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1.
Brain ; 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35020823

RESUMO

Several genetically-targeted therapies are being developed for ALS. Research is increasingly supportive of a greater incidence of clinically actionable variants in sporadic ALS than previously reported. Salmon et al. outline the need to improve access, and offer genetic testing to all people diagnosed with ALS.

2.
Eur J Neurol ; 29(1): 345-349, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although hereditary ataxias are a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders, specific clinical clues can sometimes incriminate certain genes. This can trigger genetic testing in sporadic patients or prompt dissecting certain genes more thoroughly when initial genetic testing is negative. Also for the assembly of gene panels and interpretation of the results, genotype-phenotype correlations remain important to establish. METHODS: We clinically evaluated a Belgian family with autosomal dominant inherited sensory ataxia and variable pyramidal involvement and performed targeted clinical exome sequencing. Secondly, we retrospectively screened sequencing data of an in-house cohort of 404 patients with neuromuscular disorders for variants in the identified gene RNF170. RESULTS: All affected family members showed sensory ataxia on examination. Pyramidal involvement, and sometimes slow-pursuit abnormalities and/or a sensory neuropathy, were more variable findings. We identified the heterozygous variant p.Arg199Cys in RNF170 in all three affected siblings of our family. We did not find additional pathogenic variants in RNF170 in our in-house neuromuscular cohort. CONCLUSIONS: We confirm the heterozygous variant p.Arg199Cys in RNF170 in a Belgian family with autosomal dominant sensory ataxia and variable pyramidal involvement. This constitutes a rare but clinically recognizable phenotype that warrants testing of RNF170. Unlike the distinctive bi-allelic loss of function variants in RNF170 associated with hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), the p.Arg199Cys variant is the only one reported in sensory ataxia. It is important for neurologists to be aware of this characteristic phenotype and to include this gene in gene panels for ataxia and HSP.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948429

RESUMO

Dysfunctions in the endo-lysosomal system have been hypothesized to underlie neurodegeneration in major neurocognitive disorders due to Alzheimer's disease (AD), Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD), and Lewy body disease (DLB). The aim of this study is to investigate whether these diseases share genetic variability in the endo-lysosomal pathway. In AD, DLB, and FTLD patients and in controls (948 subjects), we performed a targeted sequencing of the top 50 genes belonging to the endo-lysosomal pathway. Genetic analyses revealed (i) four previously reported disease-associated variants in the SORL1 (p.N1246K, p.N371T, p.D2065V) and DNAJC6 genes (p.M133L) in AD, FTLD, and DLB, extending the previous knowledge attesting SORL1 and DNAJC6 as AD- and PD-related genes, respectively; (ii) three predicted null variants in AD patients in the SORL1 (p.R985X in early onset familial AD, p.R1207X) and PPT1 (p.R48X in early onset familial AD) genes, where loss of function is a known disease mechanism. A single variant and gene burden analysis revealed some nominally significant results of potential interest for SORL1 and DNAJC6 genes. Our data highlight that genes controlling key endo-lysosomal processes (i.e., protein sorting/transport, clathrin-coated vesicle uncoating, lysosomal enzymatic activity regulation) might be involved in AD, FTLD and DLB pathogenesis, thus suggesting an etiological link behind these diseases.

5.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 287: 35-39, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795075

RESUMO

The FAIR Principles are supported by various initiatives in the biomedical community. However, little is known about the knowledge and efforts of individual clinical researchers regarding data FAIRification. We distributed an online questionnaire to researchers from six Dutch University Medical Centers, as well as researchers using an Electronic Data Capture platform, to gain insight into their understanding of and experience with data FAIRification. 164 researchers completed the questionnaire. 64.0% of them had heard of the FAIR Principles. 62.8% of the researchers spent some or a lot of effort to achieve any aspect of FAIR and 11.0% addressed all aspects. Most researchers were unaware of the Principles' emphasis on both human- and machine-readability, as their FAIRification efforts were primarily focused on achieving human-readability (93.9%), rather than machine-readability (31.2%). In order to make machine-readable, FAIR data a reality, researchers require proper training, support, and tools to help them understand the importance of data FAIRification and guide them through the FAIRification process.

6.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 16(1): 433, 2021 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) is a rare, orphan, hereditary neuromuscular disorder with no cure and for which only symptomatic treatment is currently available. A previous phase 2 trial has shown preliminary evidence of efficacy for PXT3003 in treating CMT1A. This phase 3, international, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study further investigated the efficacy and safety of high- or low-dose PXT3003 (baclofen/naltrexone/D-sorbitol [mg]: 6/0.70/210 or 3/0.35/105) in treating subjects with mild to moderate CMT1A. METHODS: In this study, 323 subjects with mild-to-moderate CMT1A were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive 5 mL of high- or low-dose PXT3003, or placebo, orally twice daily for up to 15 months. Efficacy was assessed using the change in Overall Neuropathy Limitations Scale total score from baseline to months 12 and 15 (primary endpoint). Secondary endpoints included the 10-m walk test and other assessments. The high-dose group was discontinued early due to unexpected crystal formation in the high-dose formulation, which resulted in an unanticipated high discontinuation rate, overall and especially in the high-dose group. The statistical analysis plan was adapted to account for the large amount of missing data before database lock, and a modified full analysis set was used in the main analyses. Two sensitivity analyses were performed to check the interpretation based on the use of the modified full analysis set. RESULTS: High-dose PXT3003 demonstrated significant improvement in the Overall Neuropathy Limitations Scale total score vs placebo (mean difference: - 0.37 points; 97.5% CI [- 0.68 to - 0.06]; p = 0.008), and consistent treatment effects were shown in the sensitivity analyses. Both PXT3003 doses were safe and well-tolerated. CONCLUSION: The high-dose group demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in the primary endpoint and a good safety profile. Overall, high-dose PXT3003 is a promising treatment option for patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A.


Assuntos
Doença de Charcot-Marie-Tooth , Baclofeno , Doença de Charcot-Marie-Tooth/tratamento farmacológico , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Naltrexona , Sorbitol
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(20)2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34681883

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an incurable and fatal neurodegenerative disorder of the motor system. While the etiology is still incompletely understood, defects in metabolism act as a major contributor to the disease progression. Recently, histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition using ACY-738 has been shown to restore metabolic alterations in the spinal cord of a FUS mouse model of ALS, which was accompanied by a beneficial effect on the motor phenotype and survival. In this study, we investigated the specific effects of HDAC inhibition on lipid metabolism using untargeted lipidomic analysis combined with transcriptomic analysis in the spinal cord of FUS mice. We discovered that symptomatic FUS mice recapitulate lipid alterations found in ALS patients and in the SOD1 mouse model. Glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and cholesterol esters were most affected. Strikingly, HDAC inhibition mitigated lipid homeostasis defects by selectively targeting glycerophospholipid metabolism and reducing cholesteryl esters accumulation. Therefore, our data suggest that HDAC inhibition is a potential new therapeutic strategy to modulate lipid metabolism defects in ALS and potentially other neurodegenerative diseases.

8.
Brain Commun ; 3(4): fcab236, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708205

RESUMO

Evidence indicates that common variants found in genome-wide association studies increase risk of disease through gene regulation via expression Quantitative Trait Loci. Using multiple genome-wide methods, we examined if Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms increase risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis through expression Quantitative Trait Loci, and whether expression Quantitative Trait Loci expression is consistent across people who had Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and those who did not. In combining public expression Quantitative Trait Loci data with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis genome-wide association studies, we used Summary-data-based Mendelian Randomization to confirm that SCFD1 was the only gene that was genome-wide significant in mediating Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis risk via expression Quantitative Trait Loci (Summary-data-based Mendelian Randomization beta = 0.20, standard error = 0.04, P-value = 4.29 × 10-6). Using post-mortem motor cortex, we tested whether expression Quantitative Trait Loci showed significant differences in expression between Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (n = 76) and controls (n = 25), genome-wide. Of 20 757 genes analysed, the two most significant expression Quantitative Trait Loci to show differential in expression between Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and controls involve two known Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis genes (SCFD1 and VCP). Cis-acting SCFD1 expression Quantitative Trait Loci downstream of the gene showed significant differences in expression between Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and controls (top expression Quantitative Trait Loci beta = 0.34, standard error = 0.063, P-value = 4.54 × 10-7). These SCFD1 expression Quantitative Trait Loci also significantly modified Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis survival (number of samples = 4265, hazard ratio = 1.11, 95% confidence interval = 1.05-1.17, P-value = 2.06 × 10-4) and act as an Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis trans-expression Quantitative Trait Loci hotspot for a wider network of genes enriched for SCFD1 function and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis pathways. Using gene-set analyses, we found the genes that correlate with this trans-expression Quantitative Trait Loci hotspot significantly increase risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (beta = 0.247, standard deviation = 0.017, P = 0.001) and schizophrenia (beta = 0.263, standard deviation = 0.008, P-value = 1.18 × 10-5), a disease that genetically correlates with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. In summary, SCFD1 expression Quantitative Trait Loci are a major factor in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, not only influencing disease risk but are differentially expressed in post-mortem Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. SCFD1 expression Quantitative Trait Loci show distinct expression profiles in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis that correlate with a wider network of genes that also confer risk of the disease and modify the disease's duration.

9.
J Vis Exp ; (175)2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570099

RESUMO

Neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) are specialized synapses between the axon of the lower motor neuron and the muscle facilitating the engagement of muscle contraction. In motor neuron disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), NMJs degenerate, resulting in muscle atrophy and progressive paralysis. The underlying mechanism of NMJ degeneration is unknown, largely due to the lack of translatable research models. This study aimed to create a versatile and reproducible in vitro model of a human motor unit with functional NMJs. Therefore, human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived motor neurons and human primary mesoangioblast (MAB)-derived myotubes were co-cultured in commercially available microfluidic devices. The use of fluidically isolated micro-compartments allows for the maintenance of cell-specific microenvironments while permitting cell-to-cell contact through microgrooves. By applying a chemotactic and volumetric gradient, the growth of motor neuron-neurites through the microgrooves promoting myotube interaction and the formation of NMJs were stimulated. These NMJs were identified immunocytochemically through co-localization of motor neuron presynaptic marker synaptophysin (SYP) and postsynaptic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) marker α-bungarotoxin (Btx) on myotubes and characterized morphologically using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The functionality of the NMJs was confirmed by measuring calcium responses in myotubes upon depolarization of the motor neurons. The motor unit generated using standard microfluidic devices and stem cell technology can aid future research focusing on NMJs in health and disease.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Humanos , Neurônios Motores , Músculo Esquelético , Junção Neuromuscular
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590504

RESUMO

Background: An ongoing longitudinal study in six European sites includes a 3-monthly assessment of forced vital capacity (FVC), slow vital capacity (SVC), peak cough flow (PCF), and Sniff nasal inspiratory pressure (SNIP). The aim of this interim analysis was to assess the potential for SNIP to be a surrogate for aerosol generating procedures given COVID-19 related restrictions. Methods: This was a prospective observational study. Patients attending six study sites with King's Stage 2 or 3 ALS completed baseline FVC/SVC/SNIP/PCF and repeated assessments 3 monthly. Data were collected from March 2018 to March 2020, after which a COVID-19 related study suspension was imposed. Correlations between the measures were calculated. A Bayesian multiple outcomes random-effects model was constructed to investigate rates of decline across measures. Results: In total, 270 cases and 828 assessments were included (Mean age 65.2 ± 15.4 years; 32.6% Female; 60% Kings stage 2; 81.1% spinal onset). FVC and SVC were the most closely correlated outcomes (0.95). SNIP showed the least correlation with other metrics 0.53 (FVC), 0.54 (SVC), 0.60 (PCF). All four measures significantly declined over time. SNIP in the bulbar onset group showed the fastest rate of decline. Discussion: SNIP was not well correlated with FVC and SVC, probably because it examines a different aspect of respiratory function. Respiratory measures declined over time, but differentially according to the site of onset. SNIP is not a surrogate for FVC and SVC, but is a complementary measure, declining linearly and differentiating spinal and bulbar onset patients.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , COVID-19 , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Capacidade Vital
12.
Front Mol Neurosci ; 14: 713031, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366786

RESUMO

Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a neurodegenerative disease, leading to behavioral changes and language difficulties. Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in progranulin (GRN) induce haploinsufficiency of the protein and are associated with up to one-third of all genetic FTD cases worldwide. While the loss of GRN is primarily associated with neurodegeneration, the biological functions of the secreted growth factor-like protein are more diverse, ranging from wound healing, inflammation, vasculogenesis, and metabolic regulation to tumor cell growth and metastasis. To date, no disease-modifying treatments exist for FTD, but different therapeutic approaches to boost GRN levels in the central nervous system are currently being developed (including AAV-mediated GRN gene delivery as well as anti-SORT1 antibody therapy). In this review, we provide an overview of the multifaceted regulation of GRN levels and the corresponding therapeutic avenues. We discuss the opportunities, advantages, and potential drawbacks of the diverse approaches. Additionally, we highlight the therapeutic potential of elevating GRN levels beyond patients with loss-of-function mutations in GRN.

13.
Neurology ; 97(11): 528-536, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315786

RESUMO

Development of effective treatments for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been hampered by disease heterogeneity, a limited understanding of underlying pathophysiology, and methodologic design challenges. We have evaluated 2 major themes in the design of pivotal, phase 3 clinical trials for ALS-(1) patient selection and (2) analytical strategy-and discussed potential solutions with the European Medicines Agency. Several design considerations were assessed using data from 5 placebo-controlled clinical trials (n = 988), 4 population-based cohorts (n = 5,100), and 2,436 placebo-allocated patients from the Pooled Resource Open-Access ALS Clinical Trials (PRO-ACT) database. The validity of each proposed design modification was confirmed by means of simulation and illustrated for a hypothetical setting. Compared to classical trial design, the proposed design modifications reduce the sample size by 30.5% and placebo exposure time by 35.4%. By making use of prognostic survival models, one creates a potential to include a larger proportion of the population and maximize generalizability. We propose a flexible design framework that naturally adapts the trial duration when inaccurate assumptions are made at the design stage, such as enrollment or survival rate. In case of futility, the follow-up time is shortened and patient exposure to ineffective treatments or placebo is minimized. For diseases such as ALS, optimizing the use of resources, widening eligibility criteria, and minimizing exposure to futile treatments and placebo is critical to the development of effective treatments. Our proposed design modifications could circumvent important pitfalls and may serve as a blueprint for future clinical trials in this population.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/terapia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Seleção de Pacientes , Fatores de Risco
15.
J Nucl Med ; 62(9): 1318-1319, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016728

RESUMO

We describe a unique case of a patient presenting with unilateral mild paresis, slowing of the upper limb, and parkinsonism, who underwent a full imaging work-up including MRI, 123I-FP-CIT PET, 18F-FE-PE2I PET, and 18F-FDG PET. This case demonstrates that imaging may aid substantially in the diagnostic work-up of complex neurologic disorders.

16.
Brain Commun ; 3(1): fcab018, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33796853

RESUMO

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy is a neuroinflammatory disorder with considerable variation in clinical phenotype, disease progression and therapy response among patients. Recently, paranodal antibodies associated with poor response to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and more aggressive disease course have been described in small subsets of patients, but reliable serum-based prognostic biomarkers are not yet available for the general population. In current retrospective longitudinal study, we utilized logistic regression models to investigate the associations of serum neurofilament light chain levels with 1-year disease progression and therapy response during follow-up in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. One-year disease progression was defined as a decrease of four or more points (the minimal clinically important difference) on an 80-point Medical Research Council sum-score scale 1 year after sampling. Patients who, compared to treatment received at time of sampling, required therapy switch during follow-up due to insufficient effect were classified as non-responders. Serum neurofilament light chain was measured by electrochemiluminescence assay in clinical residual serum samples of 76 patients diagnosed with probable (13 patients) or definite (63 patients) chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy according to European Federation of Neurological Societies/Peripheral Nerve Society diagnostic criteria. Eleven (15%) patients were female, and the mean (standard deviation) cohort age was 61.5 (11.7) years. In both univariate and multivariable (including demographics) models, elevated serum neurofilament light chain harboured increased odds for 1-year disease progression (respectively odds ratio, 1.049; 95% confidence interval, 1.022-1.084 and odds ratio, 1.097; 95% confidence interval, 1.045-1.169; both P = 0.001). Patients with levels above the median cohort neurofilament light chain level (28.3 pg/ml) had largely increased odds of 1-year disease progression (univariate: odds ratio, 5.597; 95% confidence interval, 1.590-26.457; P = 0.01; multivariable: odds ratio, 6.572; 95% confidence interval, 1.495-39.702; P = 0.02) and of insufficient treatment response (univariate: odds ratio, 4.800; 95% confidence interval, 1.622-16.442; P = 0.007; multivariable: odds ratio, 6.441; 95% confidence interval, 1.749-29.357; P = 0.009). In a combined approach analysis, patients with levels above median cohort serum neurofilament light chain level reported strongly increased odds of demonstrating 1-year disease progression and/or therapy non-response during follow-up (univariate: odds ratio, 6.337; 95% confidence interval, 2.276-19.469; P < 0.001; multivariable: odds ratio, 10.138; 95% confidence interval, 2.801-46.404; P = 0.001). These results show that in various logistic regression models, serum neurofilament light chain was associated with both 1-year disease progression and therapy response during follow-up in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Hence, our findings warrant further prospective research regarding the value of neurofilament light chain as potential prognostic biomarker in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

17.
Semin Arthritis Rheum ; 51(2): 486-494, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831755

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Myositis-specific autoantibodies (MSAs) are thought to be mutually exclusive in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) based on studies with immunoprecipitation-based (IP) detection methods. Recently, detection of multiple MSAs in unique patients is increasingly reported, but the extent of this phenomenon remains unclear. METHODS: At our centre, we reviewed results from two line immunoassays and one dot immunoassay in 145 IIM patients and 240 controls for the presence of multiple MSAs. Pubmed and Embase were systematically searched for articles mentioning detection of multiple MSAs in IIM patients, published until February 2019. We assessed the frequency, detection method, the precise combinations and clinical phenotypes of participants with multiple MSAs. RESULTS: At our centre, detection of multiple MSAs occurred in 3.4-8.3% of patients with IIM, depending on the assay. However, no cases with full concordance across all three assays were identified. Forty-four articles reported detection of multiple MSAs, representing a total of 133 cases, including four patients with a connective tissue disease other than IIM and two healthy controls. In 101 cases all MSAs were detected using only one detection method: 40 cases with IP-based methods (most frequently used technique) and 61 cases with other assay types. In most cases the phenotype of patients with multiple MSAs matched the predicted presentation associated with one MSA and in few cases the phenotype matched with both MSAs. CONCLUSION: Detection of multiple MSAs in unique IIM patients is less rare than commonly accepted. Specificity issues of the commercially available multiplex immunoassays may, at least partly, explain the higher frequency compared to IP-based methods. 'True multiple MSA-positive' patients may exist, though they are most likely rare.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos , Miosite , Polimiosite , Humanos , Miosite/imunologia , Fenótipo , Polimiosite/imunologia
18.
Sci Adv ; 7(15)2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837088

RESUMO

A hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9orf72 gene is the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). How this mutation leads to these neurodegenerative diseases remains unclear. Here, we show using patient stem cell-derived motor neurons that the repeat expansion impairs microtubule-based transport, a process critical for neuronal survival. Cargo transport defects are recapitulated by treating neurons from healthy individuals with proline-arginine and glycine-arginine dipeptide repeats (DPRs) produced from the repeat expansion. Both arginine-rich DPRs similarly inhibit axonal trafficking in adult Drosophila neurons in vivo. Physical interaction studies demonstrate that arginine-rich DPRs associate with motor complexes and the unstructured tubulin tails of microtubules. Single-molecule imaging reveals that microtubule-bound arginine-rich DPRs directly impede translocation of purified dynein and kinesin-1 motor complexes. Collectively, our study implicates inhibitory interactions of arginine-rich DPRs with axonal transport machinery in C9orf72-associated ALS/FTD and thereby points to potential therapeutic strategies.

19.
Nat Med ; 27(4): 640-646, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33859435

RESUMO

Apart from well-defined factors in neuronal cells1, only a few reports consider that the variability of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) progression can depend on less-defined contributions from glia2,3 and blood vessels4. In this study we use an expression-weighted cell-type enrichment method to infer cell activity in spinal cord samples from patients with sporadic ALS and mouse models of this disease. Here we report that patients with sporadic ALS present cell activity patterns consistent with two mouse models in which enrichments of vascular cell genes preceded microglial response. Notably, during the presymptomatic stage, perivascular fibroblast cells showed the strongest gene enrichments, and their marker proteins SPP1 and COL6A1 accumulated in enlarged perivascular spaces in patients with sporadic ALS. Moreover, in plasma of 574 patients with ALS from four independent cohorts, increased levels of SPP1 at disease diagnosis repeatedly predicted shorter survival with stronger effect than the established risk factors of bulbar onset or neurofilament levels in cerebrospinal fluid. We propose that the activity of the recently discovered perivascular fibroblast can predict survival of patients with ALS and provide a new conceptual framework to re-evaluate definitions of ALS etiology.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Vasos Sanguíneos/patologia , Fibroblastos/patologia , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/sangue , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/fisiopatologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Colágeno Tipo VI/genética , Colágeno Tipo VI/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Osteopontina/sangue , Prognóstico , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/patologia , Medula Espinal/ultraestrutura , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Transcrição Genética , Remodelação Vascular
20.
Biomolecules ; 11(4)2021 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917983

RESUMO

Aggregates of TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) are a hallmark of several neurodegenerative disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Although TDP-43 aggregates are an undisputed pathological species at the end stage of these diseases, the molecular changes underlying the initiation of aggregation are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate how phase separation affects self-aggregation and aggregation seeded by pre-formed aggregates of either the low-complexity domain (LCD) or its short aggregation-promoting regions (APRs). By systematically varying the physicochemical conditions, we observed that liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) promotes spontaneous aggregation. However, we noticed less efficient seeded aggregation in phase separating conditions. By analyzing a broad range of conditions using the Hofmeister series of buffers, we confirmed that stabilizing hydrophobic interactions prevail over destabilizing electrostatic forces. RNA affected the cooperativity between LLPS and aggregation in a "reentrant" fashion, having the strongest positive effect at intermediate concentrations. Altogether, we conclude that conditions which favor LLPS enhance the subsequent aggregation of the TDP-43 LCD with complex dependence, but also negatively affect seeding kinetics.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Extração Líquido-Líquido , Agregados Proteicos , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/química , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Recuperação de Fluorescência Após Fotodegradação , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Peptídeos/síntese química , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Domínios Proteicos , RNA/química , RNA/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Eletricidade Estática
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