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1.
Chemistry ; 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476058

RESUMO

Luminescent materials doped with Ln 3+ ions have attracted in recent years a large amount of attention for their applications as optical thermometers based both on down shifting and upconversion processes. This study presents research done on development of highly sensitive optical thermometers in the physiological temperature range based on PMMA (poly(methyl methacrylate)) films doped with two series of visible Ln 3+ complexes (Ln 3+ = Tb 3+ , Eu 3+ and Sm 3+ ) and silica (SiO 2 ) nanoparticles (NPs) coated with these PMMA films. The best performing PMMA films doped with Tb 3+ and Eu 3+ complexes, was the PMMA[TbEuL 1 tppo]1 film (L 1 = 4,4,4-trifluoro-1-phenyl-1,3-butadionate and tppo = triphenylphosphine oxide), which showed good temperature sensing S r = 4.21% K -1 at 313 K, while for the PMMA films doped with Tb 3+ and Sm 3+ complexes, was the PMMA[TbSmL 2 tppo]3 film (L 2 = 4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,3-butadionate) showed S r = 3.64% K -1 at 313 K. Additionally, SiO 2 nanoparticles coated with the best preforming films from each of the series of PMMA films (Tb-Eu and Tb-Sm) and their temperature sensing properties were studied in water showing excellent performance in the physiological temperature range ( PMMA[TbEuL 1 tppo]1@SiO 2 S r = 3.84% °C at 20 °C and PMMA[TbSmL 2 tpp]3@SiO 2 S r = 3.27% °C at 20 °C) and the toxicity of these nanoparticles on human cells was studied showing that they are not toxic.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169902

RESUMO

A stereoselective gold(I)-catalyzed vinylcyclopropanation of alkenes has been developed. A gold-coordinated cationic vinyl carbene species, readily generated via a rearrangement of the ethylenedithioacetal of propargyl aldehyde, reacts with a wide range of alkenes to afford thio-substituted vinylcyclopropanes. The gold-catalyzed vinyl cyclopropanation proceeds under mild conditions at room temperature and is generally selective for the formation of cis -substituted cyclopropanes. The reaction allows the formal introduction of a 'naked' vinyl carbene, by subsequent chemoselective hydrodesulfurisation of the ethylenedithio-bridge. The synthetic utility of the new method is demonstrated by a short, racemic formal synthesis of the alkaloid cephalotaxin, hinging on a key vinyl cyclopropane-cyclopentene rearrangement.

3.
Molecules ; 25(22)2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203056

RESUMO

In order to create near-infrared (NIR) luminescent lanthanide complexes suitable for DNA-interaction, novel lanthanide dppz complexes with general formula [Ln(NO3)3(dppz)2] (Ln = Nd3+, Er3+ and Yb3+; dppz = dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine) were synthesized, characterized and their luminescence properties were investigated. In addition, analogous compounds with other lanthanide ions (Ln = Ce3+, Pr3+, Sm3+, Eu3+, Tb3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Tm3+, Lu3+) were prepared. All complexes were characterized by IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of the complexes (Ln = La3+, Ce3+, Pr3+, Nd3+, Eu3+, Er3+, Yb3+, Lu3+) showed that the lanthanide's first coordination sphere can be described as a bicapped dodecahedron, made up of two bidentate dppz ligands and three bidentate-coordinating nitrate anions. Efficient energy transfer was observed from the dppz ligand to the lanthanide ion (Nd3+, Er3+ and Yb3+), while relatively high luminescence lifetimes were detected for these complexes. In their excitation spectra, the maximum of the strong broad band is located at around 385 nm and this wavelength was further used for excitation of the chosen complexes. In their emission spectra, the following characteristic NIR emission peaks were observed: for a) Nd3+: 4F3/2 → 4I9/2 (870.8 nm), 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 (1052.7 nm) and 4F3/2 → 4I13/2 (1334.5 nm); b) Er3+: 4I13/2 → 4I15/2 (1529.0 nm) c) Yb3+: 2F5/2 → 2F7/2 (977.6 nm). While its low triplet energy level is ideally suited for efficient sensitization of Nd3+ and Er3+, the dppz ligand is considered not favorable as a sensitizer for most of the visible emitting lanthanide ions, due to its low-lying triplet level, which is too low for the accepting levels of most visible emitting lanthanides. Furthermore, the DNA intercalation ability of the [Nd(NO3)3(dppz)2] complex with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was confirmed using fluorescence spectroscopy.

4.
Dalton Trans ; 49(41): 14673-14679, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064119

RESUMO

A general, user-friendly synthetic route to [Pt(NHC)(L)Cl2] and [Pt(NHC)(dvtms)] (L = DMS, Py; DMS = dimethyl sulfide, dvtms = divinyltetramethylsiloxane, Py = pyridine) complexes has been developed. The procedure is applicable to a wide range of ligands and enables facile synthetic access to key Pt(0)- and Pt(ii)-NHC complexes used in hydrosilylation catalysis.

5.
Dalton Trans ; 49(39): 13872-13879, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016283

RESUMO

Tri(1-adamantyl)phosphine (PAd3) possesses unique steric and electronic properties positioning it at the border between tertiary phosphines and N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC). Novel Au-PAd3 complexes were synthesized from the known [Au(PAd3)Cl]. We have optimised reaction conditions for the synthesis of this useful synthon in order to circumvent the formation of the [Au(PAd3)2]Cl. [Au(PAd3)Cl] was used to access a number of derivatives and some were deployed as catalysts. The hydration of alkynes was targeted to gauge the reactivity of Au-PAd3 complexes and permit comparison with NHC and tertiary phosphine congeners.

6.
ChemMedChem ; 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744405

RESUMO

Nitroxoline, a well-known antimicrobial agent, has been identified in several independent studies, and on different molecular targets, as a promising candidate to be repurposed for cancer treatment. One specific target of interest concerns cathepsin B, a lysosomal peptidase involved in the degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM), leading to tumor invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. However, dedicated optimization of the nitroxoline core is needed to actually deliver a nitroxoline-based antitumor drug candidate. Within that context, 34 novel nitroxoline analogs were synthesized and evaluated for their relative cathepsin B inhibitory activity, their antiproliferative properties and their antimicrobial activity. More than twenty analogs were shown to exert a similar or even slightly higher cathepsin B inhibitory activity compared to nitroxoline. The implemented modifications of the nitroxoline scaffold and the resulting SAR information can form an eligible basis for further optimization toward more potent cathepsin B inhibitors in the quest for a clinical nitroxoline-based antitumor agent.

7.
Dalton Trans ; 49(34): 12068-12081, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820302

RESUMO

Chalcogen-based urea compounds supported by a wide range of N-heterocyclic carbenes are synthesised and fully characterised. Coordination of selenoureas is further explored with Group 11 transition metals to form new copper, gold and silver complexes. Single crystal X-ray analyses unambiguously establish the solid-state coordination of these complexes and show that the geometry of a complex is highly influenced by a combination of electronic properties - mainly π-accepting ability - and steric hindrance of the ligands, as well as the nature of the metal, affording a variety of coordination behaviours. In this report, we investigate these phenomena using several experimental methods.

8.
Eur J Med Chem ; 206: 112659, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823003

RESUMO

As the last enzyme in nucleotide synthesis as precursors for DNA replication, thymidylate kinase of M. tuberculosis (MtbTMPK) attracts significant interest as a target in the discovery of new anti-tuberculosis agents. Earlier, we discovered potent MtbTMPK inhibitors, but these generally suffered from poor antimycobacterial activity, which we hypothesize is due to poor bacterial uptake. To address this, we herein describe our efforts to equip previously reported MtbTMPK inhibitors with targeting moieties to increase the whole cell activity of the hybrid analogues. Introduction of a simplified Fe-chelating siderophore motif gave rise to analogue 17 that combined favorable enzyme inhibitory activity with significant activity against M. tuberculosis (MIC of 12.5 µM). Conjugation of MtbTMPK inhibitors with an imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine or 3,5-dinitrobenzamide scaffold afforded analogues 26, 27 and 28, with moderate MtbTMPK enzyme inhibitory potency, but sub-micromolar activity against mycobacteria without significant cytotoxicity. These results indicate that conjugation with structural motifs known to favor mycobacterial uptake may be a valid approach for discovering new antimycobacterial agents.

9.
J Biol Inorg Chem ; 25(6): 875-885, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719971

RESUMO

L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate magnesium (APMg) salt is a vitamin C derivative frequently used as a raw material in cell and tissue therapy. APMg is not only used as a replacement of the unstable ascorbate, but also shows additional cell-biological functionalities. However, its unknown structural characteristics hamper the mechanistic elucidation of its biological role. Therefore, different techniques were applied for APMg structure characterization. Firstly, the stoichiometric composition was characterized by its solvent, ligand and magnesium content. No crystals of APMg could be obtained; however, a single crystal of APNa, the sodium salt of l-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate, was successfully obtained and its crystal structure was elucidated. FT-IR was applied to further clarify the structure of solid APMg. Finally, the structure of APMg in aqueous solution was explored by potentiometric titration as well as FT-IR.

10.
Chem Biodivers ; 17(8): e2000217, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421207

RESUMO

A series of novel α-(diphenylphosphoryl)- and α-(diphenylphosphorothioyl)cycloalkanone oximes have been synthesized in search for novel bioactive molecules. Their structures were characterized by various spectroscopic methods including IR, NMR (1 H, 31 P, 13 C), mass spectrometry and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The newly synthesized phosphorus-containing oximes were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis), Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium) and fungal strains (Candida albicans and Candida glabrata). The biological assays showed that all the studied compounds exhibited high antibacterial and antifungal activities at only 0.1-2.1 µg/mL. In silico molecular docking studies in FabH enzyme active site were performed in order to predict the possible interaction modes and binding energies of the drug candidates at the molecular level.

11.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(44): 5953-5956, 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347246

RESUMO

The reaction mechanism leading to the formation of cross-coupling palladium pre-catalysts of the PEPPSI family was investigated. Two intermediates were isolated and proved to be both suitable synthons to the pre-catalysts, with one permitting the design of a novel and greener user-friendly synthetic route. In light of this mechanistic understanding, the traditional one-pot method was shown to be possible using stoichiometric amounts of throw-away ligand, which represents a considerable synthetic improvement over the wasteful "in pyridine" approach.

12.
ChemistryOpen ; 9(4): 442-444, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269899

RESUMO

A convenient and improved method for the synthesis of beta acids or lupulones, which are known to possess e. g. anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and antimicrobial activity, has been developed successfully. Further derivatization of these complex structures to the corresponding dihydrochromen-7-ones, including the natural product machuone, was realized to simplify their analysis and to confirm their molecular structure. In addition to practical and safe laboratory procedures, the advantages associated with this new approach involve the use of water as a solvent and the direct crystallization of lupunones from acetonitrile, rendering our strategy more efficient and benign as compared to available methods.

13.
Chemistry ; 26(20): 4515-4519, 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022329

RESUMO

We have been puzzled by the involvement of weak organic and inorganic bases in the synthesis of metal-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes. Such bases are insufficiently strong to permit the presumed required deprotonation of the azolium salt (the carbene precursor) prior to metal binding. Experimental and computational studies provide support for a base-assisted concerted process that does not require free NHC formation. The synthetic protocol was found applicable to a number of transition-metal- and main-group-centered NHC compounds and could become the synthetic route of choice to form M-NHC bonds.

14.
Chemistry ; 26(24): 5541-5551, 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077182

RESUMO

The discovery of sustainable and scalable synthetic protocols leading to gold-aryl compounds bearing N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands sparked an investigation of their reactivity and potential utility as organometallic synthons. The use of a mild base and green solvents provide access to these compounds, starting from widely available boronic acids and various [Au(NHC)Cl] complexes, with reactions taking place under air, at room temperature and leading to high yields with unprecedented ease. One compound, (N,N'-bis[2,6-(di-isopropyl)phenyl]imidazol-2-ylidene)(4-methoxyphenyl)gold, ([Au(IPr)(4-MeOC6 H4 )]), was synthesized on a multigram scale and used to gauge the reactivity of this class of compounds towards C-H/N-H bonds and with various acids, revealing simple pathways to gold-based species that possess attractive properties as materials, reagents and/or catalysts.

15.
Chemistry ; 26(7): 1548-1557, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603596

RESUMO

Covalent triazine frameworks (CTFs) have provided a unique platform in functional material design for a wide range of applications. This work reports a series of new CTFs with two new heteroaromatic building blocks (pyrazole and isoxazole groups) through a building-block transformation approach aiming for carbon capture and storage (CCS) and metal-free catalysis. The CTFs were synthesized from their respective building blocks [(4,4'-(1H-pyrazole-3,5-diyl)dibenzonitrile (pyz) and 4,4'-(isoxazole-3,5-diyl)dibenzonitrile (isox))] under ionothermal conditions using ZnCl2 . Both of the building blocks were designed by an organic transformation of an acetylacetone containing dinitrile linker to pyrazole and isoxazole groups, respectively. Due to this organic transformation, (i) linker aromatization, (ii) higher surface areas and nitrogen contents, (iii) higher aromaticity, and (iv) higher surface basicity was achieved. Due to these enhanced properties, CTFs were explored for CO2 uptake and metal-free heterogeneous catalysis. Among all, the isox-CTF, synthesized at 400 °C, showed the highest CO2 uptake (4.92 mmol g-1 at 273 K and 2.98 mmol g-1 at 298 K at 1 bar). Remarkably, these CTFs showed excellent metal-free catalytic activity for the aerobic oxidation of benzylamine at mild reaction conditions. On studying the properties of the CTFs, it was observed that organic transformations and ligand aromatization of the materials are crucial factor to tune the important parameters that influence the CO2 uptake and the catalytic activity. Overall, this work highlights the substantial effect of designing new CTF materials by building-block organic transformations resulting in better properties for CCS applications and heterogeneous catalysis.

16.
J Inorg Biochem ; 202: 110869, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669694

RESUMO

The monocationic chloro complexes containing chelating N∩N ligands: [(η6-p-cymene)Ru(L1-4)Cl]+ (1-4), where L1 = 4-methyl-1,10-phenantroline, L2 = dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine, L3 = 11-chloro-dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine, L4 = 11-nitro-dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine; p-cymene = 1-methyl-4-isopropylbenzene) have been prepared and characterized as the hexafluorophosphate salts. The biological activity of 1-4 has been investigated in selected 2D monolayer cell cultures (A549, PANC-1, MDA-MB-231, MRC-5). All investigated ruthenium complexes showed similar or even better cytotoxicity to cisplatin. However, there was no significant reduction in growth of PANC-1 cells in a 3D cell culture of multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) after treatment with 2-4, while the cisplatin treatment induced retardation in MCTS growth. Flow cytometry analysis of the cell cycle of PANC-1 cells shows that 3 caused changes of cell cycle phase distribution characterized by slight accumulation of cells in the G2-M phase. Absence of the Sub-G1 phase in the cell cycle of the treated cells indicated that there was no fragmentation of DNA for the analyzed time intervals (48 and 72 h treatment). Fluorescent microscopy, after acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, revealed that the investigated ruthenium complexes induced some characteristics of apoptotic morphology (shrinking and condensation of chromatin) with notably preserved integrity of the plasma membrane. Investigation of cellular uptake and DNA - fraction accumulation performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in PANC-1 cells with equimolar concentrations (5 µM) of 2-4 and cisplatin showed more efficient cellular uptake and DNA - fraction accumulation of complex 3 compared to complexes 2 and 4.

17.
Eur J Med Chem ; 187: 111963, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865015

RESUMO

The tropical disease malaria is responsible for more than 400,000 deaths annually, especially in Southeast Asia and Africa. Although the number of malaria cases is declining, there still is an urgent need for novel antimalarial agents. The emergence of hybrid antimalarial agents and the precedence set by the antimalarial drug ferroquine (FQ) prompted us to design new ferrocene-containing quinoline structures. Herein, we report the efficient synthesis of three different series of ferrocene-quinoline conjugates and a class of ferrocene-containing heterotricycles in good to high yields. For all twenty novel ferrocenyl derivatives, electrochemical properties were investigated using cyclic voltammetry and antiplasmodium evaluation against a chloroquine-susceptible NF54 strain of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum was conducted, pointing to three compounds showing submicromolar potency. Subsequently, cytotoxicity assays against a Chinese Hamster Ovarian cell line and evaluation against a chloroquine-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum for these three compounds revealed selective and promising antiplasmodium activity.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Desenho de Fármacos , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Compostos Ferrosos/farmacologia , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Metalocenos/farmacologia , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Antimaláricos/síntese química , Antimaláricos/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Compostos Ferrosos/química , Humanos , Metalocenos/química , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Quinolinas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
18.
Chemistry ; 26(7): 1441, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856346

RESUMO

Invited for the cover of this issue is the group of Pascal Van Der Voort at the University of Ghent and colleagues at Technische Universität Berlin. The image depicts the covalent triazine frameworks reported in the manuscript for the sorption of CO2 and also in metal-free catalysis. Read the full text of the article at 10.1002/chem.201903926.

19.
Chemistry ; 25(69): 15944-15956, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614041

RESUMO

Two series of novel NIR-emissive complexes of Nd3+ , Sm3+ , Er3+ and Yb3+ with two different ß-diketonate ligands (L1 =4,4,4-trifluoro-1-phenyl-1,3-butadione and L2 =4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,3-butadione) are reported. The neutral triphenylphosphine oxide (tppo) ligand was used to replace coordinated water molecules in the first coordination sphere of the as-obtained [Ln(L1(2) )3 (H2 O)2 ] complexes to afford water-free [Ln(L1(2) )3 (tppo)2 ] molecular species. Upon replacement of water molecules by tppo units, the NIR emission lifetimes of the Nd3+ , Er3+ and Sm3+ complexes increase by about one order of magnitude up to values of ≈9, 8 and 113 ms while Yb3+ complexes reach intrinsic quantum yields as high as to ΦYb =6.5 %., which are remarkably high for fully hydrogenated complexes. Vibrational quenching by CH and OH oscillators has been quantitatively assessed by implementing the Förster's model of resonance energy transfer on the basis of experimental data. This study demonstrates that highly efficient NIR-emitting lanthanide complexes can be obtained with facile, cheap and accessible syntheses through a rational design.

20.
Chemistry ; 25(67): 15419-15423, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609050

RESUMO

Despite the large variety of modified nucleosides that have been reported, the preparation of constrained 4'-spirocyclic adenosine analogues has received very little attention. We discovered that the [2+2]-cycloaddition of dichloroketene on readily available 4'-exo-methylene furanose sugars efficiently results in the diastereoselective formation of novel 4'-spirocyclobutanones. The reaction mechanism was investigated via density functional theory (DFT) and found to proceed either via a non-synchronous or stepwise reaction sequence, controlled by the stereochemistry at the 3'-position of the sugar substrate. The obtained dichlorocyclobutanones were converted into nucleoside analogues, providing access to a novel class of chiral 4'-spirocyclobutyl adenosine mimetics in eight steps from commercially available sugars. Assessment of the biological activity of designed 4'-spirocyclic adenosine analogues identified potent inhibitors for protein methyltransferase target PRMT5.


Assuntos
Adenosina/química , Nucleosídeos/análogos & derivados , Nucleosídeos/síntese química , Carboidratos/química , Reação de Cicloadição , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Dicloroetilenos/química , Glicosilação , Metais/química , Estrutura Molecular , Oxirredução , Estereoisomerismo , Termodinâmica
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