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1.
Sci Adv ; 5(12): eaax7537, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840067

RESUMO

The efficiencies of small-pixel perovskite photovoltaics have increased to above 24%, while most reported fabrication methods cannot be transferred to scalable manufacturing process. Here, we report a method of fast blading large-area perovskite films at an unprecedented speed of 99 mm/s under ambient conditions by tailoring solvent coordination capability. Combing volatile noncoordinating solvents to Pb2+ and low-volatile, coordinating solvents achieves both fast drying and large perovskite grains at room temperature. The reproducible fabrication yields a certified module efficiency of 16.4%, with an aperture area of 63.7 cm2. This method can be applied for various perovskite compositions. The perovskite modules also show a small temperature coefficient of -0.13%/°C and nearly fully recoverable efficiency after 58 cycles of shading, much better than commercial silicon and thin-film solar modules.

2.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 122(5): 1292-1303, 2017 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27979986

RESUMO

The brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) test is the most widely utilized method to evaluate endothelial function noninvasively in humans by calculating the percent change in diameter (FMD%). However, the underutilized velocity and diameter time course data, coupled with confounding influences in shear exposure, noise, and upward bias, make the FMD test less desirable. In this study, we developed an exposure-response, model-based approach that not only quantifies FMD based on the rich velocity and diameter data, it overcomes previously acknowledged challenges. FMD data were obtained from 15 apparently healthy participants, each exposed to four different cuff occlusion durations. The velocity response following cuff release was described by an exponential model with two parameters defining peak velocity and rate of decay. Shear exposure derived from velocity was used to drive the diameter response model, which consists of additive constriction and dilation terms. Three parameters describing distinct aspects of the vascular response to shear (magnitude of the initial constriction response, and magnitude and time constant of the dilation response) were estimated for both the individuals and population. These parameters are independent of shear exposure. Thus this approach produces identifiable and physiologically meaningful parameters that may provide additional information for comparing differences between experimental groups or over time, and provides a means to completely account for shear exposure.NEW & NOTEWORTHY While flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is a valuable tool for evaluating endothelial function, analytical challenges include confounding influences of shear exposure, upward bias, and underutilization of rich time course data collected during FMD testing. We have developed an exposure-response, model-based approach that quantifies endothelial function based on the velocity and diameter data and fully accounts for shear exposure. It produces physiologically meaningful parameters that may provide useful information for comparing differences between experimental groups or over time.


Assuntos
Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/fisiologia , Vasodilatação/fisiologia , Adulto , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Artéria Braquial/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estresse Mecânico , Adulto Jovem
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