemodynamic monitoring is useful in patients with uncontrolled hypertension. This finding might depend on specific features of home BP measurements which could make it recommended BP measurement method for drug trials.

19.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-6, 2018 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29986620

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Premature birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Since gestational age at birth is the most important predictive factor of adverse neonatal outcomes, strategies to postpone premature labor are of major importance. Studies on tocolytic drugs show that COX inhibitors such as indomethacin are superior to others in terms of efficiency in delaying birth, but results concerning neonatal outcomes associated with prenatal exposure to these drugs show controversial results. Indomethacin is also used in the postnatal age for pharmacologic treatment of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), but no data concerning the effects of antenatal exposure on postnatal ductal patency are available. METHODS: In this study, we focused primarily on the association between antenatal indomethacin (AI) and postnatal patency of ductus arteriosus while our secondary aim was to highlight any possible influence of AI exposure on adverse neonatal outcomes. We performed a retrospective analysis of 241 medical records of newborns born before 33 weeks' gestation and exposed to antenatal tocolysis. Obstetrical data and neonatal outcomes of newborns exposed to AI were compared to those of neonates exposed to other tocolytic drugs. Early ductal closure (EDC) was defined when functional echocardiography performed within 24 hours of life showed a closed duct. Occurrence of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), chronic lung disease (CLD), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), sepsis, and PDA were compared between the groups and the diagnosis of at least one of III-IV grade IVH, PVL, CLD, sepsis, surgical NEC, or death was defined as a severe outcome. RESULTS: The univariate analysis showed that infants in the AI group were at a higher risk of IVH, CLD, RDS, sepsis, and PDA. The incidence of severe outcomes also appeared to be higher in this group, while no effect of AI on PDA was observed. Since we noticed that infants exposed to AI had a lower gestational age and worse clinical conditions at birth when compared to the controls, we considered this as a confounding factor. To overcome this bias, we performed a multivariate analysis that evidenced no significant role of AI on the occurrence of severe outcomes. On the other hand, a possible association was confirmed for all degrees of IVH (OR: 3.16, 95% CI : [1.41; 7.05]) and sepsis (OR: 2.81, 95% CI: [1.24; 6,28]). CONCLUSIONS: The unexpected result shown by the multivariate analysis was the association between AI exposure and EDC (OR: 2.52, 95% CI: [1.02; 6.21]). This result, which has never been evidenced in previous studies, has great clinical importance. It is well known that PDA is more frequent at lower gestational ages, thus reducing the incidence of PDA could lead to an improvement of overall outcomes in extremely preterm newborns.

20.
Am J Hypertens ; 31(10): 1147-1155, 2018 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29982339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children's excess weight is a common problem due to low-quality diet and poor physical activity and is a risk factor associated with hypertension. Aim of this study was to assess the effect of a nonpharmacological multidisciplinary intervention on blood pressure (BP) and body weight in a population of children with excess weight and/or elevated BP. METHODS: Children consecutively referred to a Prevention of Cardiovascular Risk Clinic by the primary care pediatrician from 2009 to 2015 were assessed at baseline and followed up over time. RESULTS: Out of 273 children (median age 11.4 years, 55% male), 61% were excess weight only, 7% had elevated BP only, and 32% showed both conditions. The probability of reaching the clinical target (normal weight and BP values) at 1 year of follow-up was 19% (confidence interval [CI]: 14%; 24%) and increased up to 38% (CI: 28%; 47%) at 3 years. At 1 year of follow-up, in the overall population both body mass index (BMI) and systolic BP z-scores decreased significantly from 1.77 to 1.47 and from 0.99 to 0.52, respectively (P < 0.0001). BP was significantly reduced in both children with elevated BP only (reduction = 0.91, P = 0.0157) and subjects with excess weight and elevated BP (reduction = 0.89, P < 0.0001). Variables significantly related with systolic BP z-score at 1 year of follow-up were baseline systolic BP z-score and BMI z-score reduction during follow-up (P < 0.001 and P = 0.0003, respectively). CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate the efficacy of lifestyles modification on weight and BP in children, both when elevated BP and excess weight were present as distinct clinical problems and in the case of their association.

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