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1.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 695, 2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35739525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of elevated pre-diagnostic C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations on mortality in individuals with colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unclear. METHODS: We investigated the association between pre-diagnostic high-sensitivity CRP concentrations and CRP genetic variation associated with circulating CRP and CRC-specific and all-cause mortality based on data from 1,235 individuals with CRC within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 9.3 years, 455 CRC-specific deaths were recorded, out of 590 deaths from all causes. Pre-diagnostic CRP concentrations were not associated with CRC-specific (hazard ratio, HR highest versus lowest quintile 0.92, 95% confidence interval, CI 0.66, 1.28) or all-cause mortality (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.68, 1.21). Genetic predisposition to higher CRP (weighted score based on alleles of four CRP SNPs associated with higher circulating CRP) was not significantly associated with CRC-specific mortality (HR per CRP-score unit 0.95, 95% CI 0.86, 1.05) or all-cause mortality (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.90, 1.07). Among four investigated CRP genetic variants, only SNP rs1205 was significantly associated with CRC-specific (comparing the CT and CC genotypes with TT genotype, HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.35, 0.83 and HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.38, 0.88, respectively) and all-cause mortality (HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.40, 0.85 and 0.64, 95% CI 0.44, 0.92, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this prospective cohort study do not support a role of pre-diagnostic CRP concentrations on mortality in individuals with CRC. The observed associations with rs1205 deserve further scientific attention.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa , Neoplasias Colorretais , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
2.
Int J Cancer ; 151(3): 348-360, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35383926

RESUMO

Diabetes is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer. However, colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease and it is not well understood whether diabetes is more strongly associated with some tumor molecular subtypes than others. A better understanding of the association between diabetes and colorectal cancer according to molecular subtypes could provide important insights into the biology of this association. We used data on lifestyle and clinical characteristics from the Colorectal Cancer Family Registry (CCFR) and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), including 9756 colorectal cancer cases (with tumor marker data) and 9985 controls, to evaluate associations between reported diabetes and risk of colorectal cancer according to molecular subtypes. Tumor markers included BRAF and KRAS mutations, microsatellite instability and CpG island methylator phenotype. In the multinomial logistic regression model, comparing colorectal cancer cases to cancer-free controls, diabetes was positively associated with colorectal cancer regardless of subtype. The highest OR estimate was found for BRAF-mutated colorectal cancer, n = 1086 (ORfully adj : 1.67, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.36-2.05), with an attenuated association observed between diabetes and colorectal cancer without BRAF-mutations, n = 7959 (ORfully adj : 1.33, 95% CI: 1.19-1.48). In the case only analysis, BRAF-mutation was differentially associated with diabetes (Pdifference  = .03). For the other markers, associations with diabetes were similar across tumor subtypes. In conclusion, our study confirms the established association between diabetes and colorectal cancer risk, and suggests that it particularly increases the risk of BRAF-mutated tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Diabetes Mellitus , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Humanos , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Mutação , Fenótipo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética
3.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(6): 1216-1226, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35266989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The etiology of colorectal cancer is not fully understood. METHODS: Using genetic variants and metabolomics data including 217 metabolites from the Framingham Heart Study (n = 1,357), we built genetic prediction models for circulating metabolites. Models with prediction R2 > 0.01 (Nmetabolite = 58) were applied to predict levels of metabolites in two large consortia with a combined sample size of approximately 46,300 cases and 59,200 controls of European and approximately 21,700 cases and 47,400 controls of East Asian (EA) descent. Genetically predicted levels of metabolites were evaluated for their associations with colorectal cancer risk in logistic regressions within each racial group, after which the results were combined by meta-analysis. RESULTS: Of the 58 metabolites tested, 24 metabolites were significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk [Benjamini-Hochberg FDR (BH-FDR) < 0.05] in the European population (ORs ranged from 0.91 to 1.06; P values ranged from 0.02 to 6.4 × 10-8). Twenty one of the 24 associations were replicated in the EA population (ORs ranged from 0.26 to 1.69, BH-FDR < 0.05). In addition, the genetically predicted levels of C16:0 cholesteryl ester was significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk in the EA population only (OREA: 1.94, 95% CI, 1.60-2.36, P = 2.6 × 10-11; OREUR: 1.01, 95% CI, 0.99-1.04, P = 0.3). Nineteen of the 25 metabolites were glycerophospholipids and triacylglycerols (TAG). Eighteen associations exhibited significant heterogeneity between the two racial groups (PEUR-EA-Het < 0.005), which were more strongly associated in the EA population. This integrative study suggested a potential role of lipids, especially certain glycerophospholipids and TAGs, in the etiology of colorectal cancer. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified potential novel risk biomarkers for colorectal cancer by integrating genetics and circulating metabolomics data. IMPACT: The identified metabolites could be developed into new tools for risk assessment of colorectal cancer in both European and EA populations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Glicerofosfolipídeos , Humanos , Lipídeos , Metabolômica/métodos
4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(4)2022 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35205668

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We describe levels of cancer worry in the general population as measured with the Cancer Worry Scale (CWS) and investigate the association with colonoscopy screening intentions in three colorectal cancer risk scenarios. METHODS: The data were sourced through a population-based survey. Respondents (n = 943) completed an eight-item CWS and questions on colonoscopy screening interest at three hypothetical risk levels. RESULTS: Respondents without a personal cancer history (n = 853) scored 9.46 on the six-item CWS (mean, SD 2.72). Mean scores were significantly higher in women (9.91, SD 2.89) as compared to men (9.06, SD 2.49, p < 0.001). Linear regression showed higher cancer worry in women and those with children when controlling for education, age group, and country of birth. High cancer worry (six-item CWS mean >12) was identified in 25% of women and in 17% of men. Among those, 71% would attend a colonoscopy screening compared to 52% of those with low cancer worry (p < 0.001, 5% CRC-risk). CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of cancer worry in a general population sample showed higher mean scores in women, and levels overlapped with earlier findings in cancer-affected samples. Respondents with high cancer worry were more inclined to undergo a colonoscopy screening, and intention increased with higher levels of hypothetical risk.

5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 127, 2022 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996992

RESUMO

Identification of new genetic markers may improve the prediction of colorectal cancer prognosis. Our objective was to examine genome-wide associations of germline genetic variants with disease-specific survival in an analysis of 16,964 cases of colorectal cancer. We analyzed genotype and colorectal cancer-specific survival data from a consortium of 15 studies. Approximately 7.5 million SNPs were examined under the log-additive model using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for clinical factors and principal components. Additionally, we ran secondary analyses stratifying by tumor site and disease stage. We used a genome-wide p-value threshold of 5 × 10-8 to assess statistical significance. No variants were statistically significantly associated with disease-specific survival in the full case analysis or in the stage-stratified analyses. Three SNPs were statistically significantly associated with disease-specific survival for cases with tumors located in the distal colon (rs698022, HR = 1.48, CI 1.30-1.69, p = 8.47 × 10-9) and the proximal colon (rs189655236, HR = 2.14, 95% CI 1.65-2.77, p = 9.19 × 10-9 and rs144717887, HR = 2.01, 95% CI 1.57-2.58, p = 3.14 × 10-8), whereas no associations were detected for rectal tumors. Findings from this large genome-wide association study highlight the potential for anatomical-site-stratified genome-wide studies to identify germline genetic risk variants associated with colorectal cancer-specific survival. Larger sample sizes and further replication efforts are needed to more fully interpret these findings.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Loci Gênicos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
6.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(4): 793-803, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35086823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endogenous sex hormones may contribute to higher colorectal cancer incidence rates in men compared with women, but despite an increased number of studies, clear evidence is lacking. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive nested case-control study of circulating concentrations of sex hormones, sex hormone precursors, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in relation to subsequent colon cancer risk in European men. Concentrations were measured using liquid LC/MS-MS in prospectively collected plasma samples from 690 cases and 690 matched controls from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study (NSHDS) cohorts. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). In addition, we conducted a meta-analysis of previous studies on men. RESULTS: Circulating levels of testosterone (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.51-0.89) and SHBG (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.62-0.96) were inversely associated with colon cancer risk. For free testosterone, there was a nonsignificant inverse association (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.58-1.18). In a dose-response meta-analysis of endogenous sex hormone levels, inverse associations with colorectal/colon cancer risk were found for testosterone [relative risks (RR) per 100 ng/dL = 0.98; 95% CI, 0.96-1.00; I2 = 22%] and free testosterone (RR per 1 ng/dL = 0.98; 95% CI, 0.95-1.00; I2 = 0%). CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide suggestive evidence for the association between testosterone, SHBG, and male colon cancer development. IMPACT: Additional support for the involvement of sex hormones in male colon cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Estradiol , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/metabolismo , Testosterona
7.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 114(5): 740-752, 2022 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35048991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glycemic traits-such as hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and type 2 diabetes-have been associated with higher colorectal cancer risk in observational studies; however, causality of these associations is uncertain. We used Mendelian randomization (MR) to estimate the causal effects of fasting insulin, 2-hour glucose, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and type 2 diabetes with colorectal cancer. METHODS: Genome-wide association study summary data were used to identify genetic variants associated with circulating levels of fasting insulin (n = 34), 2-hour glucose (n = 13), fasting glucose (n = 70), HbA1c (n = 221), and type 2 diabetes (n = 268). Using 2-sample MR, we examined these variants in relation to colorectal cancer risk (48 214 case patient and 64 159 control patients). RESULTS: In inverse-variance models, higher fasting insulin levels increased colorectal cancer risk (odds ratio [OR] per 1-SD = 1.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15 to 2.36). We found no evidence of any effect of 2-hour glucose (OR per 1-SD = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.86 to 1.21) or fasting glucose (OR per 1-SD = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.88 to 1.23) concentrations on colorectal cancer risk. Genetic liability to type 2 diabetes (OR per 1-unit increase in log odds = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.07) and higher HbA1c levels (OR per 1-SD = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.19) increased colorectal cancer risk, although these findings may have been biased by pleiotropy. Higher HbA1c concentrations increased rectal cancer risk in men (OR per 1-SD = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.05 to 1.40), but not in women. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support a causal effect of higher fasting insulin, but not glucose traits or type 2 diabetes, on increased colorectal cancer risk. This suggests that pharmacological or lifestyle interventions that lower circulating insulin levels may be beneficial in preventing colorectal tumorigenesis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hiperinsulinismo , Glicemia/análise , Glicemia/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hiperinsulinismo/complicações , Hiperinsulinismo/genética , Insulina , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
8.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(1): 51-57, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34697056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stress is a commonly perceived cause of cancer, but the evidence to date is limited and inconclusive. We examined work-related stress in relation to cancer incidence in a population-based cohort, with outcome data from Swedish national registries. METHODS: The study population included 113,057 participants in the Västerbotten Intervention Programme. HRs were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression, for cancer overall and for types with ≥500 cases, and adjusting for several potential confounders. The primary exposure was prediagnostic work-related stress, using the well established Karasek job demand/control model. Demand and control variables were dichotomized at the median, and participants were classified according to combinations of these categories. We also considered social network and aspects of quality of life. RESULTS: "High-strain" work (high demand/low control) was not associated with cancer risk compared with "low-strain" work (low demand/high control): multivariable HR 1.01 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.94-1.08] for men and 0.99 (95% CI, 0.92-1.07) for women. Results were also null for most cancer types assessed: prostate, breast, colorectal, lung, and gastrointestinal (GI). The risk of GI cancer was lower for "passive" (low demand/low control) versus "low-strain" work, particularly for colorectal cancer in women: multivariable HR 0.71 (95% CI, 0.55-0.91), but statistical significance was lost after adjustment for multiple testing. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this population-based, cohort study do not support a role for work-related stress in determining cancer risk. IMPACT: This study helps fill an important knowledge gap given the common concern about stress as a risk factor for cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Estresse Ocupacional , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco
9.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 20(5): e1061-e1082, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Colorectal cancer risk can be lowered by adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) guidelines. We derived metabolic signatures of adherence to these guidelines and tested their associations with colorectal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. METHODS: Scores reflecting adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations (scale, 1-5) were calculated from participant data on weight maintenance, physical activity, diet, and alcohol among a discovery set of 5738 cancer-free European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition participants with metabolomics data. Partial least-squares regression was used to derive fatty acid and endogenous metabolite signatures of the WCRF/AICR score in this group. In an independent set of 1608 colorectal cancer cases and matched controls, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated for colorectal cancer risk per unit increase in WCRF/AICR score and per the corresponding change in metabolic signatures using multivariable conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Higher WCRF/AICR scores were characterized by metabolic signatures of increased odd-chain fatty acids, serine, glycine, and specific phosphatidylcholines. Signatures were inversely associated more strongly with colorectal cancer risk (fatty acids: OR, 0.51 per unit increase; 95% CI, 0.29-0.90; endogenous metabolites: OR, 0.62 per unit change; 95% CI, 0.50-0.78) than the WCRF/AICR score (OR, 0.93 per unit change; 95% CI, 0.86-1.00) overall. Signature associations were stronger in male compared with female participants. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolite profiles reflecting adherence to WCRF/AICR guidelines and additional lifestyle or biological risk factors were associated with colorectal cancer. Measuring a specific panel of metabolites representative of a healthy or unhealthy lifestyle may identify strata of the population at higher risk of colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
10.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 114(1): 38-46, 2022 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibiotics use may increase colorectal cancer (CRC) risk by altering the gut microbiota, with suggestive evidence reported. Our study aims to investigate antibiotics use in relation to subsequent CRC risk. METHODS: This is a nationwide, population-based study with a matched case-control design (first primary CRC cases and 5 matched, cancer-free controls). Complete-population data, extracted from Swedish national registers for the period 2005-2016, were used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: We included 40 545 CRC cases and 202 720 controls. Using the full dataset, we found a positive association between more frequent antibiotics use and CRC, excluding antibiotics prescribed within 2 years of diagnosis attenuated results toward the null. In site-specific analyses, excluding the 2-year washout, the positive association was confined to the proximal colon (adjusted odds ratio for very high use vs no use = 1.17, 95% confidence interval = 1.05 to 1.31). For rectal cancer, an inverse association, which appears to be driven by women, was observed. Quinolones and sulfonamides and/or trimethoprims were positively associated with proximal colon cancer, whereas a more general inverse association, across antibiotics classes, was observed for rectal cancer. We found no association between methenamine hippurate, a urinary tract antiseptic not affecting the gut microbiota, and CRC risk. CONCLUSIONS: This register-based study covering the entire population of Sweden found a robust association between antibiotics use and higher risk of proximal colon cancer and an inverse association with rectal cancer in women. This study strengthens the evidence from previous investigations and adds important insight into site-specific colorectal carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Neoplasias Colorretais , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia
11.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 5(6)2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805742

RESUMO

Background: Observational studies have consistently reported that postmenopausal hormone therapy use is associated with lower colon cancer risk, but epidemiologic studies examining the associations between circulating concentrations of endogenous estrogens and colorectal cancer have reported inconsistent results. Methods: We investigated the associations between circulating concentrations of estrone, estradiol, free estradiol, testosterone, free testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), progesterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) with colon cancer risk in a nested case-control study of 1028 postmenopausal European women (512 colon cancer cases, 516 matched controls) who were noncurrent users of exogenous hormones at blood collection. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were used to compute odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals to evaluate the association between circulating sex hormones and colon cancer risk. We also conducted a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies of circulating estrone and estradiol with colorectal, colon, and rectal cancer risk in postmenopausal women. All statistical tests were 2-sided. Results: In the multivariable model, a nonstatistically significantly positive relationship was found between circulating estrone and colon cancer risk (odds ratio per log2 1-unit increment = 1.17 [95% confidence interval = 1.00 to 1.38]; odds ratioquartile4-quartile1 = 1.33 [95% confidence interval = 0.89 to 1.97], P trend = .20). Circulating concentrations of estradiol, free estradiol, testosterone, free testosterone, androstenedione, DHEA, progesterone, and SHBG were not associated with colon cancer risk. In the dose-response meta-analysis, no clear evidence of associations were found between circulating estradiol and estrone concentrations with colorectal, colon, and rectal cancer risk. Conclusion: Our observational and meta-analysis results do not support an association between circulating concentrations of endogenous sex hormones and colon or rectal cancer in postmenopausal women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/etiologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Neoplasias Retais/etiologia , Androstenodiona/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Intervalos de Confiança , Sulfato de Desidroepiandrosterona/sangue , Estradiol/sangue , Estrogênios/sangue , Estrona/sangue , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Progesterona/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Testosterona/sangue
12.
Biomedicines ; 9(11)2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34829750

RESUMO

A higher selenium (Se) status has been shown to be associated with lower risk for colorectal cancer (CRC), but the importance of Se in survival after CRC diagnosis is not well studied. The associations of prediagnostic circulating Se status (as indicated by serum Se and selenoprotein P (SELENOP) measurements) with overall and CRC-specific mortality were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression among 995 CRC cases (515 deaths, 396 from CRC) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Se and SELENOP serum concentrations were measured on average 46 months before CRC diagnosis. Median follow-up time was 113 months. Participants with Se concentrations in the highest quintile (≥100 µg/L) had a multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 0.73 (95% CI: 0.52-1.02; Ptrend = 0.06) for CRC-specific mortality and 0.77 (95% CI: 0.57-1.03; Ptrend = 0.04) for overall mortality, compared with the lowest quintile (≤67.5 µg/L). Similarly, participants with SELENOP concentrations in the highest (≥5.07 mg/L) compared with the lowest quintile (≤3.53 mg/L) had HRs of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.64-1.24; Ptrend = 0.39) for CRC-specific mortality and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.62-1.11; Ptrend = 0.17) for overall mortality. Higher prediagnostic exposure to Se within an optimal concentration (100-150 µg/L) might be associated with improved survival among CRC patients, although our results were not statistically significant and additional studies are needed to confirm this potential association. Our findings may stimulate further research on selenium's role in survival among CRC patients especially among those residing in geographic regions with suboptimal Se availability.

13.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836419

RESUMO

Salicylic acid (SA) has observationally been shown to decrease colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, that rapidly deacetylates to SA) is an effective primary and secondary chemopreventive agent. Through a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach, we aimed to address whether levels of SA affected CRC risk, stratifying by aspirin use. A two-sample MR analysis was performed using GWAS summary statistics of SA (INTERVAL and EPIC-Norfolk, N = 14,149) and CRC (CCFR, CORECT, GECCO and UK Biobank, 55,168 cases and 65,160 controls). The DACHS study (4410 cases and 3441 controls) was used for replication and stratification of aspirin-use. SNPs proxying SA were selected via three methods: (1) functional SNPs that influence the activity of aspirin-metabolising enzymes; (2) pathway SNPs present in enzymes' coding regions; and (3) genome-wide significant SNPs. We found no association between functional SNPs and SA levels. The pathway and genome-wide SNPs showed no association between SA and CRC risk (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 0.84-1.27 and OR: 1.08, 95% CI: 0.86-1.34, respectively). Results remained unchanged upon aspirin use stratification. We found little evidence to suggest that an SD increase in genetically predicted SA protects against CRC risk in the general population and upon stratification by aspirin use.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Ácido Salicílico/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Ácido Salicílico/administração & dosagem
14.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 5(5)2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738070

RESUMO

Background: Smoking has been associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality in previous studies, but current evidence on smoking in association with survival after CRC diagnosis is limited. Methods: We pooled data from 12 345 patients with stage I-IV CRC from 11 epidemiologic studies in the International Survival Analysis in Colorectal Cancer Consortium. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the associations of prediagnostic smoking behavior with overall, CRC-specific, and non-CRC-specific survival. Results: Among 12 345 patients with CRC, 4379 (35.5%) died (2515 from CRC) over a median follow-up time of 7.5 years. Smoking was strongly associated with worse survival in stage I-III patients, whereas no association was observed among stage IV patients. Among stage I-III patients, clear dose-response relationships with all survival outcomes were seen for current smokers. For example, current smokers with 40 or more pack-years had statistically significantly worse overall, CRC-specific, and non-CRC-specific survival compared with never smokers (hazard ratio [HR] =1.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.68 to 2.25; HR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.12 to 1.78; and HR = 2.67, 95% CI = 2.19 to 3.26, respectively). Similar associations with all survival outcomes were observed for former smokers who had quit for less than 10 years, but only a weak association with non-CRC-specific survival was seen among former smokers who had quit for more than 10 years. Conclusions: This large consortium of CRC patient studies provides compelling evidence that smoking is strongly associated with worse survival of stage I-III CRC patients in a clear dose-response manner. The detrimental effect of smoking was primarily related to noncolorectal cancer events, but current heavy smoking also showed an association with CRC-specific survival.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Fumar/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(12): 2317-2326, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical activity is associated not only with a decreased risk of developing colorectal cancer but also with improved survival. One putative mechanism is the infiltration of immune cells in the tumor microenvironment. Experimental findings suggest that physical activity may mobilize immune cells to the tumor. We hypothesized that higher levels of physical activity prior to colorectal cancer diagnosis are associated with higher densities of tumor-infiltrating T-lymphocytes in colorectal cancer patients. METHODS: The study setting was a northern Swedish population-based cohort, including 109,792 participants with prospectively collected health- and lifestyle-related data. For 592 participants who later developed colorectal cancer, archival tumor tissue samples were used to assess the density of CD3+ and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells by IHC. Odds ratios for associations between self-reported, prediagnostic recreational physical activity and immune cell infiltration were estimated by ordinal logistic regression. RESULTS: Recreational physical activity >3 times per week was associated with a higher density of CD8+ T cells in the tumor front and center compared with participants reporting no recreational physical activity. Odds ratios were 2.77 (95% CI, 1.21-6.35) and 2.85 (95% CI, 1.28-6.33) for the tumor front and center, respectively, after adjustment for sex, age at diagnosis, and tumor stage. The risk estimates were consistent after additional adjustment for several potential confounders. For CD3, no clear associations were found. CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity may promote the infiltration of CD8+ immune cells in the tumor microenvironment of colorectal cancer. IMPACT: The study provides some evidence on how physical activity may alter the prognosis in colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Neoplasias Colorretais , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral , Prognóstico , Microambiente Tumoral
16.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(17)2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503217

RESUMO

This systematic review summarizes the evidence for blood-based colorectal cancer biomarkers from studies conducted in pre-diagnostic, asymptomatic settings. Of 1372 studies initially identified, the final selection included 30 studies from prospective cohorts and 23 studies from general screening settings. Overall, the investigations had high quality but considerable variability in data analysis and presentation of results, and few biomarkers demonstrated a clinically relevant discriminatory ability. One of the most promising biomarkers was the anti-p53 antibody, with consistent findings in one screening cohort and in the 3-4 years prior to diagnosis in two prospective cohort studies. Proteins were the most common type of biomarker assessed, particularly carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and C-reactive protein (CRP), with modest results. Other potentially promising biomarkers included proteins, such as AREG, MIC-1/GDF15, LRG1 and FGF-21, metabolites and/or metabolite profiles, non-coding RNAs and DNA methylation, as well as re-purposed routine lab tests, such as ferritin and the triglyceride-glucose index. Biomarker panels generally achieved higher discriminatory performance than single markers. In conclusion, this systematic review highlighted anti-p53 antibodies as a promising blood-based biomarker for use in colorectal cancer screening panels, together with other specific proteins. It also underscores the need for validation of promising biomarkers in independent pre-diagnostic settings.

17.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 5(4)2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34377935

RESUMO

Background: Smoking is associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Previous studies suggested this association may be restricted to certain molecular subtypes of CRC, but large-scale comprehensive analysis is lacking. Methods: A total of 9789 CRC cases and 11 231 controls of European ancestry from 11 observational studies were included. We harmonized smoking variables across studies and derived sex study-specific quartiles of pack-years of smoking for analysis. Four somatic colorectal tumor markers were assessed individually and in combination, including BRAF mutation, KRAS mutation, CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), and microsatellite instability (MSI) status. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between smoking and risk of CRC subtypes by molecular characteristics, adjusting for age, sex, and study. All statistical tests were 2-sided and adjusted for Bonferroni correction. Results: Heavier smoking was associated with higher risk of CRC overall and stratified by individual markers (P trend < .001). The associations differed statistically significantly between all molecular subtypes, which was the most statistically significant for CIMP and BRAF. Compared with never-smokers, smokers in the fourth quartile of pack-years had a 90% higher risk of CIMP-positive CRC (odds ratio = 1.90, 95% confidence interval = 1.60 to 2.26) but only 35% higher risk for CIMP-negative CRC (odds ratio = 1.35, 95% confidence interval = 1.22 to 1.49; P difference = 2.1 x 10-6). The association was also stronger in tumors that were CIMP positive, MSI high, or KRAS wild type when combined (P difference < .001). Conclusion: Smoking was associated with differential risk of CRC subtypes defined by molecular characteristics. Heavier smokers had particularly higher risk of CRC subtypes that were CIMP positive and MSI high in combination, suggesting that smoking may be involved in the development of colorectal tumors via the serrated pathway.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Mutação , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fatores Etários , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Feminino , Genes ras/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Metilação , não Fumantes , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Fenótipo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Fatores Sexuais , Fumantes
18.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 101, 2021 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying the obesity-cancer relationship are incompletely understood. This study aimed to characterise metabolic signatures of greater body size and to investigate their association with two obesity-related malignancies, endometrial and colorectal cancers, and with weight loss within the context of an intervention study. METHODS: Targeted mass spectrometry metabolomics data from 4326 participants enrolled in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort and 17 individuals from a single-arm pilot weight loss intervention (Intercept) were used in this analysis. Metabolic signatures of body size were first determined in discovery (N = 3029) and replication (N = 1297) sets among EPIC participants by testing the associations between 129 metabolites and body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) using linear regression models followed by partial least squares analyses. Conditional logistic regression models assessed the associations between the metabolic signatures with endometrial (N = 635 cases and 648 controls) and colorectal (N = 423 cases and 423 controls) cancer risk using nested case-control studies in EPIC. Pearson correlation between changes in the metabolic signatures and weight loss was tested among Intercept participants. RESULTS: After adjustment for multiple comparisons, greater BMI, WC, and WHR were associated with higher levels of valine, isoleucine, glutamate, PC aa C38:3, and PC aa C38:4 and with lower levels of asparagine, glutamine, glycine, serine, lysoPC C17:0, lysoPC C18:1, lysoPC C18:2, PC aa C42:0, PC ae C34:3, PC ae C40:5, and PC ae C42:5. The metabolic signature of BMI (OR1-sd 1.50, 95% CI 1.30-1.74), WC (OR1-sd 1.46, 95% CI 1.27-1.69), and WHR (OR1-sd 1.54, 95% CI 1.33-1.79) were each associated with endometrial cancer risk. Risk of colorectal cancer was positively associated with the metabolic signature of WHR (OR1-sd: 1.26, 95% CI 1.07-1.49). In the Intercept study, a positive correlation was observed between weight loss and changes in the metabolic signatures of BMI (r = 0.5, 95% CI 0.06-0.94, p = 0.03), WC (r = 0.5, 95% CI 0.05-0.94, p = 0.03), and WHR (r = 0.6, 95% CI 0.32-0.87, p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Obesity is associated with a distinct metabolic signature comprising changes in levels of specific amino acids and lipids which is positively associated with both colorectal and endometrial cancer and is potentially reversible following weight loss.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias do Endométrio , Índice de Massa Corporal , Tamanho Corporal , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Circunferência da Cintura
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5151, 2021 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33664295

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer prognosis is dependent on stage, and measures to improve early detection are urgently needed. Using prospectively collected plasma samples from the population-based Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study, we evaluated protein biomarkers in relation to colorectal cancer risk. Applying a two-tiered approach, we analyzed 160 proteins in matched sequential samples from 58 incident colorectal cancer case-control pairs. Twenty-one proteins selected from both this discovery phase and the literature were then analyzed in a validation set of 450 case-control pairs. Odds ratios were estimated by conditional logistic regression. LASSO regression and ROC analysis were used for multi-marker analyses. In the main validation analysis, no proteins retained statistical significance. However, exploratory subgroup analyses showed associations between FGF-21 and colon cancer risk (multivariable OR per 1 SD: 1.23 95% CI 1.03-1.47) as well as between PPY and rectal cancer risk (multivariable OR per 1 SD: 1.47 95% CI 1.12-1.92). Adding protein markers to basic risk predictive models increased performance modestly. Our results highlight the challenge of developing biomarkers that are effective in the asymptomatic, prediagnostic window of opportunity for early detection of colorectal cancer. Distinguishing between cancer subtypes may improve prediction accuracy. However, single biomarkers or small panels may not be sufficient for effective precision screening.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Proteínas de Neoplasias/sangue , Proteômica , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Suécia
20.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(5): 953-964, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational evidence has shown that smoking is a risk factor for breast and colorectal cancer. We used Mendelian randomization (MR) to examine causal associations between smoking and risks of breast and colorectal cancer. METHODS: Genome-Wide Association Study summary data were used to identify genetic variants associated with lifetime amount of smoking (n = 126 variants) and ever having smoked regularly (n = 112 variants). Using two-sample MR, we examined these variants in relation to incident breast (122,977 cases/105,974 controls) and colorectal cancer (52,775 cases/45,940 controls). RESULTS: In inverse-variance weighted models, a genetic predisposition to higher lifetime amount of smoking was positively associated with breast cancer risk [OR per 1-SD increment: 1.13; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00-1.26; P = 0.04]; although heterogeneity was observed. Similar associations were found for estrogen receptor-positive and estrogen receptor-negative tumors. Higher lifetime amount of smoking was positively associated with colorectal cancer (OR per 1-SD increment, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.04-1.40; P = 0.01), colon cancer (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.11-1.55; P < 0.01), and rectal cancer (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.07-1.73; P = 0.01). Ever having smoked regularly was not associated with risks of breast (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.90-1.14; P = 0.85) or colorectal cancer (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.86-1.10; P = 0.68). CONCLUSIONS: These findings are consistent with prior observational evidence and support a causal role of higher lifetime smoking amount in the development of breast and colorectal cancer. IMPACT: The results from this comprehensive MR analysis indicate that lifetime smoking is a causal risk factor for these common malignancies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Causalidade , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Fatores de Risco
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