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2.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428770

RESUMO

The value of utilizing a multigene pharmacogenetic panel to tailor pharmacotherapy is contingent on the prevalence of prescribed medications with an actionable pharmacogenetic association. The Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) has categorized over 35 gene-drug pairs as "level A," for which there is sufficiently strong evidence to recommend that genetic information be used to guide drug prescribing. The opportunity to use genetic information to tailor pharmacotherapy among adult patients was determined by elucidating the exposure to CPIC level A drugs among 11 Implementing Genomics In Practice Network (IGNITE)-affiliated health systems across the US. Inpatient and/or outpatient electronic-prescribing data were collected between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2016 for patients ≥ 18 years of age who had at least one medical encounter that was eligible for drug prescribing in a calendar year. A median of ~ 7.2 million adult patients was available for assessment of drug prescribing per year. From 2011 to 2016, the annual estimated prevalence of exposure to at least one CPIC level A drug prescribed to unique patients ranged between 15,719 (95% confidence interval (CI): 15,658-15,781) in 2011 to 17,335 (CI: 17,283-17,386) in 2016 per 100,000 patients. The estimated annual exposure to at least 2 drugs was above 7,200 per 100,000 patients in most years of the study, reaching an apex of 7,660 (CI: 7,632-7,687) per 100,000 patients in 2014. An estimated 4,748 per 100,000 prescribing events were potentially eligible for a genotype-guided intervention. Results from this study show that a significant portion of adults treated at medical institutions across the United States is exposed to medications for which genetic information, if available, should be used to guide prescribing.

3.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387367

RESUMO

Opioids are mainly used to treat both acute and chronic pain. Several opioids are metabolized to some extent by CYP2D6 (codeine, tramadol, hydrocodone, oxycodone, and methadone). Polymorphisms in CYP2D6 have been studied for an association with the clinical effect and safety of these drugs. Other genes that have been studied for their association with opioid clinical effect or adverse events include OPRM1 (mu receptor) and COMT (catechol-O-methyltransferase). This guideline updates and expands the 2014 Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) guideline for CYP2D6 genotype and codeine therapy and includes a summation of the evidence describing the impact of CYP2D6, OPRM1, and COMT on opioid analgesia and adverse events. We provide therapeutic recommendations for the use of CYP2D6 genotype results for prescribing codeine and tramadol and describe the limited and/or weak data for CYP2D6 and hydrocodone, oxycodone, and methadone, and for OPRM1 and COMT for clinical use.

4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2029411, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315113

RESUMO

Importance: Genotype-guided prescribing in pediatrics could prevent adverse drug reactions and improve therapeutic response. Clinical pharmacogenetic implementation guidelines are available for many medications commonly prescribed to children. Frequencies of medication prescription and actionable genotypes (genotypes where a prescribing change may be indicated) inform the potential value of pharmacogenetic implementation. Objective: To assess potential opportunities for genotype-guided prescribing in pediatric populations among multiple health systems by examining the prevalence of prescriptions for each drug with the highest level of evidence (Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium level A) and estimating the prevalence of potential actionable prescribing decisions. Design, Setting, and Participants: This serial cross-sectional study of prescribing prevalences in 16 health systems included electronic health records data from pediatric inpatient and outpatient encounters from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2017. The health systems included academic medical centers with free-standing children's hospitals and community hospitals that were part of an adult health care system. Participants included approximately 2.9 million patients younger than 21 years observed per year. Data were analyzed from June 5, 2018, to April 14, 2020. Exposures: Prescription of 38 level A medications based on electronic health records. Main Outcomes and Measures: Annual prevalence of level A medication prescribing and estimated actionable exposures, calculated by combining estimated site-year prevalences across sites with each site weighted equally. Results: Data from approximately 2.9 million pediatric patients (median age, 8 [interquartile range, 2-16] years; 50.7% female, 62.3% White) were analyzed for a typical calendar year. The annual prescribing prevalence of at least 1 level A drug ranged from 7987 to 10 629 per 100 000 patients with increasing trends from 2011 to 2014. The most prescribed level A drug was the antiemetic ondansetron (annual prevalence of exposure, 8107 [95% CI, 8077-8137] per 100 000 children). Among commonly prescribed opioids, annual prevalence per 100 000 patients was 295 (95% CI, 273-317) for tramadol, 571 (95% CI, 557-586) for codeine, and 2116 (95% CI, 2097-2135) for oxycodone. The antidepressants citalopram, escitalopram, and amitriptyline were also commonly prescribed (annual prevalence, approximately 250 per 100 000 patients for each). Estimated prevalences of actionable exposures were highest for oxycodone and ondansetron (>300 per 100 000 patients annually). CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 substrates were more frequently prescribed than medications influenced by other genes. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that opportunities for pharmacogenetic implementation among pediatric patients in the US are abundant. As expected, the greatest opportunity exists with implementing CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 pharmacogenetic guidance for commonly prescribed antiemetics, analgesics, and antidepressants.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Cálculos da Dosagem de Medicamento , Testes Farmacogenômicos , Padrões de Prática Médica , Medicamentos sob Prescrição , Criança , Serviços de Saúde da Criança/normas , Serviços de Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/genética , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Perfil Genético , Humanos , Masculino , Pediatria/métodos , Pediatria/normas , Testes Farmacogenômicos/métodos , Testes Farmacogenômicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/classificação , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Estados Unidos
5.
Clin Transl Sci ; 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325650

RESUMO

Although pharmacogenetic testing is becoming increasingly common across medical subspecialties, a broad range of utilization and implementation exists across pediatric centers. Large pediatric institutions that routinely use pharmacogenetics in their patient care have published their practices and experiences; however, minimal data exist regarding the full spectrum of pharmacogenetic implementation among children's hospitals. The primary objective of this nationwide survey was to characterize the availability, concerns, and barriers to pharmacogenetic testing in children's hospitals in the Children's Hospital Association. Initial responses identifying a contact person were received from 18 institutions. Of those 18 institutions, 14 responses (11 complete and 3 partial) to a more detailed survey regarding pharmacogenetic practices were received. The majority of respondents were from urban institutions (72%) and held a Doctor of Pharmacy degree (67%). Among all respondents, the three primary barriers to implementing pharmacogenetic testing identified were test reimbursement, test cost, and money. Conversely, the three least concerning barriers were potential for genetic discrimination, sharing results with family members, and availability of tests in certified laboratories. Low-use sites rated several barriers significantly higher than the high-use sites, including knowledge of pharmacogenetics (P = 0.03), pharmacogenetic interpretations (P = 0.04), and pharmacogenetic-based changes to therapy (P = 0.03). In spite of decreasing costs of pharmacogenetic testing, financial barriers are one of the main barriers perceived by pediatric institutions attempting clinical implementation. Low-use sites may also benefit from education/outreach in order to reduce perceived barriers to implementation.

6.
Pediatrics ; 146(6)2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33234666

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) metabolizer status and risk for escitalopram and citalopram, collectively termed (es)citalopram, and sertraline adverse events (AEs) in children. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we used deidentified electronic health records linked to DNA. The cohort included children ≤18 years with ≥2 days of (es)citalopram or ≥7 days of sertraline exposure. The primary outcome was AEs assessed by manual chart review. CYP2C19 was genotyped for functional variants (*2, *3, *4, *6, *8, and *17), and individuals were assigned metabolizer status. Association between AEs and metabolizer status was determined by using Cox regression adjusting for age, race, ethnicity, dose, and concomitant CYP2C19-inhibiting medications. RESULTS: The cohort included 249 sertraline-exposed and 458 (es)citalopram-exposed children, with a median age of 14.2 years (interquartile range 11.2-16.2) and 13.4 years (interquartile range 10.1-15.9), respectively. Sertraline AEs were more common in normal metabolizers (NMs) compared to poor metabolizers (PMs) or intermediate metabolizers (IMs) (hazard ratio [HR] 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-3.2; P = .047) in unadjusted analysis and after adjustment (HR 1.9; CI 1.04-3.4; P = .04). For (es)citalopram, more AEs were observed in NMs than PMs and IMs without statistically significant differences (unadjusted HR 1.6; CI 0.95-2.6; P = .08; adjusted HR 1.6; CI 0.95-2.6; P = .08). CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to adults, in our pediatric cohort, CYP2C19 NMs experienced increased sertraline AEs than PMs and IMs. (Es)citalopram AEs were not associated with CYP2C19 status in the primary analysis. The mechanism underlying this pediatric-specific finding is unknown but may be related to physiologic differences of adolescence. Further research is required to inform genotype-guided prescribing for these drugs in children.

7.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048353

RESUMO

Vanderbilt University Medical Center implemented pharmacogenomics (PGx) testing with the Pharmacogenomic Resource for Enhanced Decisions in Care and Treatment (PREDICT) initiative in 2010. This tutorial reviews the laboratory considerations, technical infrastructure, and programmatic support required to deliver panel-based PGx testing across a large health system with examples and experiences from the first decade of the PREDICT initiative. From the time of inception, automated clinical decision support (CDS) has been a critical capability for delivering PGx results to the point-of-care. Key features of the CDS include human-readable interpretations and clinical guidance that is anticipatory, actionable, and adaptable to changes in the scientific literature. Implementing CDS requires that structured results from the laboratory be encoded in standards-based messages that are securely ingested by electronic health records. Translating results to guidance also requires an informatics infrastructure with multiple components: (1) to manage the interpretation of raw genomic data to "star allele" results to expected phenotype, (2) to define the rules that associate a phenotype with recommended changes to clinical care, and (3) to manage and update the knowledge base. Knowledge base management is key to processing new results with the latest guidelines, and to ensure that historical genomic results can be reinterpreted with revised CDS. We recommend that these components be deployed with institutional authorization, programmatic support, and clinician education to govern the CDS content and policies around delivery.

8.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960980

RESUMO

Acute asthma exacerbations are primarily due to airway inflammation and remain one of the most frequent reasons for childhood hospitalizations. Although systemic corticosteroids remain the mainstay of therapy because of their anti-inflammatory properties, not all inflammatory pathways are responsive to systemic corticosteroids, necessitating hospital admission for further management. Cysteinyl leukotrienes (LTs) are proinflammatory mediators that play an important role in systemic corticosteroids non-responsiveness. Montelukast is a potent LT-receptor antagonist, and an intravenous preparation caused rapid, sustained improvement of acute asthma exacerbations in adults. We hypothesized that a 30-mg dose of oral montelukast achieves peak plasma concentrations (Cmax ), comparable to the intravenous preparation (1700 ng/mL) and would be well tolerated in 15 children aged 5 to 12 years with acute asthma exacerbations. After administration of montelukast chewable tablets, blood samples were collected at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 120, 180, and 240 minutes. Plasma was separated and frozen at -80°C until analysis for montelukast concentration using liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry. Median time to Cmax (tmax ) was 3.0 hours. Six participants (40%) achieved Cmax of 1700 ng/mL or higher. However, there was high interindividual variability in peak plasma concentration (median Cmax of 1378 ng/mL; range, 16-4895 ng/mL). No participant had side effects or adverse events. Plasma concentrations from this pilot study support the design of a weight-based dose-finding study aimed at selecting an optimal dose for future clinical trials to assess the efficacy of high-dose oral montelukast in children with moderate to severe asthma exacerbations.

9.
Clin Transl Sci ; 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961024

RESUMO

High-dose (HD) methotrexate (MTX) is a critical component of treatment for hematologic malignancies in children and young adults. Therapeutic drug monitoring is necessary due to substantial interindividual variation in MTX clearance. Common function-altering polymorphisms in SLCO1B1 (encodes OATP1B1, which transports MTX) may contribute to clearance variability. We performed pharmacokinetic modeling using data for 106 children and young adults treated with HD MTX for hematologic malignancies; of 396 total courses of HD MTX, 360 consisted of 5 g/m2 over 24 hours. We evaluated the contribution of clinical covariates and SLCO1B1 genotype (388A>G and 521T>C) to MTX clearance variability. Of the clinical covariates studied, patient weight improved the pharmacokinetic model most significantly (P < 0.001). The addition of the SLCO1B1 variants individually further improved the model (P < 0.05 for each). An interaction between these variants was suggested when both were included (P = 0.017). SLCO1B1 genotype should be considered in efforts to personalize HD MTX dosing.

10.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770672

RESUMO

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used for acid suppression in the treatment and prevention of many conditions, including gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastric and duodenal ulcers, erosive esophagitis, Helicobacter pylori infection, and pathological hypersecretory conditions. Most PPIs are metabolized primarily by cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) into inactive metabolites, and CYP2C19 genotype has been linked to PPI exposure, efficacy, and adverse effects. We summarize the evidence from the literature and provide therapeutic recommendations for PPI prescribing based on CYP2C19 genotype (updates at www.cpicpgx.org). The potential benefits of using CYP2C19 genotype data to guide PPI therapy include (i) identifying patients with genotypes predictive of lower plasma exposure and prescribing them a higher dose that will increase the likelihood of efficacy, and (ii) identifying patients on chronic therapy with genotypes predictive of higher plasma exposure and prescribing them a decreased dose to minimize the risk of toxicity that is associated with long-term PPI use, particularly at higher plasma concentrations.

13.
J Pediatr ; 222: 213-220.e5, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586526

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test whether variants in ADRB1 and CYP2C9 genes identify subgroups of individuals with differential response to treatment for Marfan syndrome through analysis of data from a large, randomized trial. STUDY DESIGN: In a subset of 250 white, non-Hispanic participants with Marfan syndrome in a prior randomized trial of atenolol vs losartan, the common variants rs1801252 and rs1801253 in ADRB1 and rs1799853 and rs1057910 in CYP2C9 were analyzed. The primary outcome was baseline-adjusted annual rate of change in the maximum aortic root diameter z-score over 3 years, assessed using mixed effects models. RESULTS: Among 122 atenolol-assigned participants, the 70 with rs1801253 CC genotype had greater rate of improvement in aortic root z-score compared with 52 participants with CG or GG genotypes (Time × Genotype interaction P = .005, mean annual z-score change ± SE -0.20 ± 0.03 vs -0.09 ± 0.03). Among participants with the CC genotype in both treatment arms, those assigned to atenolol had greater rate of improvement compared with the 71 of the 121 assigned to losartan (interaction P = .002; -0.20 ± 0.02 vs -0.07 ± 0.02; P < .001). There were no differences in atenolol response by rs1801252 genotype or in losartan response by CYP2C9 metabolizer status. CONCLUSIONS: In this exploratory study, ADRB1-rs1801253 was associated with atenolol response in children and young adults with Marfan syndrome. If these findings are confirmed in future studies, ADRB1 genotyping has the potential to guide therapy by identifying those who are likely to have greater therapeutic response to atenolol than losartan.


Assuntos
Atenolol/uso terapêutico , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Losartan/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Marfan/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/genética , Adolescente , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/biossíntese , DNA/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Síndrome de Marfan/genética , Síndrome de Marfan/metabolismo , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/biossíntese , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Pers Med ; 10(2)2020 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349224

RESUMO

A goal of the 3rd phase of the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE3) Network was to examine the return of results (RoR) of actionable variants in more than 100 genes to consenting participants and their healthcare providers. Each of the 10 eMERGE sites developed plans for three essential elements of the RoR process: Disclosure to the participant, notification of the health care provider, and integration of results into the electronic health record (EHR). Procedures and protocols around these three elements were adapted as appropriate to individual site requirements and limitations. Detailed information about the RoR procedures at each site was obtained through structured telephone interviews and follow-up surveys with the clinical investigator leading or participating in the RoR process at each eMERGE3 institution. Because RoR processes at each of the 10 sites allowed for taking into account differences in population, disease focus and institutional requirements, significant heterogeneity of process was identified, including variability in the order in which patients and clinicians were notified and results were placed in the EHR. This heterogeneity in the process flow for eMERGE3 RoR reflects the "real world" of genomic medicine in which RoR procedures must be shaped by the needs of the patients and institutional environments.

17.
J Pediatr ; 219: 126-132.e2, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037154

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of and risk factors associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) during acyclovir treatment in neonates and infants. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a multicenter (n = 4), retrospective cohort study of all hospitalized infants age <60 days treated with intravenous acyclovir (≥1 dose) for suspected or confirmed neonatal herpes simplex virus disease from January 2011 to December 2015. Infants with serum creatinine measured both before acyclovir (baseline) and during treatment were included. We classified AKI based on changes in creatinine according to published neonatal AKI criteria and performed Cox regression analysis to evaluate risk factors for AKI during acyclovir treatment. RESULTS: We included 1017 infants. The majority received short courses of acyclovir (median, 5 doses). Fifty-seven infants (5.6%) developed AKI during acyclovir treatment, with an incidence rate of AKI at 11.6 per 1000 acyclovir days. Cox regression analysis identified having confirmed herpes simplex virus disease (OR, 4.35; P = .002), receipt of ≥2 concomitant nephrotoxic medications (OR, 3.07; P = .004), receipt of mechanical ventilation (OR, 5.97; P = .001), and admission to an intensive care unit (OR, 6.02; P = .006) as risk factors for AKI during acyclovir treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Among our cohort of infants exposed to acyclovir, the rate of AKI was low. Sicker infants and those exposed to additional nephrotoxic medications seem to be at greater risk for acyclovir-induced toxicity and warrant closer monitoring.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Aciclovir/efeitos adversos , Herpes Simples/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Aciclovir/administração & dosagem , Aciclovir/uso terapêutico , Administração Intravenosa , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 107(4): 934-943, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957870

RESUMO

Postmarketing population pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) studies can be useful to capture patient characteristics affecting PK or PD in real-world settings. These studies require longitudinally measured dose, outcomes, and covariates in large numbers of patients; however, prospective data collection is cost-prohibitive. Electronic health records (EHRs) can be an excellent source for such data, but there are challenges, including accurate ascertainment of drug dose. We developed a standardized system to prepare datasets from EHRs for population PK/PD studies. Our system handles a variety of tasks involving data extraction from clinical text using a natural language processing algorithm, data processing, and data building. Applying this system, we performed a fentanyl population PK analysis, resulting in comparable parameter estimates to a prior study. This new system makes the EHR data extraction and preparation process more efficient and accurate and provides a powerful tool to facilitate postmarketing population PK/PD studies using information available in EHRs.


Assuntos
Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fentanila/farmacocinética , Lamotrigina/farmacocinética , Vigilância de Produtos Comercializados/estatística & dados numéricos , Tacrolimo/farmacocinética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacocinética , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância de Produtos Comercializados/métodos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Pediatr Res ; 87(1): 118-124, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric acute kidney injury (AKI) is common and associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and length of stay. We performed a pragmatic randomized trial testing the hypothesis that AKI risk alerts increase AKI screening. METHODS: All intensive care and ward admissions of children aged 28 days through 21 years without chronic kidney disease from 12/6/2016 to 11/1/2017 were included. The intervention alert displayed if calculated AKI risk was > 50% and no serum creatinine (SCr) was ordered within 24 h. The primary outcome was SCr testing within 48 h of AKI risk > 50%. RESULTS: Among intensive care admissions, 973/1909 (51%) were randomized to the intervention. Among those at risk, more SCr tests were ordered for the intervention group than for controls (418/606, 69% vs. 361/597, 60%, p = 0.002). AKI incidence and severity were the same in intervention and control groups. Among ward admissions, 5492/10997 (50%) were randomized to the intervention, and there were no differences between groups in SCr testing, AKI incidence, or severity of AKI. CONCLUSIONS: Alerts based on real-time prediction of AKI risk increased screening rates in intensive care but not pediatric ward settings. Pragmatic clinical trials provide the opportunity to assess clinical decision support and potentially eliminate ineffective alerts.

20.
Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol ; 60: 311-331, 2020 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283429

RESUMO

Pharmacogenetics is a key component of precision medicine. Genetic variation in drug metabolism enzymes can lead to variable exposure to drugs and metabolites, potentially leading to inefficacy and drug toxicity. Although the evidence for pharmacogenetic associations in children is not as extensive as for adults, there are several drugs across diverse therapeutic areas with robust pediatric data indicating important, and relatively common, drug-gene interactions. Guidelines to assist gene-based dose optimization are available for codeine, thiopurine drugs, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, atomoxetine, tacrolimus, and voriconazole. For each of these drugs, there is an opportunity to clinically implement precision medicine approaches with children for whom genetic test results are known or are obtained at the time of prescribing. For many more drugs that are commonly used in pediatric patients, additional investigation is needed to determine the genetic factors influencing appropriate dose.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem , Farmacogenética/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Criança , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo
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