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1.
J Invasive Cardiol ; 33(11): E900-E909, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735353

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The impact of large thrombus burden (LTB) on very long-term clinical outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is unknown. We compared very long-term clinical outcomes in STEMI patients with either LTB or small thrombus burden (STB). METHODS: Between 2002 and 2004, thrombus burden (TB) was evaluated in consecutive patients with STEMI undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In occluded infarct-related arteries, TB was reclassified after flow restoration. LTB was defined as thrombus ≥2 vessel diameters. Major adverse cardiac event (MACE) rate was evaluated at 10-year follow-up and survival data were collected up to 15 years post PCI. RESULTS: A total of 812 patients were enrolled, and TB assessment was available for 806 patients (99.3%); 580 patients (72.0%) had STB and 226 patients (28.0%) had LTB. Patients with LTB experienced more no reflow (4.0% vs 0.5%; P<.01) and distal embolization (17.3% vs 3.4%; P<.001) than STB patients. Ten-year MACE rate (42.5% vs 42.4%; P=.59), 10-year mortality rate (27.0% vs 26.4%; P=.75), and 15-year mortality rate (31.9% vs 35.9%; P=.29) were similar between STB and LTB groups, respectively. By landmark analysis, MACE rate was higher in the LTB group (15.9% vs 8.8%; P<.01) at 30 days, but not beyond (31.6% vs 36.9%; P=.28). There was no difference in mortality at any time point (at 30 days, 9.7% vs 6.2%; P=.08; beyond 30 days, 17.3% vs 20.5%; P=.48). LTB was an independent predictor of MACE at 30 days post PCI (hazard ratio, 1.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-2.51; P=.04). CONCLUSIONS: In STEMI patients, LTB might identify a subpopulation at high risk of no-reflow, distal embolization, and early ischemic events, but is not associated with worse clinical outcomes at long-term follow-up.


Assuntos
Trombose Coronária , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Angiografia Coronária , Trombose Coronária/complicações , Trombose Coronária/diagnóstico , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826103

RESUMO

Large thrombus burden (LTB) during ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) could translate into worse clinical outcomes. The impact of a LTB in terms of long-term clinical outcomes on different myocardial infarct territories has not yet been fully evaluated. From April 2002 to December 2004, consecutive patients with STEMI undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with drug eluting stent were evaluated. The study sample was stratified in two groups: anterior STEMI and non-anterior STEMI. LTB was considered as a thrombus larger than or equal to 2-vessel diameters, and small thrombus burden less than 2-vessel diameters. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were evaluated at 10-year and survival data were collected up to 15-year. A total of 812 patients were evaluated, 6 patients were excluded due to inadequate angiographic images, 410 (50.9%) had an anterior STEMI and 396 (49.1%) a non-anterior STEMI. Patients with LTB had higher rates of 10-year mortality (aHR 2.27, 95%CI 1.42-3.63; p = 0.001) and 10-year MACE (aHR 1.46, 95%CI 1.03-2.08; p = 0.033) in anterior STEMI, but not in non-anterior STEMI (aHR 0.78, 95%CI 0.49-1.24; p = 0.298; aHR 0.71, 95%CI 0.50-1.02; p = 0.062). LTB was associated with increased 30-day mortality (aHR 5.60, 95%CI 2.49-12.61; p < 0.001) and 30-day MACE (aHR 2.72, 95%CI 1.45-5.08; p = 0.002) in anterior STEMI, but not in non-anterior STEMI (aHR 0.39, 95%CI 0.15-1.06; p = 0.066; aHR 0.67, 95%CI 0.31-1.46; p = 0.316). Beyond 30-day, LTB had no impact on mortality and MACE in both groups. In anterior STEMI, LTB is associated with worse long-term clinical outcomes, this effect was driven by early events.

3.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(22): 2415-2430, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794649

RESUMO

Although clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are improving, the long-term risk for target vessel failure remains concerning. Although the application of intravascular imaging and physiological indexes significantly improves outcomes, their routine use in practice remains limited. Nevertheless, merely using these modalities is not enough, and to truly improve patient outcomes, optimal intravascular dimensions with minimal vascular injury should be targeted. When assessing post-PCI results using either type of physiological or imaging technology, a broad spectrum of stent- and vessel-related anomalies can be expected. As not all of these issues warrant treatment, a profound knowledge of what to expect and how to recognize and when to treat these intraluminal problems is needed. Additionally, promising new modalities such as angiography-derived coronary physiology and hybrid imaging catheters are becoming available. The authors provide an overview of the currently available tools and techniques to define suboptimal PCI and when to apply these technologies to improve outcomes.

4.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617993

RESUMO

AIMS: The SYNTAX II study evaluated the impact of advances in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), integrated into a single revascularization strategy, on outcomes of patients with de novo three-vessel disease. The study employed decision-making utilizing the SYNTAX score II, use of coronary physiology, thin-strut biodegradable polymer drug-eluting stents, intravascular ultrasound, enhanced treatments of chronic total occlusions, and optimized medical therapy. Patients treated with this approach were compared with predefined patients from the SYNTAX I trial. METHODS AND RESULTS: SYNTAX II was a multicentre, single-arm, open-label study of patients requiring revascularization who demonstrated clinical equipoise for treatment with either coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or PCI, predicted by the SYNTAX score II. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), which included any revascularization. The comparators were a matched PCI cohort trial and a matched CABG cohort, both from the SYNTAX I trial. At 5 years, MACCE rate in SYNTAX II was significantly lower than in the SYNTAX I PCI cohort (21.5% vs. 36.4%, P < 0.001). This reflected lower rates of revascularization (13.8% vs. 23.8%, P < 0.001), and myocardial infarction (MI) (2.7% vs. 10.4%, P < 0.001), consisting of both procedural MI (0.2% vs. 3.8%, P < 0.001) and spontaneous MI (2.3% vs. 6.9%, P = 0.004). All-cause mortality was lower in SYNTAX II (8.1% vs. 13.8%, P = 0.013) reflecting a lower rate of cardiac death (2.8% vs. 8.4%, P < 0.001). Major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events' outcomes at 5 years among patients in SYNTAX II and predefined patients in the SYNTAX I CABG cohort were similar (21.5% vs. 24.6%, P = 0.35). CONCLUSIONS: Use of the SYNTAX II PCI strategy in patients with de novo three-vessel disease led to improved and durable clinical results when compared to predefined patients treated with PCI in the original SYNTAX I trial. A predefined exploratory analysis found no significant difference in MACCE between SYNTAX II PCI and matched SYNTAX I CABG patients at 5-year follow-up.

5.
EuroIntervention ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fractional flow reserve (FFR)-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is superior to angiography-guided PCI. The clinical uptake of FFR has been limited, however, by the need to advance a wire in the coronary artery, the additional time required and the need for hyperaemic agents which can cause patient discomfort. FFR derived from routine coronary angiography eliminates these issues. AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance and accuracy of three-dimensional quantitative coronary angiography (3D-QCA)-based vessel FFR (vFFR) compared to pressure wire-based FFR (≤0.80). METHODS: The FAST II (Fast Assessment of STenosis severity) study was a prospective observational multicentre study designed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of vFFR compared to the reference standard (pressure wire-based FFR ≤0.80). A total of 334 patients from six centres were enrolled. Both site-determined and blinded independent core lab vFFR measurements were compared to FFR. RESULTS: The core lab vFFR was 0.83±0.09 and pressure wire-based FFR 0.83±0.08. A good correlation was found between core lab vFFR and pressure wire-based FFR (R=0.74; p<0.001; mean bias 0.0029±0.0642). vFFR had an excellent diagnostic accuracy in identifying lesions with an invasive wire-based FFR ≤0.80 (AUC 0.93; 95% CI: 0.90-0.96; p<0.001). Positive predictive value, negative predictive value, diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of vFFR were 90%, 90%, 90%, 81% and 95%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: 3D-QCA-based vFFR has excellent diagnostic performance to detect FFR ≤0.80. The study was registered on clinicaltrials.gov under identifier NCT03791320.

7.
EuroIntervention ; 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mean age of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) patients is steadily decreasing. AIMS: The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics, the indications for and the outcomes of TAVI in patients <70 years old. METHODS: All patients undergoing TAVI (n=8,626) from the 18 participating centres between January 2007 and June 2020 were stratified by age (</> 70). For patients <70, the indications for TAVI were extracted from Heart Team discussions and the baseline characteristics and mortality were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Overall, 640 (7.4%) patients were <70 (9.1% during 2018-2020, p<0.001); the mean age was 65.0±2.3 years. The younger patients were more often male, with bicuspid valves or needing valve-in-valve procedures. They had a higher prevalence of lung disease and diabetes. In 80.7% of cases, the Heart Team estimated an increased surgical risk and TAVI was selected, reflected by an STS score >4% in 20.4%. Five-year mortality was similar (29.4 vs 29.8%, HR 0.95, p=0.432) in the <70 and >70 groups. In the <70 group, mortality was higher for those referred for TAVI due to an increased surgical risk compared to those referred for other reasons (31.6 vs 24.5%, HR 1.23, p=0.021). Mortality was similar regardless of the STS stratum in patients judged by the Heart Team to be at increased surgical risk (32.6 vs 30.4%, HR 0.98, p=0.715). CONCLUSIONS: Use of TAVI in patients <70 is becoming more frequent. The main reason for choosing TAVI is due to an increased surgical risk not adequately represented by the STS score. The outcomes for these patients are similar to those for older TAVI patients. Dedicated trials of TAVI/SAVR in younger patients are needed to guide decisions concerning expansion of TAVI indications. (NCT04031274).

8.
Circ Heart Fail ; 14(11): e008527, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706550

RESUMO

Trials on intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) use in cardiogenic shock related to acute myocardial infarction have shown disappointing results. The role of IABP in cardiogenic shock treatment remains unclear, and new (potentially more potent) mechanical circulatory supports with arguably larger device profile are emerging. A reappraisal of the physiological premises of intra-aortic counterpulsation may underpin the rationale to maintain IABP as a valuable therapeutic option for patients with acute decompensated heart failure and tissue hypoperfusion. Several pathophysiological features differ between myocardial infarction- and acute decompensated heart failure-related hypoperfusion, encompassing cardiogenic shock severity, filling status, systemic vascular resistances rise, and adaptation to chronic (if preexisting) left ventricular dysfunction. IABP combines a more substantial effect on left ventricular afterload with a modest increase in cardiac output and would therefore be most suitable in clinical scenarios characterized by a disproportionate increase in afterload without profound hemodynamic compromise. The acute decompensated heart failure syndrome is characterized by exquisite afterload-sensitivity of cardiac output and may be an ideal setting for counterpulsation. Several hemodynamic variables have been shown to predict response to IABP within this scenario, potentially guiding appropriate patient selection. Finally, acute decompensated heart failure with hypoperfusion may frequently represent an end stage in the heart failure history: IABP may provide sufficient hemodynamic support and prompt end-organ function recovery in view of more definitive heart replacement therapies while preserving ambulation when used with a transaxillary approach.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) can be subclassified on the basis of its proportionality relative to left ventricular (LV) volume and function, indicating potential differences in underlying etiology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of FMR proportionality with FMR reduction, heart failure hospitalization and mortality after transcatheter edge-to-edge mitral valve repair (TEER). METHODS: This multicenter registry included 241 patients with symptomatic heart failure with reduced LV ejection fraction treated with TEER for moderate to severe or greater FMR. FMR proportionality was graded on preprocedural transthoracic echocardiography using the ratio of the effective regurgitant orifice area to LV end-diastolic volume. Baseline characteristics, follow-up transthoracic echocardiography, and 2-year clinical outcomes were compared between groups. RESULTS: Median LV ejection fraction, effective regurgitant orifice area and LV end-diastolic volume index were 30% (interquartile range [IQR], 25%-35%), 27 mm2, and 107 mL/m2 (IQR, 90-135 mL/m2), respectively. Median effective regurgitant orifice area/LV end-diastolic volume ratio was 0.13 (IQR, 0.10-0.18). Proportionate FMR (pFMR) and disproportionate FMR (dFMR) was present in 123 and 118 patients, respectively. Compared with patients with pFMR, those with dFMR had higher baseline LV ejection fractions (median, 32% [IQR, 27%-39%] vs 26% [IQR, 22%-33%]; P < .01). Early FMR reduction with TEER was more pronounced in patients with dFMR (odds ratio, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.28-0.74; P < .01) than those with pFMR, but not at 12 months (odds ratio, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.53-1.63; P = .80). Overall, in 35% of patients with initial FMR reduction after TEER, FMR deteriorated again at 1-year follow-up. Rates of 2-year all-cause mortality and heart failure hospitalization were 30% (n = 66) and 37% (n = 76), with no differences between dFMR and pFMR. CONCLUSIONS: TEER resulted in more pronounced early FMR reduction in patients with dFMR compared with those with pFMR. Yet after initial improvement, FMR deteriorated in a substantial number of patients, calling into question durable mitral regurgitation reductions with TEER in selected patients. The proportionality framework may not identify durable TEER responders.

11.
J Clin Med ; 10(16)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34441825

RESUMO

Selecting patients with a high chance of endured benefit from transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is becoming relevant with changing indications and increasing number of TAVI being performed. The aim of our study was to investigate the association of the multidimensional prognostic index (MPI) based on a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) on survival. The TAVI Care & Cure program is a prospective, observational registry of patients referred for TAVI at the Erasmus MC University Medical Center. Consecutive patients who underwent a complete CGA and TAVI were included. CGA components were used to calculate the MPI score. The impact of the MPI score on survival was evaluated using Cox regression. Furthermore, 376 patients were included, 143 (38.0%) patients belonged to the MPI-1 group and 233 (61.9%) patients to the MPI-2-3 group. After 3 years, 14.9% of the patients in the MPI-1 group and 30.5% of the patients in the MPI-2-3 group died (p = 0.001). Patients in MPI-1 had increased chances of overall survival in comparison with patients in MPI group 2-3 Hazard Ratio (HR) 0.57, (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.33-0.98)). In this study we found that the MPI tool could be useful to assess frailty and to predict which patient will have a higher chance of enduring benefit from a TAVI procedure.

12.
N Engl J Med ; 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of direct oral anticoagulants as compared with vitamin K antagonists for atrial fibrillation after successful transcatheter aortic-valve replacement (TAVR) has not been well studied. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, prospective, randomized, open-label, adjudicator-masked trial comparing edoxaban with vitamin K antagonists in patients with prevalent or incident atrial fibrillation as the indication for oral anticoagulation after successful TAVR. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of adverse events consisting of death from any cause, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, systemic thromboembolism, valve thrombosis, or major bleeding. The primary safety outcome was major bleeding. On the basis of a hierarchical testing plan, the primary efficacy and safety outcomes were tested sequentially for noninferiority, with noninferiority of edoxaban established if the upper boundary of the 95% confidence interval for the hazard ratio did not exceed 1.38. Superiority testing of edoxaban for efficacy would follow if noninferiority and superiority were established for major bleeding. RESULTS: A total of 1426 patients were enrolled (713 in each group). The mean age of the patients was 82.1 years, and 47.5% of the patients were women. Almost all the patients had atrial fibrillation before TAVR. The rate of the composite primary efficacy outcome was 17.3 per 100 person-years in the edoxaban group and 16.5 per 100 person-years in the vitamin K antagonist group (hazard ratio, 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 1.31; P = 0.01 for noninferiority). Rates of major bleeding were 9.7 per 100 person-years and 7.0 per 100 person-years, respectively (hazard ratio, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.91; P = 0.93 for noninferiority); the difference between groups was mainly due to more gastrointestinal bleeding with edoxaban. Rates of death from any cause or stroke were 10.0 per 100 person-years in the edoxaban group and 11.7 per 100 person-years in the vitamin K antagonist group (hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.66 to 1.11). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with mainly prevalent atrial fibrillation who underwent successful TAVR, edoxaban was noninferior to vitamin K antagonists as determined by a hazard ratio margin of 38% for a composite primary outcome of adverse clinical events. The incidence of major bleeding was higher with edoxaban than with vitamin K antagonists. (Funded by Daiichi Sankyo; ENVISAGE-TAVI AF ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02943785.).

14.
Circ Heart Fail ; 14(8): e008387, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) has an important role in determining the pathogenesis of new-onset acute heart failure (new-AHF) when noninvasive testing is impossible. However, data on safety and histopathologic outcomes in patients requiring veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is lacking. METHODS: A retrospective, multicenter cohort of patients undergoing EMB while requiring VA-ECMO for new-AHF between 1990 and 2020 was compared with a cohort of nontransplant related biopsies not requiring VA-ECMO. Primary end point of the study was to determine the safety of EMB. Additionally, we describe the underlying pathogenesis causing new-AHF based on histopathologic examination of the samples obtained. RESULTS: A total of 23 patients underwent EMB while requiring VA-ECMO (10.0%), 125 (54.3%) during an unplanned admission, and 82 (35.7%) in elective setting. Major complications occurred in 8.3% of all procedures with a significantly higher rate in patients requiring VA-ECMO (26.1% versus 8.0% versus 3.7%, P=0.003) predominately due to the occurrence of sustained ventricular tachycardia or need of resuscitation (13.0% versus 3.2% versus 1.2%, P=0.02). EMB led to a histopathologic diagnosis in 78.3% of the patients requiring VA-ECMO which consisted primarily of patients with myocarditis (73.9%). CONCLUSIONS: EMB in patients requiring VA-ECMO can be performed albeit with a substantial risk of major complications. The risk of the procedure was offset by a histopathologic diagnosis in 78.3% of the patients, which for the majority consisted of patients with myocarditis. The important therapeutic and prognostic implications of establishing an underlying pathogenesis causing new-AHF in this population warrant further refinement to improve procedural safety.

15.
Eur Heart J Case Rep ; 5(4): ytab112, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34268473

RESUMO

Background: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is most commonly caused by left-sided heart disease and may negatively affect the long-term prognosis and quality of life of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). CardioMEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System) allows physicians to monitor pulmonary artery (PA) pressures remotely and optimize heart failure treatment based on haemodynamic parameters, which provides further insight into the effect of valvular interventions. Case summary: We present a case of a 61-year-old male patient with an ischaemic cardiomyopathy, poor LV function, moderate to severe mitral regurgitation, and severe aortic valve regurgitation in refractory heart failure. Right heart catheterization and CardioMEMS monitoring revealed severe pulmonary hypertension with mean PA pressures of 55 mmHg and a mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure of 21 mmHg despite up titration of heart failure medication and sildenafil. Pulmonary and systemic causes of pulmonary hypertension were excluded. After heart team consensus, the patient underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) which resulted in normalization of PA pressures and a significant improvement of functional performance. Discussion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report describing the direct effects of TAVI on continuous PA pressures in a patient with poor LV function and severe aortic regurgitation. Elective TAVI appeared to be safe and very effective in reverting severe pulmonary hypertension. Most strikingly, drug interventions could not affect the elevated pulmonary pressures, but TAVI corrected the aortic valve insufficiency with normalization of left-sided pulmonary hypertension.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34322706

RESUMO

AIMS: To elucidate the frequency and clinical impact of left atrial appendage thrombus (LAAT) in patients set for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). METHODS AND RESULTS: All patients undergoing TAVI between January 2014 and June 2020 with analysable multislice computed tomography (MSCT) for LAAT were included. Baseline and procedural characteristics were collected, pre-procedural MSCT's were retrospectively analysed for LAAT presence. The primary endpoint was defined as the cumulative incidence of any cerebrovascular event (stroke or transient ischaemic attack) within the first year after TAVI. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify predictors.A total of 1050 cases had analysable MSCT. Median age was 80 [interquartile range (IQR) 74-84], median Society of Thoracic Surgeons' Predicted Risk Of Mortality (STS-PROM) was 3.4% (IQR 2.3-5.5). Thirty-six percent were on oral anticoagulant therapy for atrial fibrillation (AF). LAAT was present in 48 (4.6%) of cases. Patients with LAAT were at higher operative risk [STS-PROM: 4.9% (2.9-7.1) vs. 3.4% (2.3-5.5), P = 0.01], had worse systolic left ventricular function [EF 52% (35-60) vs. 55% (45-65), P = 0.01] and more permanent pacemakers at baseline (35% vs. 10%, P < 0.01). All patients with LAAT had a history of AF and patients with LAAT were more often on vitamin K antagonist-treatment than patients without LAAT [43/47 (91%) vs. 232/329 (71%), P < 0.01]. LAAT [hazard ratio (HR) 2.94 (1.39-6.22), P < 0.01] and the implantation of more than one valve [HR 4.52 (1.79-11.25), P < 0.01] were independent predictors for cerebrovascular events. CONCLUSION: Patients with MSCT-identified LAAT were at higher risk for cerebrovascular events during the first year after TAVI.

17.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 23(9): 125, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269914

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aimed to picture the contemporary landscape of available catheter-based repair and replacement solutions for mitral regurgitation (MR) in Europe. RECENT FINDINGS: Edge-to-edge repair remains the dominant technique for transcatheter mitral valve repair especially in the context of secondary mitral regurgitation. Two recent randomized trials reported seemingly contradicting clinical results with transcatheter edge-to-edge repair for patients with heart failure and severe secondary MR. A proportionality framework related to secondary MR was proposed to help explain inconsistencies but requires further research. (In)Direct annuloplasty primarily aims to correct secondary MR; however, the scientific basis seems less robust. One dedicated transcatheter heart valve has the CE mark for mitral valve replacement but requires transapical access. Balloon-expandable transcatheter aortic valve platforms are emerging for transvenous transseptal mitral replacement in the context of mitral annular calcification, a failing surgical mitral bioprosthesis, or annuloplasty. Advanced computed tomography imaging techniques improved pre-procedural planning and introduced the option for modeling and simulation. Development of a toolbox of catheter-based technologies, complementary imaging modalities, and refined patient selection offer novel perspectives to high-risk patients with primary or secondary MR. Clinical trials are required to help formulate evidence-based guidelines for the management of mitral valve disease.


Assuntos
Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331844

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Evolut R FORWARD study confirmed safety and effectivenesss of the Evolut R THV in routine clinical practice out to 1 year. Herein, we report the final 3-year clinical follow up of the FORWARD study. BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a proven alternative to surgery in elderly patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis. Long-term clinical outcome data with the Evolut R platform are scarce. METHODS: FORWARD is a prospective multicenter observational study that evaluated the Evolut R system in routine clinical practice at 53 centres. Eligible patients had symptomatic native aortic valve stenosis or failed surgical aortic bioprosthesis and elevated operative risk per Heart-Team assessment. TAVR was attempted in 1039 patients. RESULTS: Mean age was 81.8 ± 6.2 years, 64.9% were women, STS score was 5.5 ± 4.5% and 34.2% were frail. Rates of all-cause mortality and disabling stroke were 24.8% and 4.8% at 3 years. Early need for a new pacemaker implantation after TAVR (all-cause mortality: with new PPI; 21.0% vs. without; 22.8%, p = 0.55) and the presence of > trace paravalvular regurgitation (all-cause mortality: no or trace; 22.0% vs. ≥ mild; 25.5%, p = 0.29) did not affect survival. Between 1 and 3 years incidence rates of valve related intervention, endocarditis and clinically relevant valve thrombosis were low. CONCLUSIONS: The Evolut R valve maintained a favorable safety profile through 3 years in routine clinical practice. Rates of transcatheter heart valve-related adverse events were low.

19.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(12): 1323-1333, 2021 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167672

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to compare the pharmacodynamic effects of pre-hospitally administered P2Y12 inhibitor prasugrel in crushed versus integral tablet formulation in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). BACKGROUND: Early dual antiplatelet therapy is recommended in STEMI patients. Yet, onset of oral P2Y12 inhibitor effect is delayed and varies according to formulation administered. METHODS: The COMPARE CRUSH (Comparison of Pre-hospital Crushed Versus Uncrushed Prasugrel Tablets in Patients With STEMI Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Interventions) trial randomized patients with suspected STEMI to crushed or integral prasugrel 60-mg loading dose in the ambulance. Pharmacodynamic measurements were performed at 4 time points: before antiplatelet treatment, at the beginning and end of pPCI, and 4 h after study treatment onset. The primary endpoint was high platelet reactivity at the end of pPCI. The secondary endpoint was impact of platelet reactivity status on markers of coronary reperfusion. RESULTS: A total of 441 patients were included. In patients with crushed prasugrel, the occurrence of high platelet reactivity at the end of pPCI was reduced by almost one-half (crushed 34.7% vs. uncrushed 61.6%; odds ratio [OR] = 0.33; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.22 to 0.50; p < 0.01). Platelet reactivity <150 P2Y12 reactivity units at the beginning of coronary angiography correlated with improved Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction flow grade 3 in the infarct artery pre-pPCI (OR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.08 to 2.94; p = 0.02) but not ST-segment resolution (OR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.48 to 1.34; p = 0.40). CONCLUSIONS: Oral administration of crushed compared with integral prasugrel significantly improves platelet inhibition during the acute phase in STEMI patients undergoing pPCI. However, a considerable number of patients still exhibit inadequate platelet inhibition at the end of pPCI, suggesting the need for alternative agents to bridge the gap in platelet inhibition.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Hospitais , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos adversos , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/efeitos adversos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(11): 1218-1228, 2021 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112458

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to define predictors of prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) and its impact on mortality after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) with self-expandable valves (SEVs) in patients with small annuli. BACKGROUND: TAVR seems to reduce the risk for PPM compared with surgical aortic valve replacement, especially in patients with small aortic annuli. Nevertheless, predictors and impact of PPM in this population have not been clarified yet. METHODS: Predictors of PPM and all-cause mortality were investigated using multivariable logistic regression analysis from the cohort of the TAVI-SMALL (International Multicenter Registry to Evaluate the Performance of Self-Expandable Valves in Small Aortic Annuli) registry, which included patients with severe aortic stenosis and small annuli (annular perimeter <72 mm or area <400 mm2 on computed tomography) treated with transcatheter SEVs: 445 patients with (n = 129) and without (n = 316) PPM were enrolled. RESULTS: Intra-annular valves conferred increased risk for PPM (odds ratio [OR]: 2.36; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16 to 4.81), while post-dilation (OR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.25-0.84) and valve oversizing (OR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.28-1.00) seemed to protect against PPM occurrence. At a median follow-up of 354 days, patients with severe PPM, but not those with moderate PPM, had a higher all-cause mortality rate compared with those without PPM (log-rank p = 0.008). Multivariable Cox regression confirmed severe PPM as an independent predictor of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio: 4.27; 95% CI: 1.34 to 13.6). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with aortic stenosis and small aortic annuli undergoing transcatheter SEV implantation, use of intra-annular valves yielded higher risk for PPM; conversely, post-dilation and valve oversizing protected against PPM occurrence. Severe PPM was independently associated with all-cause mortality.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Humanos , Desenho de Prótese , Fatores de Risco , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
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