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1.
Zoo Biol ; 38(6): 498-507, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517405

RESUMO

The use of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology is common in animal-monitoring applications in the wild and in zoological and agricultural settings. RFID is used to track animals and to collect information about movements and other behaviors, as well as to automate or improve husbandry. Disney's Animal Kingdom® uses passive RFID technology to monitor nest usage by a breeding colony of northern carmine bee-eaters. We implemented RFID technologies in various equipment configurations, initially deploying low-frequency (LF) 125 kHz RFID and later changing to high-frequency (HF) 13.56 MHz RFID technology, to monitor breeding behavior in the flock. We installed antennas connected to RFID readers at the entrances of nest tunnels to detect RFID transponders attached to leg bands as birds entered and exited tunnels. Both LF-RFID and HF-RFID systems allowed the characterization of nest visitation, including the timing of nest activity, breeding pair formation, identification of egg-laying females, participation by nonresidents, and detection of nest disruptions. However, we collected a substantially larger volume of data using the increased bandwidth and polling speed inherent with HF-RFID, which permitted tag capture of multiple birds simultaneously and resulted in fewer missed nest visits in comparison to LF-RFID. Herein, we describe the evolution of the RFID setups used to monitor nest usage for more than 7 years, the types of data that can be gained using RFID at nests, and how we used these data to gain insights into carmine bee-eater breeding behavior and improve husbandry.


Assuntos
Aves/fisiologia , Monitorização Fisiológica/veterinária , Comportamento de Nidação/fisiologia , Dispositivo de Identificação por Radiofrequência , Telemetria , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos
2.
Zoo Biol ; 35(5): 409-414, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27526328

RESUMO

There is evidence that plumage coloration is related to mate choice in several different bird species. However, the relationship between plumage coloration to mate or other social partner choice has rarely been investigated in flamingos. This is important to study because we know plumage coloration can be an indicator of welfare. We assessed plumage color score in relation to sex, age, and social partner choice over a 9-month period in a flock of 34 adult greater flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus) living at Disney's Animal Kingdom® . When looking at primary social partners, redder males were more likely to have primary social partners compared to less red males. In addition, primary social partners tended to have similar color scores to each other. These findings provide insight into one factor that might influence social partner choice in greater flamingos living in ex situ situations. Future studies should investigate how these results relate to reproductive success as part of ex situ management. Zoo Biol. 35:409-414, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico , Aves/anatomia & histologia , Aves/fisiologia , Plumas/anatomia & histologia , Preferência de Acasalamento Animal/fisiologia , Pigmentação/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino
3.
Zoo Biol ; 34(3): 211-6, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25728345

RESUMO

Taveta golden weavers are popular in zoos, but little has been published on their reproduction, social behavior, or other aspects of their management. At Disney's Animal Kingdom® , we have had great success with our breeding program and house a large flock in our mixed-species walk-through Africa aviary and smaller groups in the off-exhibit Avian Research Center. We conducted observations on both groups in order to document behavioral differences between the groups living under differing management conditions. Data on which individuals were inside, on or near focal nests were collected using a 30-s scan samples. Scan data were analyzed using a two-factor ANOVA, with aviary location and nest contents as the factors. We found that, in both aviary locations, females spent more time inside and on the nests than males did. As expected, females spent more time inside the nests containing eggs and more time on the nests containing chicks, likely due to incubation and chick-feeding demands, respectively. Interestingly, we found that females spent significantly more time inside their nests and males spent more time near their nests in the Africa aviary than in ARC. Despite Africa aviary's higher nest attendance, a higher proportion of nests fledged chicks in ARC (72% vs. 41%). These data are consistent with findings in wild sociable weavers [Spottiswoode, 2007. Oecologia 154: 589-600]. Future work with zoo-housed populations of weavers could help shed light on this phenomenon, which is not yet well understood. A better understanding of the consequences of different group sizes and housing conditions could have important implications for how Taveta weavers are managed.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico/psicologia , Aves/fisiologia , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Comportamento de Nidação/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica
4.
PLoS One ; 10(2): e0118487, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25714101

RESUMO

Prior research has shown that the use of apes, specifically chimpanzees, as performers in the media negatively impacts public attitudes of their conservation status and desirability as a pet, yet it is unclear whether these findings generalize to other non-human primates (specifically non-ape species). We evaluated the impact of viewing an image of a monkey or prosimian in an anthropomorphic or naturalistic setting, either in contact with or in the absence of a human. Viewing the primate in an anthropomorphic setting while in contact with a person significantly increased their desirability as a pet, which also correlated with increased likelihood of believing the animal was not endangered. The majority of viewers felt that the primates in all tested images were "nervous." When shown in contact with a human, viewers felt they were "sad" and "scared", while also being less "funny." Our findings highlight the potential broader implications of the use of non-human primate performers by the entertainment industry.


Assuntos
Percepção , Opinião Pública , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Primatas , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Zoo Biol ; 33(2): 150-4, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24390979

RESUMO

The reduction of aggressive behaviors can be a concern whenever animals are socially housed, but for some species, such as marabou storks, zoos are still unsure of the best management strategies. To learn more about marabou behavior and how dynamics change as group composition changes, we monitored a total of 3.5 marabous as individuals were added and removed over 2 years. We found that, in mixed-sex groups, males were more likely to be the initiators of displacements and females were more likely to be the recipients. Most contact aggression was intra-sexual, and females engaged in contact aggression more often than males. The highest levels of aggression were seen in our all-female groups, which was unexpected given the high number of male attacks on females reported in zoos. Because females were being added and removed but our males remained the same throughout the study, we are unsure whether this was due to a higher level of instability among females or a true sex difference; regardless, these data highlight the need to monitor aggression even within all female stork groups. Overall, we observed low levels of inter-sexual aggression, suggesting that some fatal attacks may be due, in part, to non-social factors, such as enclosure design. Social birds like marabous may benefit from the same type of group management approach that is commonly utilized with other social taxa. A two-pronged approach of observation and management of marabou social dynamics and some modification of their enclosure structure may limit injurious aggression in the future.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Aves/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Agressão/fisiologia , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Feminino , Masculino , Dinâmica Populacional
6.
Zoo Biol ; 32(6): 648-51, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24105900

RESUMO

Marabou storks are one of the most commonly held birds in zoos, but the captive population faces challenges related to high mortality. One of the most common causes of death among captive marabou storks is conspecific aggression. There is a pressing need to better understand how to manage this aggression. One method that has been used successfully to reduce aggression in other species is the addition of visual barriers to the enclosure, though there are no published studies on their effect on storks. We studied the behavioral changes in a group of 2.2 marabou storks following the addition of two shade cloth barriers to their enclosure; we documented all occurrences of aggressive behavior, as well as time spent proximate to the barriers (or the space between barrier posts, when the shade cloth was removed) and time spent using the barriers to block the view of other storks. The presence of the shade cloth did not change the amount of time storks spent proximate to the barriers, nor did they spend more than 2% of their time using the barriers to block other storks, but the presence of the barriers significantly reduced displacement activity. Barriers may afford captive marabou storks an important means of escaping conflict, as flight-restriction and housing in an enclosure can limit their opportunities to give a signal of retreat or submission.


Assuntos
Agressão/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Aves , Abrigo para Animais , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Feminino , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Zoo Biol ; 32(2): 216-21, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22972609

RESUMO

Mixed-species exhibits offer a variety of benefits but can be challenging to maintain due to difficulty in managing interspecific interactions. This is particularly true when little has been documented on the behavior of the species being mixed. This was the case when we attempted to house three species of turaco (family: Musophagidae) together with other species in a walk-through aviary. To learn more about the behavior of great blue turacos, violaceous turacos, and white-bellied gray go-away birds, we supplemented opportunistic keeper observations with systematic data collection on their behavior, location, distance from other birds, and visibility to visitors. Keepers reported high levels of aggression among turacos, usually initiated by a go-away bird or a violaceous turaco. Most aggression occurred during feedings or when pairs were defending nest sites. Attempts to reduce aggression by temporarily removing birds to holding areas and reintroducing them days later were ineffective. Systematic data collection revealed increased social behavior, including aggression, during breeding season in the violaceous turacos, as well as greater location fidelity. These behavioral cues may be useful in predicting breeding behavior in the future. Ultimately, we were only able to house three species of turaco together for a short time, and prohibitively high levels of conflict occurred when pairs were breeding. We conclude that mixing these three turaco species is challenging and may not be the most appropriate housing situation for them, particularly during breeding season. However, changes in turaco species composition, sex composition, or exhibit design may result in more compatible mixed-turaco species groups.


Assuntos
Agressão , Comportamento Animal , Aves/classificação , Aves/fisiologia , Abrigo para Animais , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Especificidade da Espécie , Fatores de Tempo
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