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Eur J Pharm Biopharm ; 163: 158-170, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848628


The purpose of this work was to evaluate solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) as a long acting injectable drug delivery platform for intramuscular and subcutaneous administration. SLNs were developed with a low (unsaturated) and high (supersaturated) drug concentration at equivalent lipid doses. The impact of the drug loading as well as the administration route for the SLNs using two model compounds with different physicochemical properties were explored for their in vitro and in vivo performance. Results revealed that drug concentration had an influence on the particle size and entrapment efficiency of the SLNs and, therefore, indirectly an influence on the Cmax/dose and AUC/dose after administration to rats. Furthermore, the in vitro drug release was compound specific, and linked to the affinity of the drug compounds towards the lipid matrix and release medium. The pharmacokinetic parameters resulted in an increased tmax, t1/2 and mean residence time (MRT) for all formulations after intramuscular and subcutaneous dosing, when compared to intravenous administration. Whereas, the subcutaneous injections performed better for those parameters than the intramuscular injections, because of the higher blood perfusion in the muscles compared with the subcutaneous tissues. In conclusion, SLNs extend drug release, need to be optimized for each drug, and are appropriate carriers for the delivery of drugs that require a short-term sustained release in a timely manner.

Eur J Pharm Biopharm ; 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248266


Polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) are produced using bio-compatible and bio-degradable materials such as PLGA (Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)). This technology provides a valuable tool to deliver molecules to the subcellular level with a relatively low risk of cytotoxicity. However their use in the field of reproductive biotechnology is not yet scientifically substantiated. The aim of the present study was to test if PLGA NPs can be taken-up by cumulus-enclosed oocytes as a first step towards potential oocyte-targeted applications to enhance oocyte quality and fertility. We conducted a series of experiments using bovine in vitro oocyte maturation as a model to study FITC-conjugated PLGA internalization (using laser-scanning confocal microscopy) and the effect of some important physical (particle size) and chemical (conjugation with PEG) modifications. We show evidence that PLGA NPs can be taken-up by cumulus cells and to a less extent by the enclosed oocytes regardless of the NP size. The NP transfer to the oocyte appear to be transcellular (via cumulus cells and transzonal projections) and paracellular (via zona pellucida). The PLGA NPs were detected in the vicinity of the oocyte as quick as 2h post-exposure in a protein-free medium and did not compromise cumulus cell viability nor subsequent early embryo development or embryo quality. These results suggest that PLGA NPs may have promising applications as carriers for drug or molecule delivery targeting cumulus cells and oocytes.

Nanomedicine (Lond) ; 15(27): 2671-2688, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112210


Aim: This research aims to identify important formulation parameters for the enhancement of nanoparticle (NP) uptake and decreasing the cytotoxicity in macrophages. Materials & methods: Fluorescent poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanocarriers were characterized for size distributions, zeta potential and encapsulation efficiency. Incubation time, size class, PLGA derivative and chitosan derivative were assessed for uptake kinetics and cell viability. Results: The major determining factor for enhancing cellular uptake were chitosan coatings, combined with acid-terminated PLGA and small NP size. Moreover, cytotoxicity was more favorable for small, chitosan glutamate-coated, acid-terminated PLGA NPs compared with its plain chitosan-coated counterparts. Conclusion: Chitosan glutamate has been shown to be a valuable alternative coating material for acid-terminated PLGA NPs to efficiently and safely target macrophages.