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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34759020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the role of complement in the disease pathology of multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN), we investigated complement activation, and inhibition, on binding of MMN patient-derived immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies in an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived motor neuron (MN) model for MMN. METHODS: iPSC-derived MNs were characterized for the expression of complement receptors and membrane-bound regulators, for the binding of circulating IgM anti-GM1 from patients with MMN, and for subsequent fixation of C4 and C3 on incubation with fresh serum. The potency of ARGX-117, a novel inhibitory monoclonal antibody targeting C2, to inhibit fixation of complement was assessed. RESULTS: iPSC-derived MNs moderately express the complement regulatory proteins CD46 and CD55 and strongly expressed CD59. Furthermore, MNs express C3aR, C5aR, and complement receptor 1. IgM anti-GM1 antibodies in serum from patients with MMN bind to MNs and induce C3 and C4 fixation on incubation with fresh serum. ARGX-117 inhibits complement activation downstream of C4 induced by patient-derived anti-GM1 antibodies bound to MNs. DISCUSSION: Binding of IgM antibodies from patients with MMN to iPSC-derived MNs induces complement activation. By expressing complement regulatory proteins, particularly CD59, MNs are protected against complement-mediated lysis. Yet, because of expressing C3aR, the function of these cells may be affected by complement activation upstream of membrane attack complex formation. ARGX-117 inhibits complement activation upstream of C3 in this disease model for MMN and therefore represents an intervention strategy to prevent harmful effects of complement in MMN.

2.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 132(12): 3152-3159, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749234

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine which compound muscle action potential (CMAP) scan-derived electrophysiological markers are most sensitive for monitoring disease progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and whether they hold value for clinical trials. METHODS: We used four independent patient cohorts to assess longitudinal patterns of a comprehensive set of electrophysiological markers including their association with the ALS functional rating scale (ALSFRS-R). Results were translated to trial sample size requirements. RESULTS: In 65 patients, 225 thenar CMAP scan recordings were obtained. Electrophysiological markers showed extensive variation in their longitudinal trajectories. Expressed as standard deviations per month, motor unit number estimation (MUNE) values declined by 0.09 (CI 0.07-0.12), D50, a measure that quantifies CMAP scan discontinuities, declined by 0.09 (CI 0.06-0.13) and maximum CMAP by 0.05 (CI 0.03-0.08). ALSFRS-R declined fastest (0.12, CI 0.08 - 0.15), however the between-patient variability was larger compared to electrophysiological markers, resulting in larger sample sizes. MUNE reduced the sample size by 19.1% (n = 388 vs n = 314) for a 6-month study compared to the ALSFRS-R. CONCLUSIONS: CMAP scan-derived markers show promise in monitoring disease progression in ALS patients, where MUNE may be its most suitable derivate. SIGNIFICANCE: MUNE may increase clinical trial efficiency compared to clinical endpoints.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663622

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate sensitivity of brain MRI and neurological examination for detection of upper motor neuron (UMN) degeneration in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: We studied 192 patients with ALS and 314 controls longitudinally. All patients visited our centre twice and underwent full neurological examination and brain MRI. At each visit, we assessed UMN degeneration by measuring motor cortex thickness (CT) and pyramidal tract fibre density (FD) corresponding to five body regions (bulbar region and limbs). For each body region, we measured degree of clinical UMN and lower motor neuron (LMN) symptom burden using a validated scoring system. RESULTS: We found deterioration over time of CT of motor regions (p≤0.0081) and progression of UMN signs of bulbar region and left arm (p≤0.04). FD was discriminative between controls and patients with moderate/severe UMN signs (all regions, p≤0.034), but did not change longitudinally. Higher clinical UMN burden correlated with reduced CT, but not lower FD, for the bulbar region (p=2.2×10-10) and legs (p≤0.025). In the arms, we found that severe LMN signs may reduce the detectability of UMN signs (p≤0.043). With MRI, UMN degeneration was detectable before UMN signs became clinically evident (CT: p=1.1×10-10, FD: p=6.3×10-4). Motor CT, but not FD, deteriorated more than UMN signs during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Motor CT is a more sensitive measure of UMN degeneration than UMN signs. Motor CT and pyramidal tract FD are discriminative between patients and controls. Brain MRI can monitor UMN degeneration before signs become clinically evident. These findings promote MRI as a potential biomarker for UMN progression in clinical trials in ALS.

4.
Brain Commun ; 3(4): fcab236, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708205

RESUMO

Evidence indicates that common variants found in genome-wide association studies increase risk of disease through gene regulation via expression Quantitative Trait Loci. Using multiple genome-wide methods, we examined if Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms increase risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis through expression Quantitative Trait Loci, and whether expression Quantitative Trait Loci expression is consistent across people who had Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and those who did not. In combining public expression Quantitative Trait Loci data with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis genome-wide association studies, we used Summary-data-based Mendelian Randomization to confirm that SCFD1 was the only gene that was genome-wide significant in mediating Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis risk via expression Quantitative Trait Loci (Summary-data-based Mendelian Randomization beta = 0.20, standard error = 0.04, P-value = 4.29 × 10-6). Using post-mortem motor cortex, we tested whether expression Quantitative Trait Loci showed significant differences in expression between Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (n = 76) and controls (n = 25), genome-wide. Of 20 757 genes analysed, the two most significant expression Quantitative Trait Loci to show differential in expression between Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and controls involve two known Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis genes (SCFD1 and VCP). Cis-acting SCFD1 expression Quantitative Trait Loci downstream of the gene showed significant differences in expression between Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and controls (top expression Quantitative Trait Loci beta = 0.34, standard error = 0.063, P-value = 4.54 × 10-7). These SCFD1 expression Quantitative Trait Loci also significantly modified Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis survival (number of samples = 4265, hazard ratio = 1.11, 95% confidence interval = 1.05-1.17, P-value = 2.06 × 10-4) and act as an Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis trans-expression Quantitative Trait Loci hotspot for a wider network of genes enriched for SCFD1 function and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis pathways. Using gene-set analyses, we found the genes that correlate with this trans-expression Quantitative Trait Loci hotspot significantly increase risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (beta = 0.247, standard deviation = 0.017, P = 0.001) and schizophrenia (beta = 0.263, standard deviation = 0.008, P-value = 1.18 × 10-5), a disease that genetically correlates with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. In summary, SCFD1 expression Quantitative Trait Loci are a major factor in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, not only influencing disease risk but are differentially expressed in post-mortem Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. SCFD1 expression Quantitative Trait Loci show distinct expression profiles in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis that correlate with a wider network of genes that also confer risk of the disease and modify the disease's duration.

5.
Nutr Neurosci ; : 1-11, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34693890

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Determine vitamin B12 threshold levels below which additional testing of methylmalonic acid (MMA) and/or homocysteine (Hcy) is useful to diagnose metabolic vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with polyneuropathy, and how vitamin B12, MMA and Hcy levels relate to the effect of supplementation therapy. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study of 331 patients with polyneuropathy, vitamin B12, MMA and Hcy were measured. Linear regression models with vitamin B12 as dependent and Hcy or MMA as covariate were compared, to assess which was best related to vitamin B12. Threshold vitamin B12 levels for metabolic deficiency (defined as elevatede metabolites) were determined using logistic regression with elevated metabolites as dependent and vitamin B12 as covariate.. A structured interview was conducted in 42 patients to evaluate response to vitamin B12 supplementation. RESULTS: MMA was best related to vitamin B12. Using elevated MMA for metabolic deficiency, we found 90% sensitivity at a vitamin B12 threshold level <264 pmol/L (358 pg/mL) and 95% sensitivity at <304 pmol/L (412 pg/mL). Improvement after supplementation was reported by 19% patients and stabilization by 24%. 88% of patients with improvement and 90% with stabilization either had absolute deficiency (Vitamin B12 < 148 pmol/L) or metabolic deficiency (elevated MMA and vitamin B12 ≥ 148 pmol/L). There were no additional patients with improvement or stabilization with isolated elevated Hcy. CONCLUSION: Testing of MMA has additional value in identifying patients with clinically relevant metabolic deficiency when vitamin B12 is below 304 pmol/L (412 pg/mL). Supplementation can be effective in patients with absolute and metabolic deficiency.

6.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 198, 2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Information on long-term alcohol consumption is relevant for medical and public health research, disease therapy, and other areas. Recently, DNA methylation-based inference of alcohol consumption from blood was reported with high accuracy, but these results were based on employing the same dataset for model training and testing, which can lead to accuracy overestimation. Moreover, only subsets of alcohol consumption categories were used, which makes it impossible to extrapolate such models to the general population. By using data from eight population-based European cohorts (N = 4677), we internally and externally validated the previously reported biomarkers and models for epigenetic inference of alcohol consumption from blood and developed new models comprising all data from all categories. RESULTS: By employing data from six European cohorts (N = 2883), we empirically tested the reproducibility of the previously suggested biomarkers and prediction models via ten-fold internal cross-validation. In contrast to previous findings, all seven models based on 144-CpGs yielded lower mean AUCs compared to the models with less CpGs. For instance, the 144-CpG heavy versus non-drinkers model gave an AUC of 0.78 ± 0.06, while the 5 and 23 CpG models achieved 0.83 ± 0.05, respectively. The transportability of the models was empirically tested via external validation in three independent European cohorts (N = 1794), revealing high AUC variance between datasets within models. For instance, the 144-CpG heavy versus non-drinkers model yielded AUCs ranging from 0.60 to 0.84 between datasets. The newly developed models that considered data from all categories showed low AUCs but gave low AUC variation in the external validation. For instance, the 144-CpG heavy and at-risk versus light and non-drinkers model achieved AUCs of 0.67 ± 0.02 in the internal cross-validation and 0.61-0.66 in the external validation datasets. CONCLUSIONS: The outcomes of our internal and external validation demonstrate that the previously reported prediction models suffer from both overfitting and accuracy overestimation. Our results show that the previously proposed biomarkers are not yet sufficient for accurate and robust inference of alcohol consumption from blood. Overall, our findings imply that DNA methylation prediction biomarkers and models need to be improved considerably before epigenetic inference of alcohol consumption from blood can be considered for practical applications.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486902

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe current practices and barriers and support needs in gastrostomy indication and decision-making amongst rehabilitation physicians of ALS care teams in the Netherlands. Methods: Cross-sectional online survey of rehabilitation physicians of ALS care teams in the Netherlands. Survey items covered current practices in timing of indication (i.e. indicators and criteria), goals, initiating discussion about gastrostomy, and criteria for preferred method of placement; and barriers and support needs in indication and decision-making. Descriptive analysis was used for quantitative responses, thematic, and content analysis for qualitative data. Results: Twenty-nine physicians (41%) of 27 ALS care teams (71%) responded. Timing of indication: physicians agreed on important indicators but not cutoff values/criteria. Goals: optimizing nutritional status (100%), ensuring safe food-intake (72%), and reducing effort of meals (59%). Initiating discussion about gastrostomy: 52% introduces the topic early after diagnosis, 48% at indication. Criteria for method of placement included physician preference (69%), availability of service (21%), lower complication risk (17%), contraindication (59%), and patient preference (24%). Reported barriers (69% of respondents) were: patient readiness (52%), timing of indication (31%), and organizational barriers (18%). Support needs (62%): evidence-based timing of indication (35%) and tailored patient education (31%). Conclusions: There is practice variation in the timing of first introduction of gastrostomy and preferred method of placement, but agreement on goals and indicators . More evidence on optimal timing of gastrostomy placement is needed. However, until then early and regular discussion of the topic of gastrostomy and better patient information may promote patient readiness and support patient choice.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590504

RESUMO

Background: An ongoing longitudinal study in six European sites includes a 3-monthly assessment of forced vital capacity (FVC), slow vital capacity (SVC), peak cough flow (PCF), and Sniff nasal inspiratory pressure (SNIP). The aim of this interim analysis was to assess the potential for SNIP to be a surrogate for aerosol generating procedures given COVID-19 related restrictions. Methods: This was a prospective observational study. Patients attending six study sites with King's Stage 2 or 3 ALS completed baseline FVC/SVC/SNIP/PCF and repeated assessments 3 monthly. Data were collected from March 2018 to March 2020, after which a COVID-19 related study suspension was imposed. Correlations between the measures were calculated. A Bayesian multiple outcomes random-effects model was constructed to investigate rates of decline across measures. Results: In total, 270 cases and 828 assessments were included (Mean age 65.2 ± 15.4 years; 32.6% Female; 60% Kings stage 2; 81.1% spinal onset). FVC and SVC were the most closely correlated outcomes (0.95). SNIP showed the least correlation with other metrics 0.53 (FVC), 0.54 (SVC), 0.60 (PCF). All four measures significantly declined over time. SNIP in the bulbar onset group showed the fastest rate of decline. Discussion: SNIP was not well correlated with FVC and SVC, probably because it examines a different aspect of respiratory function. Respiratory measures declined over time, but differentially according to the site of onset. SNIP is not a surrogate for FVC and SVC, but is a complementary measure, declining linearly and differentiating spinal and bulbar onset patients.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , COVID-19 , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Capacidade Vital
10.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(9): e28766, 2021 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550089

RESUMO

Despite recent and potent technological advances, the real-world implementation of remote digital health technology in the care and monitoring of patients with motor neuron disease has not yet been realized. Digital health technology may increase the accessibility to and personalization of care, whereas remote biosensors could optimize the collection of vital clinical parameters, irrespective of patients' ability to visit the clinic. To facilitate the wide-scale adoption of digital health care technology and to align current initiatives, we outline a road map that will identify clinically relevant digital parameters; mediate the development of benefit-to-burden criteria for innovative technology; and direct the validation, harmonization, and adoption of digital health care technology in real-world settings. We define two key end products of the road map: (1) a set of reliable digital parameters to capture data collected under free-living conditions that reflect patient-centric measures and facilitate clinical decision making and (2) an integrated, open-source system that provides personalized feedback to patients, health care providers, clinical researchers, and caregivers and is linked to a flexible and adaptable platform that integrates patient data in real time. Given the ever-changing care needs of patients and the relentless progression rate of motor neuron disease, the adoption of digital health care technology will significantly benefit the delivery of care and accelerate the development of effective treatments.


Assuntos
Doença dos Neurônios Motores , Tecnologia Biomédica , Cuidadores , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Doença dos Neurônios Motores/diagnóstico , Doença dos Neurônios Motores/terapia , Tecnologia
11.
Brain Sci ; 11(8)2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439713

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)/motor neuron disease (MND) is a systemic and fatal neurodegenerative condition for which there is currently no cure. Informal caregivers play a vital role in supporting the person with ALS, and it is essential to support their wellbeing. This multi-centre, mixed methods descriptive exploratory study describes the complexity of burden and self-defined difficulties as described by the caregivers themselves. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected during face-to-face interviews with informal caregivers from centres in the Netherlands, England, and Ireland. Standardised measures assessed burden, quality of life, and psychological distress; furthermore, an open-ended question was asked about difficult aspects of caregiving. Most caregivers were female, spouse/partners, and lived with the person with ALS for whom they provided care. Significant differences between national cohorts were identified for burden, quality of life, and anxiety. Among the difficulties described were the practical issues associated with the caregiver role and emotional factors such as witnessing a patient's health decline, relationship change, and their own distress. The mixed-methods approach allows for a more nuanced understanding of the burden and difficulties experienced. It is important to generate an evidence base to support the psychosocial wellbeing and brain health of informal caregivers.

12.
Neurology ; 97(11): 528-536, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315786

RESUMO

Development of effective treatments for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been hampered by disease heterogeneity, a limited understanding of underlying pathophysiology, and methodologic design challenges. We have evaluated 2 major themes in the design of pivotal, phase 3 clinical trials for ALS-(1) patient selection and (2) analytical strategy-and discussed potential solutions with the European Medicines Agency. Several design considerations were assessed using data from 5 placebo-controlled clinical trials (n = 988), 4 population-based cohorts (n = 5,100), and 2,436 placebo-allocated patients from the Pooled Resource Open-Access ALS Clinical Trials (PRO-ACT) database. The validity of each proposed design modification was confirmed by means of simulation and illustrated for a hypothetical setting. Compared to classical trial design, the proposed design modifications reduce the sample size by 30.5% and placebo exposure time by 35.4%. By making use of prognostic survival models, one creates a potential to include a larger proportion of the population and maximize generalizability. We propose a flexible design framework that naturally adapts the trial duration when inaccurate assumptions are made at the design stage, such as enrollment or survival rate. In case of futility, the follow-up time is shortened and patient exposure to ineffective treatments or placebo is minimized. For diseases such as ALS, optimizing the use of resources, widening eligibility criteria, and minimizing exposure to futile treatments and placebo is critical to the development of effective treatments. Our proposed design modifications could circumvent important pitfalls and may serve as a blueprint for future clinical trials in this population.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/terapia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Seleção de Pacientes , Fatores de Risco
13.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(11): 3615-3625, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To establish the utility of venous creatinine as a biomarker to monitor loss of fat-free mass in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: In this multicenter natural history study, body composition and venous creatinine were assessed in 107 patients with ALS and 52 healthy controls. Longitudinal patterns of venous creatinine and its association with the risk of death during follow-up were determined in a cohort of patients with ALS from Australia (n = 69) and the Netherlands (n = 38). RESULTS: The mean levels of venous creatinine were 75.78 ± 11.15 µmol/L for controls, 70.25 ± 12.81 µmol/L for Australian patients, and 59.95 ± 14.62 µmol/L for Dutch patients with ALS. The relationship between measures of venous creatinine and fat-free mass was similar between all groups (r = 0.36, p < 0.001). Within patients, fat-free mass declined by 0.31 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.22-0.40) kg/month, and venous creatinine declined by 0.52 (95% CI: 0.38-0.66) µmol/L/month, with a longitudinal correlation of 0.57 (95% CI: 0.35-0.76, p < 0.001). Lower levels of venous creatinine were associated with increased risk for earlier death in patients with ALS (hazard ratio = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90-0.98, p = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Venous creatinine is decreased in ALS and declines alongside a decline in fat-free mass over the course of the disease, and may serve as a practical marker to monitor the change of fat-free mass in patients with ALS. This could inform clinical care and provide an alternative endpoint for the evaluation of therapeutic interventions that focus on slowing the loss of fat-free mass and disease progression in ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Austrália , Biomarcadores , Creatinina , Progressão da Doença , Humanos
14.
Neurol Genet ; 7(4): e598, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34169148

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the association between copy number (CN) variation in the survival motor neuron (SMN) locus and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN), progressive muscular atrophy (PMA), and primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) susceptibility and to determine the association of SMN1 and SMN2 CN with MMN, PMA, and PLS disease course. Methods: In this monocenter study, we used multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification to determine SMN1 and SMN2 CN in Dutch patients with MMN, PMA, and PLS and controls. We stratified clinical parameters for SMN1 and SMN2 CN. We analyzed SMN1 and SMN2 exons 1-6, intron 6, and exon 8 CN to study the genetic architecture of SMN1 duplications. Results: SMN1 and SMN2 CN were determined in 132 patients with MMN, 150 patients with PMA, 104 patients with PLS, and 956 control subjects. MMN and PLS were not associated with CN variation in SMN1 or SMN2. By contrast, patients with PMA more often than controls carried SMN1 duplications (≥3 SMN1 copies, 12.0% vs 5.0%, odds ratio 2.69 (1.43-4.91), p 0.0020). SMN1 and SMN2 CN status was not associated with MMN, PLS, or PMA disease course. In case of SMN1 exon 7 duplications, exons 1-6, exon 8, and introns 6 and 7 were also duplicated, suggesting full SMN1 duplications. Conclusions: SMN1 duplications are associated with PMA, but not with PLS and MMN. SMN1 duplications in PMA are balanced duplications. The results of this study highlight the primary effect of altered SMN CN on lower motor neurons.

15.
Neurol Clin Pract ; 11(2): 147-157, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33842068

RESUMO

Purpose of Review: To improve our clinical understanding of facial onset sensory and motor neuronopathy (FOSMN). Recent Findings: We identified 29 new cases and 71 literature cases, resulting in a cohort of 100 patients with FOSMN. During follow-up, cognitive and behavioral changes became apparent in 8 patients, suggesting that changes within the spectrum of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are a part of the natural history of FOSMN. Another new finding was chorea, seen in 6 cases. Despite reports of autoantibodies, there is no consistent evidence to suggest an autoimmune pathogenesis. Four of 6 autopsies had TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP) 43 pathology. Seven cases had genetic mutations associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Summary: FOSMN is a rare disease with a highly characteristic onset and pattern of disease progression involving initial sensory disturbances, followed by bulbar weakness with a cranial to caudal spread of pathology. Although not conclusive, the balance of evidence suggests that FOSMN is most likely to be a TDP-43 proteinopathy within the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-FTD spectrum.

16.
Lancet Neurol ; 20(5): 373-384, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33894192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is considered to be caused by both genetic and environmental factors. The causal cascade is, however, not known. We aimed to assess lifestyle during the presymptomatic phase of ALS, stratified by C9orf72 mutation, and examine evidence supporting causality of lifestyle factors. METHODS: This study was a longitudinal, population-based, case-control study that used data from the Prospective ALS study the Netherlands. We included patients with a C9orf72 mutation (C9+ group), patients without a C9orf72 mutation (C9- group), and controls. Patients fulfilled the revised El Escorial criteria and were recruited through neurologists and rehabilitation physicians in the Netherlands as well as the Dutch Neuromuscular Patient Association and ALS Centrum website. 1322 population-based controls, matched for age and sex, were enrolled via the patients' general practitioners. Blood relatives or spouses of patients were not eligible as controls. We studied the relationship between ALS risk and smoking, alcohol, physical activity, body-mass index (BMI), and energy intake by the use of structured questionnaires. Smoking, physical activity, and BMI were longitudinally assessed up to 50 years before onset (defined as the period before onset of muscle weakness or bulbar symptoms for cases, or age at completing the questionnaire for controls). We calculated posterior probabilities (P(θ|x)) for causal effects of smoking, alcohol, and BMI, using Bayesian instrumental variable analyses. FINDINGS: Between Jan 1, 2006 and Jan 27, 2016, we included 143 patients in the C9+ group, 1322 patients in the C9- group, and 1322 controls. Compared with controls, cigarette pack-years (C9+ group mean difference from control 3·15, 95% CI 0·36 to 5·93, p=0·027; C9- group 3·20, 2·02 to 4·39, p<0·0001) and daily energy intake at symptom onset (C9+ group 712 kJ, 95% CI 212 to 1213, p=0·0053; C9- group 497, 295 to 700, p<0·0001) were higher in the C9+ and C9- groups, whereas current BMI (C9+ group -2·01 kg/m2, 95% CI -2·73 to -1·29, p<0·0001; C9- group -1·35, -1·64 to -1·06, p<0·0001) and lifetime alcohol consumption (C9+ group -5388 units, 95% CI -9113 to -1663, p=0·0046; C9- group -2185, -3748 to -622, p=0·0062) were lower in the C9+ and C9- groups. Median BMI during the presymptomatic phase for the C9+ group was lower (-0·69 kg/m2, 95% CI -1·24 to -0·13, p=0·015) and physical activity was similar (-348 metabolic equivalent of task [MET], 95% CI -966 to 270, p=0·27) to controls, whereas both the median BMI during the presymptomatic phase (0·27 kg/m2, 95% CI 0·04 to 0·50, p=0·022) and physical activity (585 MET, 291 to 878, p=0·0001) were higher in the C9- group than controls. Longitudinal analyses showed more cigarette pack-years in the C9- (starting 47 years pre-onset) and C9+ (starting 24 years pre-onset) groups, and higher physical activity over time in the C9- group (starting >30 years pre-onset). BMI of the C9+ group increased more slowly and was significantly lower (starting at 36 years pre-onset) than in controls, whereas the BMI of the C9- group was higher than controls (23-49 years pre-onset, becoming lower 10 years pre-onset). Instrumental variable analyses supported causal effects of alcohol consumption (P(θ|x)=0·9347) and smoking (P(θ|x)=0·9859) on ALS in the C9- group. We found evidence supporting a causal effect of increased BMI at younger age (mean 33·8 years, SD 11·7) in the C9- group (P[θ|x]=0·9272), but not at older ages. INTERPRETATION: Lifestyle during the presymptomatic phase differs between patients with ALS and controls decades before onset, depends on C9- status, and is probably part of the presymptomatic causal cascade. Identification of modifiable disease-causing lifestyle factors offers opportunities to lower risk of developing neurodegenerative disease. FUNDING: Netherlands ALS Foundation.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/psicologia , Proteína C9orf72/genética , Estilo de Vida , Mutação/genética , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/fisiopatologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ingestão de Energia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Fumar , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(7): 2327-2338, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Nerve ultrasound is a promising new tool in chronic inflammatory neuropathies. The aim of this study was to determine its prognostic value in a prospective multicenter cohort study including incident and prevalent patients with CIDP and MMN. METHODS: We enrolled 126 patients with CIDP, and 72 with MMN; 71 were treatment-naive. Patients with chronic idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy (CIAP; n = 35) were considered as disease controls. Standardized neurological examination, questionnaires, and nerve ultrasonography were obtained at time of inclusion and 1-year follow-up. Nerve size development over time and correlation between nerve size and clinical outcome measures were determined using linear mixed effects models. RESULTS: Nerve size development over time was heterogeneous. Only in MMN was there a correlation between C5 nerve root size and deterioration of grip strength (-1.3 kPa/mm2 (95% confidence interval [CI] -2.3 to -0.2). No other significant correlations between nerve size and clinical outcome measures were found. In MMN, presence of nerve enlargement at inclusion predicted deterioration of grip strength, and MMN patients with enlargement confined to the brachial plexus seemed to have more favorable outcomes. No other predictive effects of sonographic nerve size were found. CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicates that the natural course of nerve size development in CIDP and MMN is heterogeneous, and that the prognostic value of sonographic nerve enlargement is limited. It had some predictive effect in patients with MMN. Further research in specific subgroups of chronic inflammatory neuropathy is necessary to determine the usefulness of nerve ultrasonography after the diagnostic phase.


Assuntos
Polirradiculoneuropatia Desmielinizante Inflamatória Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Polirradiculoneuropatia Desmielinizante Inflamatória Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Ultrassonografia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829936

RESUMO

The kinesin family member 5A (KIF5A) motor domain variants are typically associated with hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) or Charcot-Marie-Tooth 2 (CMT2), while KIF5A tail variants predispose to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and neonatal intractable myoclonus. Variants within the stalk domain of KIF5A are relatively rare. We describe a family of three patients with a complex HSP phenotype and a likely pathogenic KIF5A stalk variant. More family members were reported to have walking difficulties. When reviewing the literature on KIF5A stalk variants, we found 22 other cases. The phenotypes varied with most cases having (complex) HSP/CMT2 or ALS. Symptom onset varied from childhood to adulthood and common additional symptoms for HSP are involvement of the upper limbs, sensorimotor polyneuropathy, and foot deformities. We conclude that KIF5A variants lead to a broad clinical spectrum of disease. Phenotype distribution according to variants in specific domains occurs often in the motor and tail domain but are not definite. However, variants in the stalk domain are not bound to a specific phenotype.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Paraplegia Espástica Hereditária , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Cinesina/genética , Mutação/genética , Fenótipo , Paraplegia Espástica Hereditária/genética , Adulto Jovem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683160

RESUMO

Introduction: More insight is needed into participation in daily activities and autonomy among patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Aims of this study were (1) to describe the course of participation restrictions and autonomy in participation during the first 10 months after diagnosis; (2) to study the influence of the rate of ALS progression on the course of participation. Methods: Secondary analysis of data from the longitudinal multicenter FACTS-2-ALS study. Self-report questionnaires were administered at inclusion (T0; n = 71), at 4 months (T1), 7 months (T2), 10 months (T3) after inclusion. Median duration of follow-up was 10.0 months. Participation restrictions were assessed using the sum of the Mobility Range and Social Behavior subscales of the Sickness Impact profile-68 (SIPSOC). Autonomy in participation was assessed using the Impact on Participation and Autonomy (IPA) Questionnaire. Fast disease progression was defined as an increase of 1.1 points per month or more on the ALS Functional Rating Scale. Results: Patients reported participation restrictions in all subscales while having mild physical limitations. There was a decrease of participation over time (restrictions and autonomy). This decrease was greatest in patients with fast disease progression. Disease progression negatively influenced movement-related participation more than social interaction domains. Rate of disease progression was more strongly related to SIPSOC scores compared to IPA scores. Discussion: Preserving participation may be an important determinant of quality of care for patients with ALS. Rate of progression of the disease should be taken into account as it was found to be significantly associated with the level of participation.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Autorrelato , Perfil de Impacto da Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527843

RESUMO

Objective: The ALSFRS-R is limited by multidimensionality, which originates from the summation of various subscales. This prevents a direct comparison between patients with identical total scores. We aim to evaluate how multidimensionality affects the performance of the ALSFRS-R in clinical trials. Methods: We simulated clinical trial data with different treatment effects for the ALSFRS-R total score and its subscales (i.e. bulbar, fine motor, gross motor and respiratory). We considered scenarios where treatment reduced the rate of ALSFRS-R subscale decline either uniformly (i.e. all subscales respond identically to treatment) or non-uniformly (i.e. subscales respond differently to treatment). Two main analytical strategies were compared: (1) analyzing only the total score or (2) utilizing a subscale-based test (i.e. alternative strategy). For each analytical strategy, we calculated the empirical power and required sample size. Results: Both strategies are valid when there is no treatment benefit and provide adequate control of type 1 error. If all subscales respond identically to treatment, using the total score is the most powerful approach. As the differences in treatment responses between subscales increase, the more the total score becomes affected. For example, to detect a 40% reduction in the bulbar rate of decline with 80% power, the total score requires 1380 patients, whereas this is 336 when using the alternative strategy. Conclusions: Ignoring the multidimensional structure of the ALSFRS-R total score could have negative consequences for ALS clinical trials. We propose determining treatment benefit on a subscale level, prior to stating whether a treatment is generally effective.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Progressão da Doença , Amigos , Humanos
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