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1.
Vaccine ; 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672332

RESUMO

During the last few decades, maternal immunization as a strategy to protect young infants from infectious diseases has been increasingly recommended, yet some issues have emerged. Studies have shown that for several vaccines, such as live attenuated, toxoid and conjugated vaccines, high maternal antibody titers inhibit the infant's humoral immune response after infant vaccination. However, it is not clear whether this decreased antibody titer has any clinical impact on the infant's protection, as the cellular immune responses are often equally important in providing disease protection and may therefore compensate for diminished antibody levels. Reports describing the effect of maternal antibodies on the cellular immune response after infant vaccination are scarce, probably because such studies are expensive, labor intensive and utilize poorly standardized laboratory techniques. Therefore, this review aims to shed light on what is currently known about the cellular immune responses after infant vaccination in the presence of high (maternal) antibody titers both in animal and human studies. Overall, the findings suggest that maternally derived antibodies do not interfere with the cellular immune responses after infant vaccination. However, more research in humans is clearly needed, as most data originate from animal studies.

2.
Vaccine ; 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623916

RESUMO

We investigated and compared current national vaccination policies for health-care personnel (HCP) in Europe with results from our previous survey. Data from 36 European countries were collected using the same methodology as in 2011. National policies for HCP immunization were in place in all countries. There were significant differences in terms of number of vaccinations, target HCP and healthcare settings, and implementation regulations (recommended or mandatory vaccinations). Vaccination policies against hepatitis B and seasonal influenza were present in 35 countries each. Policies for vaccination of HCP against measles, mumps, rubella and varicella existed in 28, 24, 25 and 19 countries, respectively; and against tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis and poliomyelitis in 21, 20, 19, and 18 countries, respectively. Recommendations for hepatitis A immunization existed in 17 countries, and against meningococcus B, meningococcus C, meningococcus A, C, W, Y, and tuberculosis in 10, 8, 17, and 7 countries, respectively. Mandatory vaccination policies were found in 13 countries and were a pre-requisite for employment in ten. Comparing the vaccination programs of the 30 European countries that participated in the 2011 survey, we found that more countries had national vaccination policies against measles, mumps, rubella, hepatitis A, diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, pertussis, meningococcus C and/or meningococcus A, C, W, Y; and more of these implemented mandatory vaccination policies for HCP. In conclusion, European countries now have more comprehensive national vaccination programs for HCP, however there are still gaps. Given the recent large outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases in Europe and the occupational risk for HCP, vaccination policies need to be expanded and strengthened in several European countries. Overall, vaccination policies for HCP in Europe should be periodically re-evaluated in order to provide optimal protection against vaccine-preventable diseases and infection control within healthcare facilities for HCP and patients.

3.
Vaccine ; 37(42): 6144-6153, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493949

RESUMO

Recombinant technology has revolutionised the way novel vaccines are developed and manufactured. The possibility to genetically modify micro-organisms to bring immunogenic material (antigens/epitopes) to the human (or animal) immune system to provoke an immune response, provides new hope to producing prophylactic vaccines against HIV, malaria and tuberculosis and emerging diseases. Regulatory requirements associated with the development of genetically-modified organism (GMO)-containing vaccines in Europe add an additional burden to the clinical trial application procedure and to the preparation and initiation of a clinical trial of such vaccines. Moreover, the GMO regulatory framework is complex and only partially harmonised across Europe, which may hamper multi-country clinical trials with GMO-containing vaccines. This paper provides an overview of clinical trial applications with GMO-containing vaccines in Europe and reviews the regulatory framework in countries where GMO-containing vaccine clinical trial authorisation (CTA) applications were submitted between 2004 and 2017.

5.
Future Microbiol ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482728

RESUMO

Although global polio eradication is within reach, sustained eradication of all polioviruses requires cessation of oral poliovirus vaccine use to mitigate against vaccine-derived poliovirus circulation and vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis. The first step in this direction was the WHO-recommended global withdrawal of live attenuated type 2 Sabin poliovirus from routine immunisation in May 2016, with future use restricted to outbreak response, and handling controlled by strict containment provisions (GAPIII). This creates unique challenges for development and testing of novel type 2 poliovirus vaccines. We describe the creation of a novel purpose-built containment facility, Poliopolis, to study new monovalent OPV2 vaccine candidates in healthy adult volunteers, which may be a model for future endeavors in vaccine development for emergency use.

6.
Int J Infect Dis ; 88: 110-112, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521851

RESUMO

Human papillomavirus virus-like particles (HPV VLPs) have distinctive immunogenic properties that generate a durable antibody response, producing high-quality neutralizing antibodies. By vaccination, i.e., intramuscular injection of these HPV VLPs, the viral survival strategy of avoiding exposure to the systemic immune system is completely overruled, and large amounts of vaccine-induced systemic antibodies are generated. These systemic circulating antibodies are easily transuded to the genital mucosa and are detectable in female genital secretions. It is well accepted that these antibodies interact with the virions presented by an infected partner and inhibit infection. However, much less attention has been paid to the role of anti-HPV vaccine-induced antibodies in an HPV-infected individual where infectious virions are encountered by neutralizing antibodies in mucosal secretions. There is a clear need to further investigate and document this role. Indeed, if HPV vaccination of HPV-infected women has an effect on HPV transmission, auto-inoculation, and relapse after treatment, this may influence how we model, assess, and implement HPV vaccination programmes.

7.
Papillomavirus Res ; 8: 100183, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476478

RESUMO

The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Prevention and Control Board convened a meeting in Bucharest, Romania (May 2018), to discuss the role of healthcare providers (HCPs) in prevention programs, with a focus on HPV vaccination and cervical cancer screening. International and local experts discussed the role that HCPs can play to increase the uptake of HPV vaccine and screening. Experts recommended: 1) increasing HCP norms of getting vaccinated; 2) training providers to make effective recommendations; 3) making culturally appropriate materials available, in local languages; and 4) centralizing and coordinating education and information material, to direct both HCPs and the general public to the best material available.

8.
Papillomavirus Res ; 8: 100185, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infects and propagates in the cervical mucosal epithelium. Hence, in addition to assessing systemic immunity, the accurate measurement of cervical immunity is important to evaluate local immune responses to HPV infection and vaccination. This review discusses studies that investigated the presence of infection and vaccine-induced HPV-specific antibodies in cervicovaginal secretions (CVS). METHODS: We searched the two main health sciences databases, PubMed and the ISI Web of Science, from the earliest dates available to March 2019. From the eligible publications, information was extracted regarding: (i) study design, (ii) the reported HPV-specific antibody concentrations in CVS (and the associated serum levels, when provided), (iii) the CVS collection method, and (iv) the immunoassays used. RESULTS: The systematic search and selection process yielded 44 articles. The evidence of HPV-specific antibodies in CVS after natural infection (26/44) and HPV vaccination (18/44) is discussed. Many studies indicate that HPV-specific antibody detection in CVS is variable but feasible with a variety of collection methods and immunoassays. Most CVS samples were collected by cervicovaginal washing or wicks, and antibody presence was mostly determined by VLP-based ELISAs. The moderate to strong correlation between vaccine-induced antibody levels in serum and in CVS indicates that HPV vaccines generate antibodies that transudate through the cervical mucosal epithelium. CONCLUSION: Although HPV-specific antibodies have lower titres in CVS than in serum samples, studies have shown that their detection in CVS is feasible. Nevertheless, the high variability of published observations and the lack of a strictly uniform, well-validated method for the collection, isolation and quantification of antibodies indicates a need for specific methods to improve and standardize the detection of HPV-specific antibodies in CVS.

9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The blunting effect of maternal pertussis immunization during pregnancy on infant antibody responses induced by whole cell pertussis (wP) vaccination is not well-defined. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial (NCT02408926) followed term infants born to mothers vaccinated with tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap)-vaccine during pregnancy in Thailand. Infants received either acellular pertussis (aP)- or wP-containing vaccine at 2, 4, 6 and 18 months of age. A comparison group comprised wP-vaccinated children born to mothers not vaccinated during pregnancy. Antibodies against pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA) and pertactin (PRN) were evaluated using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Functionality of antibodies against B. pertussis was measured using B. pertussis growth inhibition assay (BGIA). RESULTS: After maternal Tdap vaccination, 158 infants vaccinated with aP-containing vaccines possessed higher antibody levels (p < 0.001) against all tested B. pertussis antigens post-priming compared to 157 infants receiving wP-containing vaccines. At one-month post-booster, only anti-FHA and anti-PRN antibodies were still significantly higher (p < 0.001) in the aP group. Significantly higher anti-PT and anti-FHA (p < 0.001), but not anti-PRN IgG, were observed among 69 wP-vaccinated infants born to control mothers compared to wP-vaccinated infants of Tdap-vaccinated mothers after primary and booster vaccination. The antibody functionality was higher in all wP vaccinated infants at all times. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal Tdap vaccination inhibited more pertussis-specific responses in wP vaccinated infants compared to aP vaccinated infants, and the control group of unvaccinated women had highest pertussis-specific responses, persisting until after the booster dose. Antibody functionality was better in the wP groups.

10.
J Transl Med ; 17(1): 282, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Meningitis can be caused by several viruses and bacteria. Identifying the causative pathogen as quickly as possible is crucial to initiate the most optimal therapy, as acute bacterial meningitis is associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. Bacterial meningitis requires antibiotics, as opposed to enteroviral meningitis, which only requires supportive therapy. Clinical presentation is usually not sufficient to differentiate between viral and bacterial meningitis, thereby necessitating cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis by PCR and/or time-consuming bacterial cultures. However, collecting CSF in children is not always feasible and a rather invasive procedure. METHODS: In 12 Belgian hospitals, we obtained acute blood samples from children with signs of meningitis (49 viral and 7 bacterial cases) (aged between 3 months and 16 years). After pathogen confirmation on CSF, the patient was asked to give a convalescent sample after recovery. 3' mRNA sequencing was performed to determine differentially expressed genes (DEGs) to create a host transcriptomic profile. RESULTS: Enteroviral meningitis cases displayed the largest upregulated fold change enrichment in type I interferon production, response and signaling pathways. Patients with bacterial meningitis showed a significant upregulation of genes related to macrophage and neutrophil activation. We found several significantly DEGs between enteroviral and bacterial meningitis. Random forest classification showed that we were able to differentiate enteroviral from bacterial meningitis with an AUC of 0.982 on held-out samples. CONCLUSIONS: Enteroviral meningitis has an innate immunity signature with type 1 interferons as key players. Our classifier, based on blood host transcriptomic profiles of different meningitis cases, is a possible strong alternative for diagnosing enteroviral meningitis.

11.
Euro Surveill ; 24(30)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362809

RESUMO

BackgroundBelgium is a low-endemic country for hepatitis B. Universal hepatitis B vaccination in infants with catch-up in the age cohort of 10-13 year-olds began in 1999.AimsOur objective was to evaluate the effect of prevention and control strategies on acute hepatitis B notification rates in Flanders (Belgium) from 2009 to 2017.MethodsThis observational study collected demographic data and risk factors for acute hepatitis B from mandatory notifications to the Agency for Care and Health.ResultsIn Flanders, acute hepatitis B notification rates per 100,000 population decreased from 1.6 in 2009 to 0.7 in 2017. These rates declined in all age groups: 0-4-year-olds: 0.6 to 0.0, 5-14-year-olds: 0.2 to 0.0, 15-24-year-olds: 0.8 to 0.7, 25-34-year-olds: 3.4 to 1.1 and ≥ 35-year-olds: 1.59 to 0.7. There was also a downward trend in acute hepatitis B notification rates in native Belgians and first-generation migrants. Among 15-24-year-olds and 25-34-year-olds, a possible reversal of the decreasing trend was observed in 2016 and 2015, respectively. Among 548 acute hepatitis B cases, the main route of transmission was sexual activity (30.7%), and the pattern of transmission routes over time showed an increasing proportion of sexual transmission in men who have sex with men (MSM) after 2014. During the period from 2009 to 2017, five mother-to-child transmissions were reported.ConclusionsPrevention and control strategies were effective in reducing the acute hepatitis B notification rate. However, stronger prevention and control measures are needed in adult risk groups, particularly MSM.

12.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-2, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348738

RESUMO

When considering what the scientific evidence is for the potential added value to offer HPV vaccines to sex workers, not only its potential role for female sex workers should be examined, but its role for all those who conduct sex work. Our initial paper looked at the evidence in terms of HPV vaccine immunogenicity, efficacy, effect on transmission, induction of mucosal immunity, and not at implementation. Brown and Cabral considered our omission to address the aspects of implementation an 'academic mistake'. We disagree; implementation aspects are complex and require analyses of multiple barriers, and how to address these. It only makes sense to discuss these if there is scientific evidence for its implementation; otherwise offering the vaccine is not useful.

14.
Lancet ; 394(10193): 148-158, 2019 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Use of oral live-attenuated polio vaccines (OPV), and injected inactivated polio vaccines (IPV) has almost achieved global eradication of wild polio viruses. To address the goals of achieving and maintaining global eradication and minimising the risk of outbreaks of vaccine-derived polioviruses, we tested novel monovalent oral type-2 poliovirus (OPV2) vaccine candidates that are genetically more stable than existing OPVs, with a lower risk of reversion to neurovirulence. Our study represents the first in-human testing of these two novel OPV2 candidates. We aimed to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of these vaccines, the presence and extent of faecal shedding, and the neurovirulence of shed virus. METHODS: In this double-blind, single-centre phase 1 trial, we isolated participants in a purpose-built containment facility at the University of Antwerp Hospital (Antwerp, Belgium), to minimise the risk of environmental release of the novel OPV2 candidates. Participants, who were recruited by local advertising, were adults (aged 18-50 years) in good health who had previously been vaccinated with IPV, and who would not have any contact with immunosuppressed or unvaccinated people for the duration of faecal shedding at the end of the study. The first participant randomly chose an envelope containing the name of a vaccine candidate, and this determined their allocation; the next 14 participants to be enrolled in the study were sequentially allocated to this group and received the same vaccine. The subsequent 15 participants enrolled after this group were allocated to receive the other vaccine. Participants and the study staff were masked to vaccine groups until the end of the study period. Participants each received a single dose of one vaccine candidate (candidate 1, S2/cre5/S15domV/rec1/hifi3; or candidate 2, S2/S15domV/CpG40), and they were monitored for adverse events, immune responses, and faecal shedding of the vaccine virus for 28 days. Shed virus isolates were tested for the genetic stability of attenuation. The primary outcomes were the incidence and type of serious and severe adverse events, the proportion of participants showing viral shedding in their stools, the time to cessation of viral shedding, the cell culture infective dose of shed virus in virus-positive stools, and a combined index of the prevalence, duration, and quantity of viral shedding in all participants. This study is registered with EudraCT, number 2017-000908-21 and ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT03430349. FINDINGS: Between May 22 and Aug 22, 2017, 48 volunteers were screened, of whom 15 (31%) volunteers were excluded for reasons relating to the inclusion or exclusion criteria, three (6%) volunteers were not treated because of restrictions to the number of participants in each group, and 30 (63%) volunteers were sequentially allocated to groups (15 participants per group). Both novel OPV2 candidates were immunogenic and increased the median blood titre of serum neutralising antibodies; all participants were seroprotected after vaccination. Both candidates had acceptable tolerability, and no serious adverse events occurred during the study. However, severe events were reported in six (40%) participants receiving candidate 1 (eight events) and nine (60%) participants receiving candidate 2 (12 events); most of these events were increased blood creatinine phosphokinase but were not accompanied by clinical signs or symptoms. Vaccine virus was detected in the stools of 15 (100%) participants receiving vaccine candidate 1 and 13 (87%) participants receiving vaccine candidate 2. Vaccine poliovirus shedding stopped at a median of 23 days (IQR 15-36) after candidate 1 administration and 12 days (1-23) after candidate 2 administration. Total shedding, described by the estimated median shedding index (50% cell culture infective dose/g), was observed to be greater with candidate 1 than candidate 2 across all participants (2·8 [95% CI 1·8-3·5] vs 1·0 [0·7-1·6]). Reversion to neurovirulence, assessed as paralysis of transgenic mice, was low in isolates from those vaccinated with both candidates, and sequencing of shed virus indicated that there was no loss of attenuation in domain V of the 5'-untranslated region, the primary site of reversion in Sabin OPV. INTERPRETATION: We found that the novel OPV2 candidates were safe and immunogenic in IPV-immunised adults, and our data support the further development of these vaccines to potentially be used for maintaining global eradication of neurovirulent type-2 polioviruses. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Vacina Antipólio Oral/efeitos adversos , Vacina Antipólio Oral/imunologia , Poliovirus/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Vacina Antipólio Oral/administração & dosagem , RNA Viral/análise , Método Simples-Cego , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Atenuadas/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Virulência/imunologia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Viral Hepat ; 26(9): 1066-1075, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087382

RESUMO

The duration of protection after hepatitis B vaccination is not exactly known. This phase IV study evaluated antibody persistence and immune memory 20-30 years after adult immunization with recombinant hepatitis B vaccine (HBsAg vaccine, Engerix-B) in routine clinical practice. Men and women 40-60 years old, with documented evidence of vaccination with three or four HBsAg vaccine doses 20-30 years earlier and without subsequent booster, were enrolled and received HBsAg vaccine as challenge dose. HBsAg-specific antibodies (anti-HBs) and frequencies of HBsAg-specific circulating memory B cells and CD4+ T cells expressing combinations of activation markers (CD40L, IL2, IFNγ, TNFα) were measured prechallenge, 7 and 30 days postchallenge. Of 101 participants in the according-to-protocol cohort for immunogenicity, 90.1% had anti-HBs concentrations ≥ 10 mIU/mL prechallenge administration; 84.2% and 100% mounted an anamnestic response 7 and 30 days postchallenge, respectively. HBsAg-specific memory B and CD4+ T cells expressing at least two activation markers were low prechallenge and increased markedly postchallenge. These results suggest sustained immune memory and long-term protection 20-30 years after a complete primary HBsAg vaccination course during adulthood, in line with current recommendations that a booster is not needed in fully vaccinated immunocompetent adults.

16.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 15(7-8): 1544-1548, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063078

RESUMO

Prophylactic vaccines are efficacious in preventing Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection and subsequent cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), cervical cancer, other anogenital cancers, and anogenital warts. Female sex workers (SW) are at increased risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections, including HPV. There are several reasons to offer HPV vaccination to SW: they are at high risk for HPV and often unvaccinated, and the immunogenicity of the vaccine is also excellent in previously HPV exposed women. Furthermore, women with disease caused by HPV may still benefit from vaccination. The efficacy of vaccinating mid-adult women (26-44 years old) against persistent HPV infection and CIN2+ is good. Although an SW may have been infected or exposed to HPV, she may not have been exposed to all vaccine-included hrHPV types. Vaccination induces mucosal immunity via the production of neutralizing antibodies on the surface of the female genital tract, thus preventing potential transmission to clients. Nevertheless, some considerations argue against offering vaccination to SWs. Current vaccines are only prophylactic and as such, do not affect current HPV infections. Women who have previously cleared HPV infections, may do so again and thus not need vaccination. Fewer SW might be naïve to HPV-types than currently thought. HPV vaccination has probably no effect on latent infections. Vaccinating sometime after sexual debut could be too late, as infections have already occurred. Taken together, some data suggest that vaccination of SW may offer health benefits, also for the community, but sufficient evidence is lacking. In certain cases, HPV vaccination of SW may be recommended. Evidence-based, public health decisions concerning vaccination of SW are challenging and could be facilitated with more research in this high-risk group.

17.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; : 101424, 2019 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Expatriates (expats) from European countries regularly migrate to low-income countries where infectious diseases are more prevalent. Little evidence exists however on pediatric expatriates' compliance with preventive measures related to infectious diseases. This study aims to evaluate compliance in Belgian expat-children. METHODS: Data of 135 Belgian expat-children, visiting the Institute of Tropical Medicine (Antwerp, Belgium), were collected from clinical notes, laboratory results and from a web-based immunization-register. Information on routine vaccinations, yellow fever, hepatitis A, rabies, typhoid fever, meningococcal ACW135Y, Japanese encephalitis, BCG vaccine and anti-malaria chemoprophylaxis was collected. RESULTS: Overall, 87% of expat-children were up-to-date with their routine vaccinations. Although all children were eligible for hepatitis A, typhoid and rabies vaccination, only 8-21% were fully vaccinated. Only 29 and 61% of eligible children were vaccinated against meningococcal (ACW135Y) or yellow fever respectively. Finally, only 10% of children who lived in malaria-endemic-areas, reported chemoprophylaxis-use. CONCLUSION: Although routine vaccination coverage in expat-children seems adequate, additional preventive measures are often needed. Whether this is due to lack of high-quality health care-access, fear of side-effects or insufficient knowledge about the risks/available preventive measures, remains elusive. Nevertheless, expats seem to constitute a separate risk-group for infectious diseases and destination-related health issues.

18.
J Clin Virol ; 117: 11-18, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monitoring HPV antibodies non-invasively would be a major advantage for large epidemiological studies and follow-up of vaccinees. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the presence of HPV-specific antibody transudates from systemic circulation in first-void urine of (un)vaccinated subjects and the agreement with paired sera. STUDY DESIGN: In this case-control study, 55 paired first-void urine and serum samples were included from 19- to 26-year-old women, unvaccinated (n = 19) or vaccinated (n = 36) with the bi- or quadrivalent HPV vaccine during adolescence (NCT02714114). Human IgA, total human IgG, and HPV6/11/16/18-Ig(M/G/A) were measured in paired samples. RESULTS: Significant positive Spearman rank correlations (rs) were found in HPV-specific antibody levels between paired samples (HPV6: rs = 0.777; HPV11: rs = 0.757; HPV16: rs = 0.876; HPV18: rs = 0.636 (p < 0.001)). In both first-void urine and serum, significantly higher HPV6/11/16/18 antibody levels were observed in vaccinated compared with unvaccinated women (p ≤ 0.017). CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides the first proof that vaccine-induced HPV antibodies are detectable in the first-void urine of young women. Moreover, significant positive correlations were observed between HPV6/11/16/18-antibodies in first-void urine and paired sera. Further optimization and validation are required to demonstrate its potential use in epidemiological studies and follow-up of HPV vaccination.

19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(18): e15412, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is an important public health problem in the Turkish population, that is, one of the largest migrant populations in Europe. With the introduction of cost-effective antiviral treatments in the past decade, there is a need to identify HBV-infected patients who may benefit from treatment. This study describes the design of a study to assess the HBV prevalence in the Turkish population living in Belgium. Additionally, we will determine the risk factors of HBV infection and the uptake of screening, vaccination, and antiviral treatment in this hard-to-reach Turkish population. METHODS: A longitudinal, epidemiological study will be conducted in the region Middle Limburg Belgium, where the Turkish adult population, 18 years of age and older, will be screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies against HBsAg (anti-HBs), and antibodies against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc). Educational meetings concerning viral hepatitis B will be organized and there will be 3 ways to be screened for HBV: immediately after the educational meetings, at the Outpatient Hepatology Department of Ziekenhuis Oost-Limburg, and at home visits. Subsequently, participants will be asked to fill in a questionnaire regarding sociodemographic factors, migration history, risk factors for HBV infection (e.g., sharing toothbrushes, HBV-infected family member), and HBV vaccination status. Six months after screening, HBsAg-positive patients will be assessed whether they are under follow-up at the general practitioner or hepatologist. We will also gather information regarding the uptake of vaccination in nonimmunized subjects. DISCUSSION: This study will provide information about the HBV prevalence and distribution of the stages of liver disease in the Turkish population in Belgium. By determining the risk factors for HBV infection, subgroups with an increased prevalence of HBV infection can be identified. CLINICAL TRIAL NUMBER: This clinical trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03396458).


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/etnologia , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos do Núcleo do Vírus da Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Turquia/etnologia , Vacinas contra Hepatite Viral/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
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