Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 36
Filtrar
1.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150091, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution exposure has been associated with higher mortality risk in numerous studies. We assessed potential variability in the magnitude of this association for non-accidental, cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, and lung cancer mortality in a country-wide administrative cohort by exposure assessment method and by adjustment for geographic subdivisions. METHODS: We used the Belgian 2001 census linked to population and mortality register including nearly 5.5 million adults aged ≥30 (mean follow-up: 9.97 years). Annual mean concentrations for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon (BC) and ozone (O3) were assessed at baseline residential address using two exposure methods; Europe-wide hybrid land use regression (LUR) models [100x100m], and Belgium-wide interpolation-dispersion (RIO-IFDM) models [25x25m]. We used Cox proportional hazards models with age as the underlying time scale and adjusted for various individual and area-level covariates. We further adjusted main models for two different area-levels following the European Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS); NUTS-1 (n = 3), or NUTS-3 (n = 43). RESULTS: We found no consistent differences between both exposure methods. We observed most robust associations with lung cancer mortality. Hazard Ratios (HRs) per 10 µg/m3 increase for NO2 were 1.060 (95%CI 1.042-1.078) [hybrid LUR] and 1.040 (95%CI 1.022-1.058) [RIO-IFDM]. Associations with non-accidental, respiratory disease and cardiovascular disease mortality were generally null in main models but were enhanced after further adjustment for NUTS-1 or NUTS-3. HRs for non-accidental mortality per 5 µg/m3 increase for PM2.5 for the main model using hybrid LUR exposure were 1.023 (95%CI 1.011-1.035). After including random effects HRs were 1.044 (95%CI 1.033-1.057) [NUTS-1] and 1.076 (95%CI 1.060-1.092) [NUTS-3]. CONCLUSION: Long-term air pollution exposure was associated with higher lung cancer mortality risk but not consistently with the other studied causes. Magnitude of associations varied by adjustment for geographic subdivisions, area-level socio-economic covariates and less by exposure assessment method.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Censos , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade
2.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt A): 111984, 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492275

RESUMO

Exposure to hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] may occur in several occupational activities, e.g., welding, Cr(VI) electroplating and other surface treatment processes. The aim of this study was to provide EU relevant data on occupational Cr(VI) exposure to support the regulatory risk assessment and decision-making. In addition, the capability and validity of different biomarkers for the assessment of Cr(VI) exposure were evaluated. The study involved nine European countries and involved 399 workers in different industry sectors with exposures to Cr(VI) such as welding, bath plating, applying or removing paint and other tasks. We also studied 203 controls to establish a background in workers with no direct exposure to Cr(VI). We applied a cross-sectional study design and used chromium in urine as the primary biomonitoring method for Cr(VI) exposure. Additionally, we studied the use of red blood cells (RBC) and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) for biomonitoring of exposure to Cr(VI). Personal measurements were used to study exposure to inhalable and respirable Cr(VI) by personal air sampling. Dermal exposure was studied by taking hand wipe samples. The highest internal exposures were observed in the use of Cr(VI) in electrolytic bath plating. In stainless steel welding the internal Cr exposure was clearly lower when compared to plating activities. We observed a high correlation between chromium urinary levels and air Cr(VI) or dermal total Cr exposure. Urinary chromium showed its value as a first approach for the assessment of total, internal exposure. Correlations between urinary chromium and Cr(VI) in EBC and Cr in RBC were low, probably due to differences in kinetics and indicating that these biomonitoring approaches may not be interchangeable but rather complementary. This study showed that occupational biomonitoring studies can be conducted successfully by multi-national collaboration and provide relevant information to support policy actions aiming to reduce occupational exposure to chemicals.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 781: 146682, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of pollen allergy has increased due to urbanization, climate change and air pollution. The effects of green space and air pollution on respiratory health of pollen allergy patients are complex and best studied in spatio-temporal detail. METHODS: We tracked 144 adults sensitized to Betulaceae pollen during the tree pollen season (January-May) of 2017 and 2018 and assessed their spatio-temporal exposure to green space, allergenic trees, air pollutants and birch pollen. Participants reported daily symptom severity scores. We extracted 404 case days with high symptom severity scores and matched these to 404 control days. The data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression with a 1:1 case-crossover design. RESULTS: Case days were associated with exposure to birch pollen concentration (100 grains/m3) [adjusted odds ratio 1.045 and 95% confidence interval (1.014-1.078)], O3 concentration (10 µg/m3) [1.504 (1.281-1.766)] and PM10 concentration (10 µg/m3) [1.255 (1.007-1.565)] on the day of the severe allergy event and with the cumulative exposure of one and two days before. Exposure to grass cover (10% area fraction) [0.655 (0.446-0.960)], forest cover (10% area fraction) [0.543 (0.303-0.973)] and density of Alnus (10%) [0.622 (0.411-0.942)] were protective for severe allergy, but only on the day of the severe allergy event. Increased densities of Betula trees (10%) were a risk factor [unadjusted OR: 2.014 (1.162-3.490)]. CONCLUSION: Exposure to green space may mitigate tree pollen allergy symptom severity but only when the density of allergenic trees is low. Air pollutants contribute to more severe allergy symptoms. Spatio-temporal tracking allows for a more realistic exposure assessment.


Assuntos
Rinite Alérgica Sazonal , Adulto , Alérgenos , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Betula , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Parques Recreativos , Pólen , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/epidemiologia
4.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 72: 101910, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A previous investigation of the occurrence of childhood acute leukemia around the Belgian nuclear sites has shown positive associations around one nuclear site (Mol-Dessel). In the following years, the Belgian Cancer Registry has made data available at the smallest administrative unit for which demographic information exists in Belgium, i.e. the statistical sector. This offers the advantage to reduce the potential misclassification due to large geographical scales. METHODS: The current study performed for the period 2006-2016 uses Poisson models to investigate (i) the incidence of childhood acute leukemia within 20 km around the four Belgian nuclear sites, (ii) exposure-response relationships between cancer incidence and surrogate exposures from the nuclear sites (distance, wind direction frequency and exposure by hypothetical radioactive discharges taking into account historical meteorological conditions). All analyses are carried out at statistical sector level. RESULTS: Higher incidence rate ratios were found for children <15 years (7 cases, RR = 3.01, 95% CI: 1.43;6.35) and children <5 years (< 5 cases, RR = 3.62, 95% CI: 1.35;9.74) living less than 5 km from the site of Mol-Dessel. In addition, there was an indication for positive exposure-response relationships with the different types of surrogate exposures. CONCLUSION: Results confirm an increased incidence of acute childhood leukemia around Mol-Dessel, but the number of cases remains very small. Random variation cannot be excluded and the ecological design does not allow concluding on causality. These findings emphasize the need for more in-depth research into the risk factors of childhood leukemia, for a better understanding of the etiology of this disease.


Assuntos
Leucemia/epidemiologia , Centrais Nucleares/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , Análise de Pequenas Áreas
5.
Environ Int ; 148: 106365, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies suggest that residing close to green space reduce mortality rates. We investigated the relationship between long-term exposure to residential green space and non-accidental and cardio-respiratory mortality. METHODS: We linked the Belgian 2001 census to population and mortality register follow-up data (2001-2011) among adults aged 30 years and older residing in the five largest urban areas in Belgium (n = 2,185,170 and mean follow-up time 9.4 years). Residential addresses were available at baseline. Exposure to green space was defined as 1) surrounding greenness (2006) [normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and modified soil-adjusted vegetation index (MSAVI2)] within buffers of 300 m, 500 m, and 1000 m; 2) surrounding green space (2006) [Urban Atlas (UA) and CORINE Land Cover (CLC)] within buffers of 300 m, 500 m, and 1000 m; and 3) perceived neighborhood green space (2001). Cox proportional hazards models with age as the underlying time scale were used to probe into cause-specific mortality (non-accidental, respiratory, COPD, cardiovascular, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and cerebrovascular). Models were adjusted for several sociodemographic variables (age, sex, marital status, country of birth, education level, employment status, and area mean income). We further adjusted our main models for annual mean (2010) values of ambient air pollution (PM2.5, PM10, NO2 and BC, one at a time), and we additionally explored potential mediation with the aforementioned pollutants. RESULTS: Higher degrees of residential green space were associated with lower rates of non-accidental and respiratory mortality. In fully adjusted models, hazard ratios (HR) per interquartile range (IQR) increase in NDVI 500 m buffer (IQR: 0.24) and UA 500 m buffer (IQR: 0.31) were 0.97 (95%CI 0.96-0.98) and 0.99 (95%CI 0.98-0.99) for non-accidental mortality, and 0.95 (95%CI 0.93-0.98) and 0.97 (95%CI 0.96-0.99) for respiratory mortality. For perceived neighborhood green space, HRs were 0.93 (95%CI 0.92-0.94) and 0.94 (95%CI 0.91-0.98) for non-accidental and respiratory mortality, respectively. The observed lower mortality risks associated with residential exposure to green space were largely independent from exposure to ambient air pollutants. CONCLUSION: We observed evidence for lower mortality risk in associations with long-term residential exposure to green space in most but not all studied causes of death in a large representative cohort for the five largest urban areas in Belgium. These findings support the importance of the availability of residential green space in urban areas.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Adulto , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Censos , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Seguimentos , Humanos , Parques Recreativos , Material Particulado
6.
Environ Int ; 146: 106230, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171378

RESUMO

Exposure of the thyroid gland to ionizing radiation at a young age is the main recognized risk factor for differentiated thyroid cancer. After the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents, thyroid cancer screening was implemented mainly for children, leading to case over-diagnosis as seen in South Korea after the implementation of opportunistic screening (where subjects are recruited at healthcare sites). The aim of cancer screening is to reduce morbidity and mortality, but screening can also cause negative effects on health (with unnecessary treatment if over-diagnosis) and on quality of life. This paper from the SHAMISEN special issue (Nuclear Emergency Situations - Improvement of Medical And Health Surveillance) presents the principles of cancer screening, the lessons learned from thyroid cancer screening, as well as the knowledge on thyroid cancer incidence after exposure to iodine-131. The SHAMISEN Consortium recommends to envisage systematic health screening after a nuclear accident, only when appropriately justified, i.e. ensuring that screening will do more good than harm. Based on the experience of the Fukushima screening, the consortium does not recommend mass or population-based thyroid cancer screening, as the negative psychological and physical effects are likely to outweigh any possible benefit in affected populations; thyroid health monitoring should however be made available to persons who request it (regardless of whether they are at increased risk or not), accompanied with appropriate information and support.


Assuntos
Acidente Nuclear de Chernobyl , Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Criança , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Humanos , Japão , Qualidade de Vida , República da Coreia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia
7.
Environ Res ; 189: 109914, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Living in green environments has been associated with various health benefits, but the evidence for positive effects on respiratory health in children is ambiguous. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if residential exposure to different types of green space is associated with childhood asthma prevalence in Belgium. METHODS: Asthma prevalence was estimated from sales data of reimbursed medication for obstructive airway disease (OAD) prescribed to children between 2010 and 2014, aggregated at census tract level (n = 1872) by sex and age group (6-12 and 13-18 years). Generalized log-linear mixed effects models with repeated measures were used to estimate effects of relative covers of forest, grassland and garden in the census tract of the residence on OAD medication sales. Models were adjusted for air pollution (PM10), housing quality and administrative region. RESULTS: Consistent associations between OAD medication sales and relative covers of grassland and garden were observed (unadjusted parameter estimates per IQR increase of relative cover, range across four strata: grassland, ß = 0.15-0.17; garden, ß = 0.13-0.17). The associations remained significant after adjusting for housing quality and chronic air pollution (adjusted parameter estimates per IQR increase of relative cover, range across four strata: grassland, ß = 0.10-0.14; garden, ß = 0.07-0.09). There was no association between OAD medication sales and forest cover. CONCLUSIONS: Based on aggregated data, we found that living in close proximity to areas with high grass cover (grasslands, but also residential gardens) may negatively impact child respiratory health. Potential allergic and non-allergic mechanisms that underlie this association include elevated exposure to grass pollen and fungi and reduced exposure to environmental biodiversity. Reducing the dominance of grass in public and private green space might be beneficial to reduce the childhood asthma burden and may simultaneously improve the ecological value of urban green space.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/epidemiologia , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Criança , Comércio , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Parques Recreativos
8.
Environ Res ; 188: 109848, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Summer temperatures are expected to increase and heat waves will occur more frequently, be longer, and be more intense as a result of global warming. A growing body of evidence indicates that increasing temperature and heatwaves are associated with excess mortality and therefore global heating may become a major public health threat. However, the heat-mortality relationship has been shown to be location-specific and differences could largely be explained by the most frequent temperature. So far, in Belgium there is little known regarding the heat-mortality relationship in the different urban areas. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to assess the heat-mortality relationship in the two largest urban areas in Belgium, i.e. Antwerp and Brussels for the warm seasons from 2002 until 2011 taking into account the effect of air pollution. METHODS: The threshold in temperature above which mortality increases was determined using segmented regressions for both urban areas. The relationship between daily temperature and mortality above the threshold was investigated using a generalized estimated equation with Poisson distribution to finally determine the percentage of deaths attributable to the effect of heat. RESULTS: Although only 50 km apart, the heat-mortality curves for the two urban areas are different. More specifically, an increase in mortality occurs above a maximum temperature of 25.2 °C in Antwerp and 22.8 °C in Brussels. We estimated that above these thresholds, there is an increase in mortality of 4.9% per 1 °C in Antwerp and of 3.1% in Brussels. During the study period, 1.5% of the deaths in Antwerp and 3.5% of the deaths in Brussels can be attributed to the effect of heat. The thresholds differed considerably from the most frequent temperature, particularly in Antwerp. Adjustment for air pollution attenuated the effect of temperature on mortality and this attenuation was more pronounced when adjusting for ambient ozone. CONCLUSION: Our results show a significant effect of temperature on mortality above a city-specific threshold, both in Antwerp and in Brussels. These findings are important given the ongoing global warming. Recurrent, intense and longer episodes of high temperature and expected changes in air pollutant levels will have an important impact on health in urban areas.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Cidades , Temperatura Alta , Mortalidade , Ozônio/análise , Estações do Ano
9.
Heliyon ; 6(6): e04336, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32637710

RESUMO

Chronic intake of cereals contaminated with ergot alkaloids can cause ergotism and result in the loss of toes and fingers or even death. Today, due to common risk management practices, ergotism is rare as a human disease but remains a problem in livestock husbandry. Each alkaloid coexists under two forms (R and S), though only the R-form presents toxic effects. The epimerization occurs spontaneously but the mechanisms remain globally unknown. Therefore, different processing methods were evaluated for their respective influences on the epimerization. The results suggest that ergotamine and ergosine are very stable ergot alkaloids, and neither their concentrations, nor their respective R/S ratios, are significantly influenced by heating, protic solvents or UV light. In contrast, for ergocristine, ergokryptine, ergocornine and ergometrine, heating can decrease the concentrations of these alkaloids and heat, protic solvents and UV light influence the R/S ratio towards the S-form, though the respective influence on the epimerization of these compounds is variable. In addition, the total concentration of all ergot alkaloids is reduced through heating. However, all these effects are not strong enough to change the composition of ergot alkaloids in feed substantially and to transform toxic feed into non-toxic feed.

10.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 1): 115130, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652373

RESUMO

Short-term exposure to air pollution has pro-thrombotic effects and triggers thrombo-embolic events such as myocardial infarction or stroke in adults. This study evaluates the association between short-term variation in air pollution and treatments for acute thrombo-embolic events among the whole Belgian population. In a bidirectional time-stratified case-crossover design, we included 227,861 events treated with endovascular intervention and 74,942 with antithrombotic enzymes that were reimbursed by the Belgian Social Security between January 1st, 2009 and December 31st, 2013. We compared the concentrations of particulate matter (PM) air pollution (PM10 and PM2.5), as estimated at the municipality level on the day of the event (lag 0) and two days earlier (lag 1 and lag 2) with those of control days from the same month, matched by temperature and accounting for day of the week (weekend vs week days). We applied conditional logistic regression models to obtain odds ratios (OR) and their 95% CI for an increase of 10 µg/m3 (PM10) or 5 µg/m3 (PM2.5) in pollutant concentrations over three lag days (lag 0, 1 and 2). We observed significant associations of PM10 and PM2.5 with treatment of acute thrombo-embolic events at the three lags. The strongest associations were observed for air pollution concentrations on the day of the event (lag0). Increases of 10 µg/m3 PM10 and 5 µg/m3 PM2.5 on lag0 increased the odds of events treated with endovascular intervention by 2.7% (95%CI:2.3%-3.2%) and 1.3% (95%CI:1%-1.5%), respectively, and they increased the odds of events treated with antithrombotic enzymes by 1.9% (95%CI:1.1-2.7%) and 1.2% (95%CI:0.7%-1.6%), respectively. The associations were generally stronger during autumn months and among children. Our nationwide study confirms that acute exposure to outdoor air pollutants such as PM10 or PM2.5 increase the use of medication and interventions to treat thrombo-embolic events.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Adulto , Bélgica , Criança , Cidades , Estudos Cross-Over , Exposição Ambiental , Fibrinolíticos , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise
11.
BMJ Open ; 10(2): e031963, 2020 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086354

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mental health issues appear as a growing problem in modern societies and tend to be more frequent in big cities. Where increased evidence exists for positive links between nature and mental health, associations between urban environment characteristics and mental health are still not well understood. These associations are highly complex and require an interdisciplinary and integrated research approach to cover the broad range of mitigating factors. This article presents the study protocol of a project called Nature Impact on Mental Health Distribution that aims to generate a comprehensive understanding of associations between mental health and the urban residential environment. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Following a mixed-method approach, this project combines quantitative and qualitative research. In the quantitative part, we analyse among the Brussels urban population associations between the urban residential environment and mental health, taking respondents' socioeconomic status and physical health into account. Mental health is determined by the mental health indicators in the national Health Interview Survey (HIS). The urban residential environment is described by subjective indicators for the participant's dwelling and neighbourhood present in the HIS and objective indicators for buildings, network infrastructure and green environment developed for the purpose of this project. We assess the mediating role of physical activity, social life, noise and air pollution. In the qualitative part, we conduct walking interviews with Brussels residents to record their subjective well-being in association with their neighbourhood. In the validation part, results from these two approaches are triangulated and evaluated through interviews and focus groups with stakeholders of healthcare and urban planning sectors. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The Privacy Commission of Belgium and ethical committee from University Hospital of Antwerp respectively approved quantitative database merging and qualitative interviewing. We will share project results with a wide audience including the scientific community, policy authorities and civil society through scientific and non-expert communication.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da População Urbana , Poluição do Ar , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Planejamento Ambiental , Humanos , Ruído , Projetos de Pesquisa , Características de Residência , Classe Social , Meio Social , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 712: 136426, 2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945528

RESUMO

Green space may improve cardiovascular (CV) health, for example by promoting physical activity and by reducing air pollution, noise and heat. Socioeconomic and environmental factors may modify the health effects of green space. We examined the association between residential green space and reimbursed CV medication sales in Belgium between 2006 and 2014, adjusting for socioeconomic deprivation and air pollution. We analyzed data for 11,575 census tracts using structural equation models for the entire country and for the administrative regions. Latent variables for green space, air pollution and socioeconomic deprivation were used as predictors of CV medication sales and were estimated from the number of patches of forest, census tract relative forest cover and relative forest cover within a 600 m buffer around the census tract; annual mean concentrations of PM2.5, BC and NO2; and percentages of inhabitants that were foreign-born from lower- and mid-income countries, unemployed or had no higher education. A direct association between socioeconomic deprivation and CV medication sales [parameter estimate (95% CI): 0.26 (0.25; 0.28)] and inverse associations between CV medication sales and green space [-0.71 (-0.80; -0.61)] and air pollution [-1.62 (-1.69; -0.61)] were observed. In the regional models, the association between green space and CV medication sales was stronger in the region with relatively low green space cover (Flemish Region, standardized estimate -0.16) than in the region with high green space cover (Walloon Region, -0.10). In the highly urbanized Brussels Capital Region the association tended towards the null. In all regions, the associations between CV medication sales and socioeconomic deprivation were direct and more prominent. Our results suggest that there may be an inverse association between green space and CV medication sales, but socioeconomic deprivation was always the strongest predictor of CV medication sales.


Assuntos
Fatores Socioeconômicos , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Bélgica , Exposição Ambiental , Material Particulado
13.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 223(1): 71-79, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Residential green space may improve human health, for example by promoting physical activity and by reducing stress. Conversely, residential green space may increase stress by emitting aeroallergens and exacerbating allergic disease. Here we examine impacts of exposure to residential green space on distress in the susceptible subpopulation of adults sensitized to tree pollen allergens. METHODS: In a panel study of 88 tree pollen allergy patients we analyzed self-reported mental health (GHQ-12), perceived presence of allergenic trees (hazel, alder, birch) near the residence and residential green space area within 1 km distance [high (≥3 m) and low (<3 m) green]. Results were adjusted for patients' background data (gender, age, BMI, smoking status, physical activity, commuting distance, education level, allergy medication use and chronic respiratory problems) and compared with distress in the general population (N = 2467). RESULTS: Short-term distress [mean GHQ-12 score 2.1 (95% confidence interval 1.5-2.7)] was higher in the study population than in the general population [1.5 (1.4-1.7)]. Residential green space had protective effects against short-term distress [high green, per combined surface area of 10 ha: adjusted odds ratio OR = 0.94 (95% confidence interval 0.90-0.99); low green, per 10 ha: OR = 0.85 (0.78-0.93)]. However, distress was higher in patients who reported perceived presence of allergenic trees near their residence [present vs. absent: OR = 2.04 (1.36-3.07)]. CONCLUSIONS: Perceived presence of allergenic tree species in the neighbourhood of the residence of tree pollen allergy patients modulates the protective effect of residential green space against distress during the airborne tree pollen season.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Angústia Psicológica , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Alérgenos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade , Masculino , Pólen , Estações do Ano , Árvores
14.
Int J Cancer ; 146(11): 3034-3043, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745983

RESUMO

In Belgium, variations in thyroid cancer incidence were observed around the major nuclear sites. The present ecological study investigates whether there is an excess incidence of thyroid cancer among people living in the vicinity of the four nuclear sites at the smallest Belgian geographical level. Rate ratios were obtained from a Bayesian hierarchical model for areas of varying sizes around the nuclear sites. Focused hypothesis tests and generalized additive models were performed to test the hypothesis of a gradient in thyroid cancer incidence with increasing levels of surrogate exposures. No evidence was found for more incident cases of thyroid cancer near the two nuclear power plants. Regarding the two industrial and research nuclear sites, no evidence for a higher incidence in the vicinity of Mol-Dessel was observed, whereas a slightly nonsignificant higher incidence was found in the close vicinity of Fleurus. In addition, significant gradients for thyroid cancer incidence were observed with the different types of surrogate exposure considered in the 20 km area around the site of Fleurus (decreasing distance, increasing wind direction frequency and increasing exposure to estimated hypothetical radioactive discharges of iodine-131). In the investigation at the smallest Belgian geographical level, variations in thyroid cancer incidence were found around the Belgian nuclear sites. Significant exposure-response relationships were also observed for the site of Fleurus. Further investigations into these findings could be useful to allow inferring causal relationships on the origin of variations in incidence and to provide information at the individual level.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/epidemiologia , Centrais Nucleares/estatística & dados numéricos , Liberação Nociva de Radioativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Radioisótopos do Iodo/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiação Ionizante , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Adulto Jovem
15.
Environ Int ; 131: 104979, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bio-accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment and in the food chain can lead to high pollutant concentrations in human fat-containing tissues and breast milk. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify the maternal characteristics that determined POP concentrations in breast milk of primiparous mothers in Belgium. METHODS: Breast milk samples were obtained from a cross-sectional sample of 206 primiparous mothers in 2014. POP concentrations in breast milk samples were determined by GC-ECNI-MS and GC-EI-MS/MS depending on the analytes' sensitivity. Associations between POP concentrations in breast milk and potential determinants were investigated using two-way contingency tables and multivariable generalized linear models. RESULTS: Fifteen of the 23 screened POPs were detected in the breast milk samples. Four organochlorine compounds (p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, HCB and ß-HCH) and two brominated flame retardant congeners (BDE-47, BDE-153) were detected at concentrations above the limit of quantification in >50% of the breast milk samples. Maternal age and BMI were usually associated with higher POP concentrations. Rural residency and consumption of home-produced eggs, fatty fish and fish oil supplements were associated with higher concentrations of DDT and DDE. Consumption of fatty fish and being breastfed during childhood were associated with higher concentrations of HCB and ß-HCH. Fish oil supplements and home-produced eggs were associated with higher concentrations of BDEs, but for BDE congeners exposure routes other than diet require further investigation. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary and non-dietary determinants predict individual POP concentrations in breast milk.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Leite Humano/química , Adulto , Bélgica , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Feminino , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Hexaclorocicloexano/análise , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Mães , Paridade , Bifenil Polibromatos/análise , Gravidez , População Rural , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136871

RESUMO

This study presents de development and validation of an ultra- high performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of four parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, and butyl-paraben (MeP, EtP, PrP, BuP), four bisphenols (BP) (BPA, BPB, BPF, and BPS) and two alkylphenols (nonyl phenol (NP) and tert-octylphenol (OP) in human placenta samples. After a short sample preparation time the extracts are analysed by UHPLC-MS/MS using negative electrospray ionization. Labeled internal standards and matrix-matched calibration are used for quantification of the compounds. The method was validated according FDA guideline for bio analytical methods using spiked samples at three concentration levels (0.5-5 and 25 ng g-1). The parameters accuracy and precision fulfill the criteria. Calibration curves are linear between 0.5 and 50 ng -1. The limits of detection and quantification are in the range of 0.1-0.3 ng g-1 and 0.2-0.7 ng g-1, respectively. The applicability of the method was demonstrated on 71 human placenta samples from a Belgian cohort. The detection frequency was highest for OP (95%), EtP (86%), BPA (49%) and BPS (44%). Among the quantified compounds the highest quantification frequency was observed for OP (85%), EtP (65%) and BPA (25%). The concentrations of parabens ranged from 0.5 to 7.1 ng g-1 for MeP, from 0.5 to 4.5 ng g-1 for EtP and from 0.5 to 9.1 ng g-1 for PrP. The levels of bisphenols ranged from 0.5 to 3.9 ng g-1 for BPA, from 0.6 to 2.1 ng g-1 for BPF and from 0.8 to 1.3 ng g-1 for BPS. BPB and NP were not detected and OP levels ranged from 0.5 to 3.7 ng g g-1. The results demonstrate that the developed analytical method is very sensitive and that levels of several compounds with known /suspected endocrine disrupting properties could be detected or quantified in human placenta samples. The results therefore suggest that fetal exposure to these compounds occurs. The method will be useful for studies to evaluate the health effects associated with this prenatal exposure.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Parabenos/análise , Fenóis/análise , Placenta/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Gravidez , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 649: 620-628, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30176473

RESUMO

Exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with various adverse health effects including respiratory, cardiovascular and neurological diseases. Exposure data for some specific pollutants and settings are however still insufficient and mechanisms underlying negative health outcomes are not fully elucidated. This pilot study aimed to assess individual exposure to three traffic-related air pollutants, black carbon (BC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and benzene, and the relationship with respiratory and oxidative stress outcomes in a cross-sectional sample of 48 green space workers in Brussels, Belgium. Participants were followed during four consecutive working days in 2016-2017 during which their individual exposure to BC, PAHs, benzene and more generally air pollution was measured using aethalometers, urinary biomarkers (1-hydroxypyrene, 1-naphthol, 2-naphthol, S-phenylmercapturic acid) and questionnaires. Data on respiratory health and oxidative stress were collected using questionnaires and respiratory/urinary biomarkers (exhaled nitric oxide [NO], 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine [8-OHdG]). Associations between exposure and health outcomes were investigated using comparison tests and linear regression models, after stratification by present-day smoking status. Spatial variation in BC exposure was high, with concentrations varying between 0.26 and 5.69 µg/m3. The highest levels were recorded during transport and, to a lesser extent, in green spaces located in the vicinity of roads with high traffic intensity. Concentrations of PAHs and benzene biomarkers did not systematically exceed the limits of detection. Among smokers, respiratory inflammation increased linearly with exposure to BC measured over the four days of follow-up (ß = 8.73, 95% CI: 4.04, 13.41). Among non-smokers, oxidative stress increased linearly with BC measured on the fourth day (ß = 2.88, 95% CI: 1.52, 4.24). Despite some limitations, this work supports the hypothesis that BC induces respiratory inflammation and oxidative stress. It also highlights the value of this compound as well as exhaled NO and urinary 8-OHdG biomarkers to detect early/mild effects of air pollution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Benzeno/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Fuligem/efeitos adversos , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Bélgica , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Estresse Oxidativo , Projetos Piloto , Sistema Respiratório/imunologia , Sistema Respiratório/fisiopatologia , População Urbana
18.
Br Med Bull ; 127(1): 5-22, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30007287

RESUMO

Introduction: Natural environments and green spaces provide ecosystem services that enhance human health and well-being. They improve mental health, mitigate allergies and reduce all-cause, respiratory, cardiovascular and cancer mortality. The presence, accessibility, proximity and greenness of green spaces determine the magnitude of their positive health effects, but the role of biodiversity (including species and ecosystem diversity) within green spaces remains underexplored. This review describes mechanisms and evidence of effects of biodiversity in nature and green spaces on human health. Sources of data: We identified studies listed in PubMed and Web of Science using combinations of keywords including 'biodiversity', 'diversity', 'species richness', 'human health', 'mental health' and 'well-being' with no restrictions on the year of publication. Papers were considered for detailed evaluation if they were written in English and reported data on levels of biodiversity and health outcomes. Areas of agreement: There is evidence for positive associations between species diversity and well-being (psychological and physical) and between ecosystem diversity and immune system regulation. Areas of concern: There is a very limited number of studies that relate measured biodiversity to human health. There is more evidence for self-reported psychological well-being than for well-defined clinical outcomes. High species diversity has been associated with both reduced and increased vector-borne disease risk. Growing points: Biodiversity supports ecosystem services mitigating heat, noise and air pollution, which all mediate the positive health effects of green spaces, but direct and long-term health outcomes of species diversity have been insufficiently studied so far. Areas timely for research: Additional research and newly developed methods are needed to quantify short- and long-term health effects of exposure to perceived and objectively measured species diversity, including health effects of nature-based solutions and exposure to microbiota.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Planejamento de Cidades/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Parques Recreativos , Saúde Pública , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos
19.
Environ Health ; 17(1): 35, 2018 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29642904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outdoor pollen grain and fungal spore concentrations have been associated with severe asthma exacerbations at the population level. The specific impact of each taxon and the concomitant effect of air pollution on these symptoms have, however, still to be better characterized. This study aimed to investigate the short-term associations between ambient concentrations of various aeroallergens and hospitalizations related to asthma in the Brussels-Capital Region (Belgium), an area recording especially high rates of admissions. METHODS: Based on administrative records of asthma hospitalizations and regular monitoring of 11 tree/herbaceous pollen taxa and 2 fungal spore taxa, daily time series analyses covering the 2008-2013 period were performed. Effects up to 6 days after exposure were captured by combining quasi-Poisson regression with distributed lag models, adjusting for seasonal and long-term trends, day of the week, public holidays, mean temperature and relative humidity. Effect modification by age and air pollution (PM, NO2, O3) was tested. RESULTS: A significant increase in asthma hospitalizations was observed for an interquartile range increase in grass (5.9%, 95% CI: 0.0, 12.0), birch (3.2%, 95% CI: 1.1, 5.3) and hornbeam (0.7%, 95% CI: 0.2, 1.3) pollen concentrations. For several taxa including grasses, an age modification effect was notable, the hospitalization risk tending to be higher in individuals younger than 60 years. Air pollutants impacted the relationships too: the risk appeared to be stronger for grass and birch pollen concentrations in case of high PM10 and O3 concentrations respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that airborne grass, birch and hornbeam pollen are associated with severe asthma exacerbations in the Brussels region. These compounds appear to act in synergy with air pollution and to more specifically affect young and intermediate age groups. Most of these life-threatening events could theoretically be prevented with improved disease diagnosis/management and targeted communication actions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Alérgenos/análise , Asma/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Asma/etiologia , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cidades , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 27(2): 184-191, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27380513

RESUMO

This paper describes an ecological study investigating whether there is an excess incidence of acute leukaemia among children aged 0-14 years living in the vicinity of the nuclear sites in Belgium. Poisson regression modelling was carried out for proximity areas of varying sizes. In addition, the hypothesis of a gradient in leukaemia incidence with increasing levels of surrogate exposures was explored by means of focused hypothesis tests and generalized additive models. For the surrogate exposures, three proxies were used, that is, residential proximity to the nuclear site, prevailing winds and simulated radioactive discharges, on the basis of mathematical dispersion modelling. No excess incidence of acute leukaemia was observed around the nuclear power plants of Doel or Tihange nor around the nuclear site of Fleurus, which is a major manufacturer of radioactive isotopes in Europe. Around the site of Mol-Dessel, however, two- to three-fold increased leukaemia incidence rates were found in children aged 0-14 years living in the 0-5, 0-10 and the 0-15 km proximity areas. For this site, there was evidence for a gradient in leukaemia incidence with increased proximity, prevailing winds and simulated radioactive discharges, suggesting a potential link with the site that needs further investigation. An increased incidence of acute leukaemia in children aged 0-14 years was observed around one nuclear site that hosted reprocessing activities in the past and where nuclear research activities and radioactive waste treatment are ongoing.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Leucemia Induzida por Radiação/epidemiologia , Leucemia/epidemiologia , Centrais Nucleares , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Leucemia/etiologia , Leucemia Induzida por Radiação/etiologia , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...