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1.
J Neuroinflammation ; 18(1): 11, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Usutu virus (USUV) is an emerging neurotropic arthropod-borne virus recently involved in massive die offs of wild birds predominantly reported in Europe. Although primarily asymptomatic or presenting mild clinical signs, humans infected by USUV can develop neuroinvasive pathologies (including encephalitis and meningoencephalitis). Similar to other flaviviruses, such as West Nile virus, USUV is capable of reaching the central nervous system. However, the neuropathogenesis of USUV is still poorly understood, and the virulence of the specific USUV lineages is currently unknown. One of the major complexities of the study of USUV pathogenesis is the presence of a great diversity of lineages circulating at the same time and in the same location. METHODS: The aim of this work was to determine the neurovirulence of isolates from the six main lineages circulating in Europe using mouse model and several neuronal cell lines (neurons, microglia, pericytes, brain endothelial cells, astrocytes, and in vitro Blood-Brain Barrier model). RESULTS: Our results indicate that all strains are neurotropic but have different virulence profiles. The Europe 2 strain, previously described as being involved in several clinical cases, induced the shortest survival time and highest mortality in vivo and appeared to be more virulent and persistent in microglial, astrocytes, and brain endothelial cells, while also inducing an atypical cytopathic effect. Moreover, an amino acid substitution (D3425E) was specifically identified in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domain of the NS5 protein of this lineage. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, these data show a broad neurotropism for USUV in the central nervous system with lineage-dependent virulence. Our results will help to better understand the biological and epidemiological diversity of USUV infection.

3.
J Infect Dis ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206973

RESUMO

We assessed the expression of CD169, a type I interferon-inducible receptor, on monocytes (mCD169) in 53 adult patients admitted to the hospital during the COVID-19 outbreak for a suspicion of SARS-CoV-2 infection. mCD169 was strongly overexpressed in 30 out of 32 (93.7%) confirmed COVID-19 cases, compared to three out of 21 (14.3%) patients in whom the diagnosis of COVID-19 was finally ruled out. mCD169 was associated with the plasma interferon alpha level and thrombocytopenia. mCD169 testing may be helpful for the rapid triage of suspected COVID-19 patients during an outbreak.

4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 546189, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33102251

RESUMO

Human milk is a significant source of different CD133+ and/or CD34+ stem/progenitor-like cell subsets in healthy women but their cell distribution and percentages in this compartment of HIV-positive women have not been explored. To date, a decrease of CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell frequencies in peripheral blood and bone marrow of HIV-positive patients has been reported. Herein, human milk and peripheral blood samples were collected between day 2-15 post-partum from HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, and cells were stained with stem cell markers and analyzed by flow cytometry. We report that the median percentage of CD45+/highCD34-CD133+ cell subset from milk and blood was significantly higher in HIV-positive than in HIV-negative women. The percentage of CD45dimCD34-CD133+ cell subset from blood was significantly higher in HIV-positive than HIV-negative women. Moreover, percentages of CD45dimCD34+, CD45dimCD34+CD133-, and CD45+highCD34+CD133- cell subsets from blood were significantly lower in HIV-positive than HIV-negative women. The CD133+ stem/progenitor-like cell subsets are increased in early human milk and blood of HIV-positive women and are differentially distributed to CD34+ cell subset frequencies which are decreased in blood.

5.
J Clin Med ; 9(9)2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937988

RESUMO

Children who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed but uninfected (CHEU) accumulate maternal HIV and antiretroviral exposures through pregnancy, postnatal prophylaxis, and breastfeeding. Here, we compared the dynamics of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) parameters in African breastfed CHEU receiving lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) or lamivudine (3TC) pre-exposure prophylaxis during the first year of life. The number of mtDNA copies per cell (MCN) and the proportion of deleted mtDNA (MDD) were assessed at day 7 and at week 50 post-delivery (PrEP group). mtDNA depletion was defined as a 50% or more decrease from the initial value, and mtDNA deletions was the detection of mtDNA molecules with large DNA fragment loss. We also performed a sub-analysis with CHEU who did not receive a prophylactic treatment in South Africa (control group). From day seven to week 50, MCN decreased with a median of 41.7% (interquartile range, IQR: 12.1; 64.4) in the PrEP group. The proportion of children with mtDNA depletion was not significantly different between the two prophylactic regimens. Poisson regressions showed that LPV/r and 3TC were associated with mtDNA depletion (reference: control group; LPV/r: PR = 1.75 (CI95%: 1.15-2.68), p < 0.01; 3TC: PR = 1.54 (CI95%: 1.00-2.37), p = 0.05). Moreover, the proportion of children with MDD was unexpectedly high before randomisation in both groups. Long-term health impacts of these mitochondrial DNA parameters should be investigated further for both CHEU and HIV-infected children receiving LPV/r- or 3TC- based regimens.

6.
mBio ; 11(4)2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753493

RESUMO

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) largely prevents toxins and pathogens from accessing the brain. Some viruses have the ability to cross this barrier and replicate in the central nervous system (CNS). Zika virus (ZIKV) was responsible in 2015 to 2016 for a major epidemic in South America and was associated in some cases with neurological impairments. Here, we characterized some of the mechanisms behind its neuroinvasion using an innovative in vitro human BBB model. ZIKV efficiently replicated, was released on the BBB parenchyma side, and triggered subtle modulation of BBB integrity as well as an upregulation of inflammatory and cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), which in turn favored leukocyte recruitment. Finally, we showed that ZIKV-infected mouse models displayed similar CAM upregulation and that soluble CAMs were increased in plasma samples from ZIKV-infected patients. Our observations suggest a complex interplay between ZIKV and the BBB, which may trigger local inflammation, leukocyte recruitment, and possible cerebral vasculature impairment.IMPORTANCE Zika virus (ZIKV) can be associated with neurological impairment in children and adults. To reach the central nervous system, viruses have to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a multicellular system allowing a tight separation between the bloodstream and the brain. Here, we show that ZIKV infects cells of the BBB and triggers a subtle change in its permeability. Moreover, ZIKV infection leads to the production of inflammatory molecules known to modulate BBB integrity and participate in immune cell attraction. The virus also led to the upregulation of cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs), which in turn favored immune cell binding to the BBB and potentially increased infiltration into the brain. These results were also observed in a mouse model of ZIKV infection. Furthermore, plasma samples from ZIKV-infected patients displayed an increase in CAMs, suggesting that this mechanism could be involved in neuroinflammation triggered by ZIKV.

7.
J Neuroinflammation ; 17(1): 233, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778106

RESUMO

Arthropod-borne viruses or arbovirus, are most commonly associated with acute infections, resulting on various symptoms ranging from mild fever to more severe disorders such as hemorrhagic fever. Moreover, some arboviral infections can be associated with important neuroinflammation that can trigger neurological disorders including encephalitis, paralysis, ophthalmological impairments, or developmental defects, which in some cases, can lead to long-term defects of the central nervous system (CNS). This is well illustrated in Zika virus-associated congenital brain malformations but also in West Nile virus-induced synaptic dysfunctions that can last well beyond infection and lead to cognitive deficits. Here, we summarize clinical and mechanistic data reporting on cognitive disturbances triggered by arboviral infections, which may highlight growing public health issues spanning the five continents.

8.
Liver Int ; 40(10): 2367-2376, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) is a challenge for controlling the hepatitis B epidemic. In Sub-Saharan countries, pilot interventions including the screening of pregnant women for HBsAg, implementation of anti-HBV therapy and infant immunization within 24 hours of life are initiated and need to be evaluated. This pilot study aimed to describe the cascade of care for hepatitis B PMTCT in a real life situation, and to identify sociodemographic factors associated with adequate management of pregnant women and infants. METHOD: The study was conducted from October 1st, 2014 to February 28th, 2016 in the antenatal clinics (ANCV) of Baskuy district which comprises nine first-level public health centres. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to identify sociodemographic factors associated with the likelihood of retention in the cohort, HBV DNA testing, birth dose delivery and HBsAg testing of the children at 6 months of age; P ˂ .05 was selected as cut off for significance. RESULTS: In this prospective cohort study, of 5200 pregnant women consulting for the antenatal visit, 2261 (43.5%) were proposed pre-test counselling and HBsAg screening and 2220 (98.2%) have agreed to screening. Among 1580 (71.2%) women that came back for the post-counselling interview, 75 were positive for HBsAg (4.8%), 73 (97.3% of the women provided HBsAg result) consented to medical consultation with hepatogastroenterologists and 53 (72.6%); performed the HBV DNA testing. Forty-seven out of 60 (78.3%; 65.8-87.9) children born alive were immunized for HBV within 24 hours of life. Retention in care was associated with the level of education of the infant's father, secondary school or higher was associated with a better retention in care of the women (OR: 6.6; P = .03). CONCLUSION: Our study shows large gaps in HBV PMTCT. Resources for hepatitis B screening, care and prevention including universal access to the vaccine birth dose should be allocated to reduce infection in HBV exposed infants born in Burkina Faso.

9.
J Clin Med ; 9(4)2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32235676

RESUMO

Mastitis frequently affects women of childbearing age. Of all the pathological breast conditions requiring specific management, autoimmune mastitis is in the third position after infection and breast cancer. The aim of this literature review was to make a comprehensive description of autoimmune diseases targeting the mammary gland. Four main histological patterns of autoimmune mastitis are described: (i) lymphocytic infiltrates; (ii) ductal ectasia; (iii) granulomatous mastitis; and (iv) vasculitis. Our literature search found that all types of autoimmune disease may target the mammary gland: organ-specific diseases (diabetes, thyroiditis); connective tissue diseases (such as systemic erythematosus lupus or Sjögren's syndrome); vasculitides (granulomatosis with polyangiitis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, giant cell arteritis, polyarteritis nodosa, Behçet's disease); granulomatous diseases (sarcoidosis, Crohn's disease); and IgG4-related disease. Cases of breast-specific autoimmune diseases have also been reported, including idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. These breast-limited inflammatory diseases are sometimes the first symptom of a systemic autoimmune disease. Although autoimmune mastitis is rare, it is probably underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Early diagnosis may allow us to detect systemic diseases at an earlier stage, which could help to initiate a prompt, appropriate therapeutic strategy. In case of suspected autoimmune mastitis, we hereby propose a diagnostic pathway and discuss the potential pathophysiological pathways leading to autoimmune breast damage.

10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(4): e0008223, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324736

RESUMO

Usutu virus (USUV), an African mosquito-borne flavivirus closely related to West Nile virus, was first isolated in South Africa in 1959. USUV emerged in Europe two decades ago, causing notably massive mortality in Eurasian blackbirds. USUV is attracting increasing attention due to its potential for emergence and its rapid spread in Europe in recent years. Although mainly asymptomatic or responsible for mild clinical signs, USUV was recently described as being associated with neurological disorders in humans such as encephalitis and meningoencephalitis, highlighting the potential health threat posed by the virus. Despite this, USUV pathogenesis remains largely unexplored. The aim of this study was to evaluate USUV neuropathogenicity using in vivo and in vitro approaches. Our results indicate that USUV efficiently replicates in the murine central nervous system. Replication in the spinal cord and brain is associated with recruitment of inflammatory cells and the release of inflammatory molecules as well as induction of antiviral-responses without major modulation of blood-brain barrier integrity. Endothelial cells integrity is also maintained in a human model of the blood-brain barrier despite USUV replication and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, USUV-inoculated mice developed major ocular defects associated with inflammation. Moreover, USUV efficiently replicates in human retinal pigment epithelium. Our results will help to better characterize the physiopathology related to USUV infection in order to anticipate the potential threat of USUV emergence.


Assuntos
Flavivirus/patogenicidade , Modelos Biológicos , Sistema Nervoso/virologia , Animais , Encéfalo/virologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais/virologia , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Flavivirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Camundongos , Epitélio Pigmentado Ocular/virologia , Medula Espinal/virologia
11.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 20, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32117090

RESUMO

The existence of an antisense Open Reading Frame (ORF) that encodes a putative AntiSense Protein (ASP) on the proviral genome of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) was a source of debate for 30 years. During the last years, some progresses have been made to characterize the cellular immune response against ASP in HIV-1 seropositive patients. However, no tools were available for the detection of antibodies to ASP in the plasma of HIV-1-infected patients during the natural course of the infection. The aim of our study was to develop a Luciferase Immuno-Precipitation System (LIPS) to monitor the quantitative detection of ASP-specific antibodies in the plasma of HIV-1-infected patients [antiretroviral therapy (ART) naive-patients, patients under ART and HIV-1 controllers], patients who discontinued antiretroviral drugs (ARV). We further used this approach to delineate the epitopes of ASP targeted by antibodies. Antibodies directed against ASP were detected in 3 out of 19 patients who discontinued ARV (15%) and in 1 out of 10 ART-naive patients (10%), but were neither detected in HIV-1 infected patients under ART nor in HIV-1 controllers. Individual variations in levels of ASP-specific antibodies were detected overtime. Both the conserved prolin-rich motif and the core 60-189 region of ASP were found to be essential for antibody recognition in the four patients tested positive for anti-ASP antibodies, who were all untreated at the time of sampling. Moreover, for two of these patients, increased levels of ASP-specific antibodies were observed concomitantly to viremia declines. Overall, our method may represent a useful tool to detect a humoral response to ASP in HIV-1-infected patients, which allowed us to confirm the expression of ASP during the course of HIV-1 infection. Further studies will be needed to fully characterize the humoral response to ASP in HIV-1-infected patients.

12.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 373, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210946

RESUMO

Blood collected and dried on a paper card - dried blood spot (DBS) - knows a growing interest as a sampling method that can be performed outside care facilities by capillary puncture, and transported in a simple and safe manner by mail. The benefits of this method for blood collection and transport has recently led the World Health Organization to recommend DBS for HIV and hepatitis B and C diagnosis. The clinical utility of DBS sampling to improve diagnostics and care of HIV and hepatitis B and C infection in hard to reach populations, key populations and people living in low-income settings was highlighted. Literature about usefulness of DBS specimens in the therapeutic cascade of care - screening, confirmation, quantification of nucleic acids, and resistance genotyping -, was reviewed. DBS samples are suitable for testing antibodies, antigens, or nucleic acids using most laboratory methods. Good sensibility and specificity have been reported for infant HIV diagnosis and diagnosis of hepatitis B and C. The performance of HIV RNA testing on DBS to identified virological failure on antiretroviral therapy is also high but not optimal because of the dilution of dried blood in the elution buffer, reducing the analytical sensitivity, and because of the contamination by intracellular HIV DNA. Standardized protocols are needed for inter-laboratory comparisons, and manufacturers should pursue regulatory approval for in vitro diagnostics using DBS specimens. Despite these limitations, DBS sampling is a clinically relevant tool to improve access to infectious disease diagnosis worldwide.

13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune control of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is impaired in HIV-infected individuals. We explored maternal factors associated with EBV acquisition in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants and the relationship between EBV infection and serious adverse events (SAE) during the first year of life. METHODS: Two hundred and one HEU infants from Uganda enrolled in the ANRS12174 trial were tested for anti-viral capsid antigen (VCA) antibodies at week 50 of life. The date of infection was estimated by testing of EBV DNA at weeks 1, 6, 14, 26, 38 and 50 postpartum on dried blood spot (DBS). RESULTS: Eighty-seven (43%) infants were tested positive for anti-VCA IgG at week 50. Among the 59 infants positive for EBV DNA, 25% were infected within the first 26 weeks. Almost half of them (12%) were infected before week 14. Shedding of EBV in breast milk was associated with EBV DNA in maternal plasma (P=.009), HIV RNA detection (P=.039), lower CD4 count (P=.001) and was correlated with plasma EBV DNA levels (P=.002). EBV infant infection at week 50 was associated with shedding of EBV in breast milk (P=.009) and young maternal age (P=.029). Occurrence of a clinical SAE, including malaria and pneumonia, was associated with higher levels of EBV DNA in infants (P=.010). CONCLUSIONS: By assessing EBV infection in HEU infants we observed that infection during the first year of life is determined by HIV and EBV maternal factors and that EBV DNA levels was higher among infants with clinical SAE.

14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(4): 1030-1039, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perinatal treatment with lopinavir boosted by ritonavir (LPV/r) is associated with steroidogenic abnormalities. Long-term effects in infants have not been studied. METHODS: Adrenal-hormone profiles were compared at weeks 6 and 26 between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-exposed but uninfected infants randomly assigned at 7 days of life to prophylaxis with LPV/r or lamivudine (3TC) to prevent transmission during breastfeeding. LPV/r in vitro effect on steroidogenesis was assessed in H295R cells. RESULTS: At week 6, 159 frozen plasma samples from Burkina Faso and South Africa were assessed (LPV/r group: n = 92; 3TC group: n = 67) and at week 26, 95 samples from Burkina Faso (LPV/r group: n = 47; 3TC group: n = 48). At week 6, LPV/r-treated infants had a higher median dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) level than infants from the 3TC arm: 3.91 versus 1.48 ng/mL (P < .001). Higher DHEA levels (>5 ng/mL) at week 6 were associated with higher 17-OH-pregnenolone (7.78 vs 3.71 ng/mL, P = .0004) and lower testosterone (0.05 vs 1.34 ng/mL, P = .009) levels in LPV/r-exposed children. There was a significant correlation between the DHEA and LPV/r AUC levels (ρ = 0.40, P = .019) and Ctrough (ρ = 0.40, P = .017). At week 26, DHEA levels remained higher in the LPV/r arm: 0.45 versus 0.13 ng/mL (P = .002). Lopinavir, but not ritonavir, inhibited CYP17A1 and CYP21A2 activity in H295R cells. CONCLUSIONS: Lopinavir was associated with dose-dependent adrenal dysfunction in infants. The impact of long-term exposure and potential clinical consequences require evaluation. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT00640263.

16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(44): e17383, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689745

RESUMO

The risk of postnatal HIV transmission exists throughout the breastfeeding period. HIV shedding in breast milk beyond six months has not been studied extensively. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence and determinants of HIV shedding in breast milk during continued breastfeedingA cross-sectional study was nested in the PROMISE-PEP trial in Lusaka, Zambia to analyze breast milk samples collected from both breasts at week 38 post-partum (mid-way during continued breastfeeding). We measured concurrent HIV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and HIV ribonucleic acid (RNA) as proxies for cell-associated HIV (CAV) and cell-free HIV (CFV) shedding in breast milk respectively. Participants' socio-demographic date, concurrent blood test results, sub clinical mastitis test results and contraceptive use data were available. Logistic regression models were used to identify determinants of HIV shedding in breast milk (detecting either CAV or CFV).The prevalence of HIV shedding in breast milk at 9 months post-partum was 79.4% (95%CI: 74.0 - 84.0). CAV only, CFV only and both CAV and CFV were detectable in 13.7%, 17.3% and 48.4% mothers, respectively. The odds of shedding HIV in breast milk decreased significantly with current use of combined oral contraceptives (AOR: 0.37; 95%CI: 0.17 - 0.83) and increased significantly with low CD4 count (AOR: 3.47; 95%CI: 1.23 - 9.80), unsuppressed plasma viral load (AOR: 6.27; 95%CI: 2.47 - 15.96) and severe sub-clinical mastitis (AOR: 12.56; 95%CI: 2.48 - 63.58).This study estimated that about 80% of HIV infected mothers not on ART shed HIV in breast milk during continued breastfeeding. Major factors driving this shedding were low CD4 count, unsuppressed plasma viral load and severe sub-clinical mastitis. The inverse relationship between breast milk HIV and use of combined oral contraceptives needs further clarification. Continued shedding of CAV may contribute to residual postnatal transmission of HIV in mothers on successful ART.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Leite Humano/virologia , Adulto , Antirretrovirais , Aleitamento Materno , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres , Anticoncepcionais Orais Combinados/administração & dosagem , Estudos Transversais , DNA Viral , Feminino , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Modelos Logísticos , Mastite/epidemiologia , Mães , Prevalência , RNA Viral , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Carga Viral , Eliminação de Partículas Virais/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Zâmbia
17.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1153, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31191532

RESUMO

Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is characterized by B cell hyperactivation, production of autoantibodies and increased risk of B cell lymphomas. Serological profile of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation and increase EBV DNA levels in exocrine glands are observed in pSS, but whether these abnormalities are accompanied with disturbed systemic EBV control or have any association with pSS activity remains to be investigated. In this observational study, we initially explored anti-EBV antibodies and cell-free DNA in 395 samples from a cross-sectional plasma collection of pSS patients included in ASSESS French national cohort. Results were assessed in relation with disease activity. Further, to assess cell-associated EBV DNA we organized a case-control study including 20 blood samples from pSS patients followed in University Hospital Center of Montpellier. Results were compared with matched controls. Robust response against EBV early antigen (EA) was observed in pSS patients with anti-SSA/B (Sjögren's syndrome A and B) and anti-SSA autoantibodies compared to anti-SSA/B negatives (P < 0.01 and P = 0.01, respectively). Increased beta-2 microglobulin, kappa and lambda light chains, and immunoglobulin G levels were more frequently observed in anti-EA seropositive pSS subjects compared to anti-EA negative subjects (P < 0.001; P = 0.001; P = 0.003, respectively). Beta-2 microglobulin was independently associated with anti-EA positivity in multivariate analysis (P < 0.001). Plasma cell-free EBV DNA and EBV cellular reservoir was not different between pSS patients and controls. We conclude that serological evidence of EBV reactivation was more frequently observed and more strongly associated with anti-SSA/B status and B cell activation markers in pSS. However, serological profile of EBV reactivation was not accompanied by molecular evidence of systemic EBV reactivation. Our data indicated that EBV infection remains efficiently controlled in the blood of pSS patients.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antinucleares/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/complicações , Herpesvirus Humano 4/fisiologia , Síndrome de Sjogren/imunologia , Ativação Viral , Adulto , Idoso , Autoantígenos/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Casos e Controles , DNA Viral/análise , DNA Viral/sangue , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/virologia , Glândulas Exócrinas/virologia , Feminino , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 4/imunologia , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ribonucleoproteínas/imunologia , Síndrome de Sjogren/sangue , Síndrome de Sjogren/complicações , Síndrome de Sjogren/virologia , Microglobulina beta-2/análise
18.
Lancet HIV ; 6(5): e307-e314, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The tolerance of antiretroviral drugs in infants must be carefully evaluated. In previous studies of children with HIV type 1 (HIV-1) less weight gain was observed in children given lopinavir-ritonavir-based combinations than those given nevirapine. We aimed to compare the effects of lopinavir-ritonavir and lamivudine on growth in HIV-exposed uninfected infants included in the ANRS 12174 trial. METHODS: ANRS 12174 was a multicentre, randomised, controlled trial of infant prophylaxis to prevent HIV-1 transmission by breastfeeding done at four antenatal clinics in Burkina Faso, South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia. HIV-exposed uninfected infants born to asymptomatic mothers not eligible for antiretroviral therapy (CD4 count >350 cells per µL) were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive lopinavir-ritonavir or lamivudine 7 days after birth, with stratification by country. In a prespecified secondary analysis, we assessed the effect of lopinavir-ritonavir and lamivudine on the growth of these infants from day 7 until cessation of breastfeeding (maximum treatment time 12 months) in the modified intention-to-treat population, which included all children correctly enrolled with at least one follow-up anthropometric measurement. We compared the growth of infants, defined as children's WHO-defined length-for-age Z score (LAZ), weight-for-length Z score (WAZ), and weight-for-age Z score (WLZ). We used linear mixed effect and ß spline-regression models to compare growth between the treatment groups. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00640263. FINDINGS: 1273 HIV-exposed uninfected infants and their mothers were enrolled between Nov 16, 2009, and May 7, 2013, of whom 1266 (99%) infants were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis (630 assigned to lopinavir-ritonavir, 636 assigned to lamivudine). Baseline characteristics of the infants and mothers were similar across the two treatment groups. No differences in least-squares (LS) mean LAZ were identified between the treatment groups at any timepoint. LS mean WLZ was significantly lower in the lopinavir-ritonavir group than the lamivudine group at 26 weeks (difference -0·22 [95% CI -0·34 to -0·09], p=0·0006) and 50 weeks (-0·25 [-0·47 to -0·04], p=0·02). LS mean WAZ was also significantly lower in the lopinavir-ritonavir group than the lamivudine group at 26 weeks (difference -0·18 [95% CI -0·30 to -0·05], p=0·01) and 50 weeks (-0·24 [-0·45 to -0·05], p=0·02). Linear mixed models showed that lopinavir-ritonavir was associated with decreases in WLZ and WAZ over time (p<0·0001 and p=0·002), whereas spline regression models indicated that these reductions occurred early and remained constant thereafter (p<0·0001 with a knot at 44 days for WLZ; p=0·02 with a knot at 118 days for WAZ). The difference in LS mean WLZ at 50 weeks between the treatment groups was higher among girls than boys (difference -0·29 [95% CI -0·58 to 0·01], p=0·05 for girls; -0·22 [-0·53 to 0·09], p=0·18 for boys). INTERPRETATION: Less weight gain was observed in infants given lopinavir-ritonavir than those given lamivudine, which is indicative of a persistent effect that could have long-term deleterious effects. This finding merits attention considering the recommendations for early and lifelong treatment of infants with HIV. FUNDING: French National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis, the Total Foundation, the European Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership, and the Research Council of Norway.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/uso terapêutico , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/farmacologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Humanos , Lamivudina/administração & dosagem , Lopinavir/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Ritonavir/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
19.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 30(4): 479-487, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human breast milk cells remain poorly characterized for the presence of unconventional T lymphocytes and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). METHODS: Early breast milk was collected from eight HIV-uninfected and 11 HIV-infected women 3-12 days after delivery. Mucosal-associated invariant T cells (MAIT cells), TCR γδ cells, and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) were analyzed in breast milk and paired blood samples. RESULTS: CD161+/TRAV1-2 + MAIT cells were detected in breast milk, accounting for a median (IQR) of 0.08% (0.06-0.16) and 0.17% (0.16-0.31) of CD45+ breast milk cells in HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected women, respectively. A selective compartmentalization of γδ T lymphocytes was observed in breast milk. Median (IQR) frequency of γδ T lymphocytes was 8.95% (8.64-12.14) among breast milk lymphocyte cells compared to 2.54% (1.81-4.10) in blood (P = 0.03) in HIV-uninfected women, and 7.26% (4.22-10.54) in breast milk versus 3.31% (2.54-3.80) in blood (P = 0.004) from HIV-infected women. The proportion of group 1 ILC (ILC1) among total ILCs was higher in breast milk compared to blood in HIV-uninfected women (P = 0.03) and HIV-infected women (P = 0.001). The frequency of ILC2 among total ILCs tends to be lower in breast milk compared to blood in HIV-uninfected women (P = 0.06) and HIV-infected women (P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Unconventional T cells and ILCs that may be involved in both the protection against infection of the lactating mammary gland and maturation of infant's gut and microbiomes account for a detectable fraction of breast milk cells.


Assuntos
Células Sanguíneas/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/fisiologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Leite Humano/imunologia , Células T Invariáveis Associadas à Mucosa/imunologia , Separação Celular , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Imunofenotipagem , Lactação , Contagem de Linfócitos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/metabolismo
20.
EBioMedicine ; 39: 315-331, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently re-emerged as a pathogenic agent with epidemic capacities as was well illustrated in South America. Because of the extent of this health crisis, a number of more serious symptoms have become associated with ZIKV infection than what was initially described. In particular, neuronal and ocular disorders have been characterized, both in infants and in adults. Notably, the macula and the retina can be strongly affected by ZIKV, possibly by a direct effect of the virus. This is supported by the detection of replicative and infectious virus in lachrimal fluid in human patients and mouse models. METHODS: Here, we used an innovative, state-of-the-art iPSC-derived human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) model to study ZIKV retinal impairment. FINDINGS: We showed that the human RPE is highly susceptible to ZIKV infection and that a ZIKV African strain was more virulent and led to a more potent epithelium disruption and stronger anti-viral response than an Asian strain, suggesting lineage differences. Moreover, ZIKV infection led to impaired membrane dynamics involved in endocytosis, organelle biogenesis and potentially secretion, key mechanisms of RPE homeostasis and function. INTERPRETATION: Taken together, our results suggest that ZIKV has a highly efficient ocular tropism, which creates a strong inflammatory environment that could have acute or chronic adverse effects. FUND: This work was funded by Retina France, REACTing and La Région Languedoc-Roussillon.


Assuntos
Interferons/metabolismo , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/virologia , Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia , Zika virus/patogenicidade , Células Cultivadas , Homeostase , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/imunologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/virologia , Interferons/genética , Modelos Biológicos , Fagocitose , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/citologia , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/imunologia , Tropismo Viral , Replicação Viral , Zika virus/classificação , Zika virus/fisiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/genética , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
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