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1.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 246: 114050, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36265402

RESUMO

The objectives of the study were to estimate the current exposure to cadmium (Cd) in Europe, potential differences between the countries and geographic regions, determinants of exposure and to derive European exposure levels. The basis for this work was provided by the European Human Biomonitoring Initiative (HBM4EU) which established a framework for alignment of national or regional HBM studies. For the purpose of Cd exposure assessment, studies from 9 European countries (Iceland, Denmark, Poland, Czech Republic, Croatia, Portugal, Germany, France, Luxembourg) were included and urine of 20-39 years old adults sampled in the years 2014-2021 (n = 2510). The measurements in urine were quality assured by the HBM4EU quality assurance/quality control scheme, study participants' questionnaire data were post-harmonized. Spatially resolved external data, namely Cd concentrations in soil, agricultural areas, phosphate fertilizer application, traffic density and point source Cd release were collected for the respective statistical territorial unit (NUTS). There were no distinct geographic patterns observed in Cd levels in urine, although the data revealed some differences between the specific study sites. The levels of exposure were otherwise similar between two time periods within the last decade (DEMOCOPHES - 2011-2012 vs. HBM4EU Aligned Studies, 2014-2020). The age-dependent alert values for Cd in urine were exceeded by 16% of the study participants. Exceedances in the different studies and locations ranged from 1.4% up to 42%. The studies with largest extent of exceedance were from France and Poland. Association analysis with individual food consumption data available from participants' questionnaires showed an important contribution of vegetarian diet to the overall exposure, with 35% higher levels in vegetarians as opposed to non-vegetarians. For comparison, increase in Cd levels due to smoking was 25%. Using NUTS2-level external data, positive associations between HBM data and percentage of cropland and consumption of Cd-containing mineral phosphate fertilizer were revealed, which indicates a significant contribution of mineral phosphate fertilizers to human Cd exposure through diet. In addition to diet, traffic and point source release were identified as significant sources of exposure in the study population. The findings of the study support the recommendation by EFSA to reduce Cd exposure as also the estimated mean dietary exposure of adults in the EU is close or slightly exceeding the tolerable weekly intake. It also indicates that regulations are not protecting the population sufficiently.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Monitoramento Ambiental , Adulto , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Cádmio/urina , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fertilizantes/análise , Europa (Continente) , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fosfatos/análise
2.
Environ Int ; 170: 107555, 2022 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36244229

RESUMO

Exposure science is an emerging and rapidly growing field dedicated to all aspects concerning the contact between chemical, biological, physical or psycho-social stressors and human and ecological receptors. With that, exposure science plays a central role in protecting human and ecosystem health, and contributes to the global transition towards a green and sustainable society. In Europe, however, exposure science is currently not sufficiently recognised as a scientific field, resulting in inefficient uptake into policies. In response, the wider European exposure science community developed elements and actions under the auspices of the Europe Regional Chapter of the International Society of Exposure Science (ISES Europe), for identified priority areas, namely education, exposure models, exposure data, human biomonitoring, and policy uptake. In the present document, we synthesize these strategic elements into an overarching 'European Exposure Science Strategy 2020-2030', following three strategic objectives that focus on acknowledging exposure science as an independent and interconnected field, harmonizing approaches and tools across regulations, and exploring collaboration, education and funding mechanisms. To operationalise this strategy, we present concrete key actions and propose initiatives and funding options for advancing the underlying science, cultivating broader education and cross-sector exposure knowledge transfer, and fostering effective uptake of exposure information into policy. We aim at anchoring European efforts in the global exposure science context, with a special focus on the interface between scientific advancements, application in decision support, and dissemination and training. This will help to develop exposure science as a strong scientific field with the ultimate goal to successfully assess and manage various stressors across sectors and geographic scales.

3.
Environ Int ; 168: 107476, 2022 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067553

RESUMO

Human biomonitoring (HBM) is a crucial approach for exposure assessment, as emphasised in the European Commission's Chemicals Strategy for Sustainability (CSS). HBM can help to improve chemical policies in five major key areas: (1) assessing internal and aggregate exposure in different target populations; 2) assessing exposure to chemicals across life stages; (3) assessing combined exposure to multiple chemicals (mixtures); (4) bridging regulatory silos on aggregate exposure; and (5) enhancing the effectiveness of risk management measures. In this strategy paper we propose a vision and a strategy for the use of HBM in chemical regulations and public health policy in Europe and beyond. We outline six strategic objectives and a roadmap to further strengthen HBM approaches and increase their implementation in the regulatory risk assessment of chemicals to enhance our understanding of exposure and health impacts, enabling timely and targeted policy interventions and risk management. These strategic objectives are: 1) further development of sampling strategies and sample preparation; 2) further development of chemical-analytical HBM methods; 3) improving harmonisation throughout the HBM research life cycle; 4) further development of quality control / quality assurance throughout the HBM research life cycle; 5) obtain sustained funding and reinforcement by legislation; and 6) extend target-specific communication with scientists, policymakers, citizens and other stakeholders. HBM approaches are essential in risk assessment to address scientific, regulatory and societal challenges. HBM requires full and strong support from the scientific and regulatory domain to reach its full potential in public and occupational health assessment and in regulatory decision-making.

4.
Toxics ; 10(8)2022 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36006160

RESUMO

More than 20 years ago, acrylamide was added to the list of potential carcinogens found in many common dietary products and tobacco smoke. Consequently, human biomonitoring studies investigating exposure to acrylamide in the form of adducts in blood and metabolites in urine have been performed to obtain data on the actual burden in different populations of the world and in Europe. Recognizing the related health risk, the European Commission responded with measures to curb the acrylamide content in food products. In 2017, a trans-European human biomonitoring project (HBM4EU) was started with the aim to investigate exposure to several chemicals, including acrylamide. Here we set out to provide a combined analysis of previous and current European acrylamide biomonitoring study results by harmonizing and integrating different data sources, including HBM4EU aligned studies, with the aim to resolve overall and current time trends of acrylamide exposure in Europe. Data from 10 European countries were included in the analysis, comprising more than 5500 individual samples (3214 children and teenagers, 2293 adults). We utilized linear models as well as a non-linear fit and breakpoint analysis to investigate trends in temporal acrylamide exposure as well as descriptive statistics and statistical tests to validate findings. Our results indicate an overall increase in acrylamide exposure between the years 2001 and 2017. Studies with samples collected after 2018 focusing on adults do not indicate increasing exposure but show declining values. Regional differences appear to affect absolute values, but not the overall time-trend of exposure. As benchmark levels for acrylamide content in food have been adopted in Europe in 2018, our results may imply the effects of these measures, but only indicated for adults, as corresponding data are still missing for children.

5.
Environ Res ; 214(Pt 1): 113758, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35764127

RESUMO

Occupational exposures to hexavalent Chromium (Cr(VI)) can occur in welding, hot working stainless steel processing, chrome plating, spray painting and coating activities. Recently, within the human biomonitoring for Europe initiative (HBM4EU), a study was performed to assess the suitability of different biomarkers to assess the exposure to Cr(VI) in various job tasks. Blood-based biomarkers may prove useful when more specific information on systemic and intracellular bioavailability is necessary. To this aim, concentrations of Cr in red blood cells (RBC-Cr) and in plasma (P-Cr) were analyzed in 345 Cr(VI) exposed workers and 175 controls to understand how these biomarkers may be affected by variable levels of exposure and job procedures. Compared to controls, significantly higher RBC-Cr levels were observed in bath plating and paint application workers, but not in welders, while all the 3 groups had significantly greater P-Cr concentrations. RBC-Cr and P-Cr in chrome platers showed a high correlation with Cr(VI) in inhalable dust, outside respiratory protective equipment (RPE), while such correlation could not be determined in welders. In platers, the use of RPE had a significant impact on the relationship between blood biomarkers and Cr(VI) in inhalable and respirable dust. Low correlations between P-Cr and RBC-Cr may reflect a difference in kinetics. This study showed that Cr-blood-based biomarkers can provide information on how workplace exposure translates into systemic availability of Cr(III) (extracellular, P-Cr) and Cr(VI) (intracellular, RBC-Cr). Further studies are needed to fully appreciate their use in an occupational health and safety context.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , Exposição Ocupacional , Biomarcadores , Cromatos , Cromo , Poeira , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos
6.
Epigenetics ; 17(13): 1863-1874, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35723001

RESUMO

Green space could influence adult cognition and childhood neurodevelopment , and is hypothesized to be partly driven by epigenetic modifications. However, it remains unknown whether some of these associations are already evident during foetal development. Similar biological signals shape the developmental processes in the foetal brain and placenta.Therefore, we hypothesize that green space can modify epigenetic processes of cognition-related pathways in placental tissue, such as DNA-methylation of the serotonin receptor HTR2A. HTR2A-methylation was determined within 327 placentas from the ENVIRONAGE (ENVIRonmental influence ON early AGEing) birth cohort using bisulphite-PCR-pyrosequencing. Total green space exposure was calculated using high-resolution land cover data derived from the Green Map of Flanders in seven buffers (50 m-3 km) and stratified into low (<3 m) and high (≥3 m) vegetation. Residential nature was calculated using the Land use Map of Flanders. We performed multivariate regression models adjusted for several a priori chosen covariables. For an IQR increment in total green space within a 1,000 m, 2,000 m and 3,000 m buffer the methylation of HTR2A increased with 1.47% (95%CI:0.17;2.78), 1.52% (95%CI:0.21;2.83) and 1.42% (95%CI:0.15;2.69), respectively. Additionally,, we found 3.00% (95%CI:1.09;4.91) and 1.98% (95%CI:0.28;3.68) higher HTR2A-methylation when comparing residences with and without the presence of nature in a 50 m and 100 m buffer, respectively. The methylation status of HTR2A in placental tissue is positively associated with maternal green space exposure. Future research is needed to understand better how these epigenetic changes are related to functional modifications in the placenta and the consequent implications for foetal development.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Parques Recreativos , Placenta , Receptor 5-HT2A de Serotonina , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Placenta/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Receptor 5-HT2A de Serotonina/genética , Exposição Materna
7.
Environ Health Perspect ; 130(5): 57003, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The available evidence for positive associations between urban trees and human health is mixed, partly because the assessment of exposure to trees is often imprecise because of, for instance, exclusion of trees in private areas and the lack of three-dimensional (3D) exposure indicators (e.g., crown volume). OBJECTIVES: We aimed to quantify all trees and relevant 3D structural traits in Brussels (Belgium) and to investigate associations between the number of trees, tree traits, and sales of medication commonly prescribed for mood disorders and cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We developed a workflow to automatically isolate all individual trees from airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data collected in 2012. Trait data were subsequently extracted for 309,757 trees in 604 census tracts. We used the average annual age-standardized rate of medication sales in Brussels for the period 2006 to 2014, calculated from reimbursement information on medication prescribed to adults (19-64 years of age). The medication sales data were provided by sex at the census tract level. Generalized log-linear models were used to investigate associations between the number of trees, the crown volume, tree structural variation, and medication sales. Models were run separately for mood disorder and cardiovascular medication and for men and women. All models were adjusted for indicators of area-level socioeconomic status. RESULTS: Single-factor models showed that higher stem densities and higher crown volumes are both associated with lower medication sales, but opposing associations emerged in multifactor models. Higher crown volume [an increase by one interquartile range (IQR) of 1.4×104 m³/ha] was associated with 34% lower mood disorder medication sales [women, ß=-0.341 (95% CI: -0.379, -0.303); men, ß=-0.340 (95% CI: -0.378, -0.303)] and with 21-25% lower cardiovascular medication sales [women, ß=-0.214 (95% CI: -0.246, -0.182); men, ß=-0.252 (95% CI: -0.285, -0.219)]. Conversely, a higher stem density (an increase by one IQR of 21.8 trees/ha) was associated with 28-32% higher mood disorder medication sales [women, ß=0.322 (95% CI: 0.284, 0.361); men, ß=0.281 (95% CI: 0.243, 0.319)] and with 20-24% higher cardiovascular medication sales [women, ß=0.202 (95% CI: 0.169, 0.236); men, ß=0.240 (95% CI: 0.206, 0.273)]. DISCUSSION: We found a trade-off between the number of trees and the crown volumes of those trees for human health benefits in an urban environment. Our results demonstrate that conserving large trees in urban environments may not only support conservation of biodiversity but also human health. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP9924.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Árvores , Adulto , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Comércio , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Humor/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35564862

RESUMO

Exposure to air pollution is a well-known health risk. For instance, volatile and very volatile organic compounds (VOCs and VVOCs) are known to cause respiratory, haematologic or immune diseases, and even cancer. Based on the Luxembourgish indoor pollution surveillance program, we performed an exploratory analysis for the period 2014-2019, in order (1) to evaluate the prevalence of VOCs and VVOCs in households, and (2) to estimate the risks of lifelong exposure to selected VOCs on the health of the adult population. The database included 715 indoor air samples from 159 different households. Observed VOC and VVOC levels were similar to those in neighbouring countries. Our health impact assessment identified some health risks associated with the observed concentrations in Luxembourg. Furthermore, this study shows the major public health importance of having a national indoor pollution surveillance system in place. Highlights: (1) This study provides an overview of the domestic indoor pollution in Luxembourg. (2) (V)VOCs levels in Luxembourg were similar to those in neighbouring countries. (3) The results clearly show the importance of having a surveillance system in place.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluição do Ar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Luxemburgo/epidemiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
9.
Metabolites ; 12(4)2022 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35448548

RESUMO

Exposure to hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) may occur in several occupational activities, placing workers in many industries at risk for potential related health outcomes. Untargeted metabolomics was applied to investigate changes in metabolic pathways in response to Cr(VI) exposure. We obtained our data from a study population of 220 male workers with exposure to Cr(VI) and 102 male controls from Belgium, Finland, Poland, Portugal and the Netherlands within the HBM4EU Chromates Study. Urinary metabolite profiles were determined using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, and differences between post-shift exposed workers and controls were analyzed using principal component analysis. Based on the first two principal components, we observed clustering by industrial chromate application, such as welding, chrome plating, and surface treatment, distinct from controls and not explained by smoking status or alcohol use. The changes in the abundancy of excreted metabolites observed in workers reflect fatty acid and monoamine neurotransmitter metabolism, oxidative modifications of amino acid residues, the excessive formation of abnormal amino acid metabolites and changes in steroid and thyrotropin-releasing hormones. The observed responses could also have resulted from work-related factors other than Cr(VI). Further targeted metabolomics studies are needed to better understand the observed modifications and further explore the suitability of urinary metabolites as early indicators of adverse effects associated with exposure to Cr(VI).

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35329370

RESUMO

Work-related exposures in industrial processing of chromate (chrome plating, surface treatment and welding) raise concern regarding the health risk of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)). In this study, performed under the HBM4EU project, we focused on better understanding the determinants of exposure and recognising how risk management measures (RMMs) contribute to a reduction in exposure. HBM and occupational hygiene data were collected from 399 workers and 203 controls recruited in nine European countries. Urinary total chromium (U-Cr), personal inhalable and respirable dust of Cr and Cr(VI) and Cr from hand wipes were collected. Data on the RMMs were collected by questionnaires. We studied the association between different exposure parameters and the use of RMMs. The relationship between exposure by inhalation and U-Cr in different worker groups was analysed using regression analysis and found a strong association. Automatisation of Cr electroplating dipping explained lower exposure levels in platers. The use of personal protective equipment resulted in lower U-Cr levels in welding, bath plating and painting. An effect of wearing gloves was observed in machining. An effect of local exhaust ventilation and training was observed in welding. Regression analyses showed that in platers, exposure to air level of 5 µg/m3 corresponds to U-Cr level of 7 µg/g creatinine. In welders, the same inhalation exposure resulted in lower U-Cr levels reflecting toxicokinetic differences of different chromium species.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , Exposição Ocupacional , Soldagem , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Cromatos/análise , Cromo/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise
11.
Environ Res ; 211: 113056, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35248565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Residential green space has been associated with mental health benefits, but how such associations vary with green space types is insufficiently known. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate associations between types and quantities of green space and sales of mood disorder medication in Belgium. METHODS: We used aggregated sales data of psycholeptics and psychoanaleptics prescribed to adults from 2006 to 2014. Generalized mixed effects models were used to investigate associations between relative covers of woodland, low-green, grassland, and garden, and average annual medication sales. Models were adjusted for socio-economic background variables, urban-rural differences, and administrative region, and included random effects of latitude and longitude. RESULTS: Urban census tracts were associated with 9-10% higher medication sales. In nationwide models, a 10% increase in relative cover of woodland, garden, and grass was associated with a 1-2% decrease in medication sales. The same association was found for low green but only for men. In stratified models, a 10% increase in relative cover of any green space type in urban census tracts was associated with a decrease of medication sales by 1-3%. In rural census tracts, no protective associations between green space and mood disorder medication sales were observed, with the exception of relative woodland cover for women (-1%), and low green was associated with higher medication sales (+6-7%). CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results suggest that living in green environments may be beneficial for adult mental health. Woodland exposure seemed the most beneficial, but the amount of green space was more important than the type. Results underline the importance of conserving green space in our living environment, for the conservation of biodiversity and for human health.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Parques Recreativos , Adulto , Bélgica , Comércio , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prescrições
12.
Mycotoxin Res ; 38(1): 71-78, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35028912

RESUMO

Recreational cannabis is being legalized in more and more countries, and methods for the determination of contaminants, thereunder mycotoxins, start to emerge in scientific literature. On the other hand, cannabis continues being available on the illegal market without any quality control at all. Today, no information about mycotoxin contamination of illegal cannabis is available in literature. Therefore, in order to increase knowledge about mycotoxin contamination of cannabis, aflatoxins (AF) and ochratoxin A (OTA) were analyzed in 142 samples of illegal cannabis seized on the local market using a method based on HPLC-FLD detection, after clean up with immuno-affinity cartridges. AF were derivatized prior to detection with a Kobra cell. No AF contamination (LOD = 0.04 µg/kg) was detected in any of the samples analyzed. OTA however was detected in about one-third of the samples with an average concentration of 4.30 µg/kg (range from 1.02 to 16.21 µg/kg). No significant difference was observed between resin and herbal samples. Overall, the concentrations remain low and do not suggest an issue to human health if the cannabis consumption remains moderate.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas , Cannabis , Ocratoxinas , Aflatoxinas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Ocratoxinas/análise
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150091, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution exposure has been associated with higher mortality risk in numerous studies. We assessed potential variability in the magnitude of this association for non-accidental, cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, and lung cancer mortality in a country-wide administrative cohort by exposure assessment method and by adjustment for geographic subdivisions. METHODS: We used the Belgian 2001 census linked to population and mortality register including nearly 5.5 million adults aged ≥30 (mean follow-up: 9.97 years). Annual mean concentrations for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon (BC) and ozone (O3) were assessed at baseline residential address using two exposure methods; Europe-wide hybrid land use regression (LUR) models [100x100m], and Belgium-wide interpolation-dispersion (RIO-IFDM) models [25x25m]. We used Cox proportional hazards models with age as the underlying time scale and adjusted for various individual and area-level covariates. We further adjusted main models for two different area-levels following the European Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS); NUTS-1 (n = 3), or NUTS-3 (n = 43). RESULTS: We found no consistent differences between both exposure methods. We observed most robust associations with lung cancer mortality. Hazard Ratios (HRs) per 10 µg/m3 increase for NO2 were 1.060 (95%CI 1.042-1.078) [hybrid LUR] and 1.040 (95%CI 1.022-1.058) [RIO-IFDM]. Associations with non-accidental, respiratory disease and cardiovascular disease mortality were generally null in main models but were enhanced after further adjustment for NUTS-1 or NUTS-3. HRs for non-accidental mortality per 5 µg/m3 increase for PM2.5 for the main model using hybrid LUR exposure were 1.023 (95%CI 1.011-1.035). After including random effects HRs were 1.044 (95%CI 1.033-1.057) [NUTS-1] and 1.076 (95%CI 1.060-1.092) [NUTS-3]. CONCLUSION: Long-term air pollution exposure was associated with higher lung cancer mortality risk but not consistently with the other studied causes. Magnitude of associations varied by adjustment for geographic subdivisions, area-level socio-economic covariates and less by exposure assessment method.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Censos , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade
14.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt A): 111984, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492275

RESUMO

Exposure to hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] may occur in several occupational activities, e.g., welding, Cr(VI) electroplating and other surface treatment processes. The aim of this study was to provide EU relevant data on occupational Cr(VI) exposure to support the regulatory risk assessment and decision-making. In addition, the capability and validity of different biomarkers for the assessment of Cr(VI) exposure were evaluated. The study involved nine European countries and involved 399 workers in different industry sectors with exposures to Cr(VI) such as welding, bath plating, applying or removing paint and other tasks. We also studied 203 controls to establish a background in workers with no direct exposure to Cr(VI). We applied a cross-sectional study design and used chromium in urine as the primary biomonitoring method for Cr(VI) exposure. Additionally, we studied the use of red blood cells (RBC) and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) for biomonitoring of exposure to Cr(VI). Personal measurements were used to study exposure to inhalable and respirable Cr(VI) by personal air sampling. Dermal exposure was studied by taking hand wipe samples. The highest internal exposures were observed in the use of Cr(VI) in electrolytic bath plating. In stainless steel welding the internal Cr exposure was clearly lower when compared to plating activities. We observed a high correlation between chromium urinary levels and air Cr(VI) or dermal total Cr exposure. Urinary chromium showed its value as a first approach for the assessment of total, internal exposure. Correlations between urinary chromium and Cr(VI) in EBC and Cr in RBC were low, probably due to differences in kinetics and indicating that these biomonitoring approaches may not be interchangeable but rather complementary. This study showed that occupational biomonitoring studies can be conducted successfully by multi-national collaboration and provide relevant information to support policy actions aiming to reduce occupational exposure to chemicals.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , Exposição Ocupacional , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Biológico , Cromatos , Cromo/análise , Estudos Transversais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 781: 146682, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of pollen allergy has increased due to urbanization, climate change and air pollution. The effects of green space and air pollution on respiratory health of pollen allergy patients are complex and best studied in spatio-temporal detail. METHODS: We tracked 144 adults sensitized to Betulaceae pollen during the tree pollen season (January-May) of 2017 and 2018 and assessed their spatio-temporal exposure to green space, allergenic trees, air pollutants and birch pollen. Participants reported daily symptom severity scores. We extracted 404 case days with high symptom severity scores and matched these to 404 control days. The data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression with a 1:1 case-crossover design. RESULTS: Case days were associated with exposure to birch pollen concentration (100 grains/m3) [adjusted odds ratio 1.045 and 95% confidence interval (1.014-1.078)], O3 concentration (10 µg/m3) [1.504 (1.281-1.766)] and PM10 concentration (10 µg/m3) [1.255 (1.007-1.565)] on the day of the severe allergy event and with the cumulative exposure of one and two days before. Exposure to grass cover (10% area fraction) [0.655 (0.446-0.960)], forest cover (10% area fraction) [0.543 (0.303-0.973)] and density of Alnus (10%) [0.622 (0.411-0.942)] were protective for severe allergy, but only on the day of the severe allergy event. Increased densities of Betula trees (10%) were a risk factor [unadjusted OR: 2.014 (1.162-3.490)]. CONCLUSION: Exposure to green space may mitigate tree pollen allergy symptom severity but only when the density of allergenic trees is low. Air pollutants contribute to more severe allergy symptoms. Spatio-temporal tracking allows for a more realistic exposure assessment.


Assuntos
Rinite Alérgica Sazonal , Adulto , Alérgenos , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Betula , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Parques Recreativos , Pólen , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/epidemiologia
16.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 72: 101910, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A previous investigation of the occurrence of childhood acute leukemia around the Belgian nuclear sites has shown positive associations around one nuclear site (Mol-Dessel). In the following years, the Belgian Cancer Registry has made data available at the smallest administrative unit for which demographic information exists in Belgium, i.e. the statistical sector. This offers the advantage to reduce the potential misclassification due to large geographical scales. METHODS: The current study performed for the period 2006-2016 uses Poisson models to investigate (i) the incidence of childhood acute leukemia within 20 km around the four Belgian nuclear sites, (ii) exposure-response relationships between cancer incidence and surrogate exposures from the nuclear sites (distance, wind direction frequency and exposure by hypothetical radioactive discharges taking into account historical meteorological conditions). All analyses are carried out at statistical sector level. RESULTS: Higher incidence rate ratios were found for children <15 years (7 cases, RR = 3.01, 95% CI: 1.43;6.35) and children <5 years (< 5 cases, RR = 3.62, 95% CI: 1.35;9.74) living less than 5 km from the site of Mol-Dessel. In addition, there was an indication for positive exposure-response relationships with the different types of surrogate exposures. CONCLUSION: Results confirm an increased incidence of acute childhood leukemia around Mol-Dessel, but the number of cases remains very small. Random variation cannot be excluded and the ecological design does not allow concluding on causality. These findings emphasize the need for more in-depth research into the risk factors of childhood leukemia, for a better understanding of the etiology of this disease.


Assuntos
Leucemia/epidemiologia , Centrais Nucleares/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , Análise de Pequenas Áreas
17.
Environ Int ; 148: 106365, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies suggest that residing close to green space reduce mortality rates. We investigated the relationship between long-term exposure to residential green space and non-accidental and cardio-respiratory mortality. METHODS: We linked the Belgian 2001 census to population and mortality register follow-up data (2001-2011) among adults aged 30 years and older residing in the five largest urban areas in Belgium (n = 2,185,170 and mean follow-up time 9.4 years). Residential addresses were available at baseline. Exposure to green space was defined as 1) surrounding greenness (2006) [normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and modified soil-adjusted vegetation index (MSAVI2)] within buffers of 300 m, 500 m, and 1000 m; 2) surrounding green space (2006) [Urban Atlas (UA) and CORINE Land Cover (CLC)] within buffers of 300 m, 500 m, and 1000 m; and 3) perceived neighborhood green space (2001). Cox proportional hazards models with age as the underlying time scale were used to probe into cause-specific mortality (non-accidental, respiratory, COPD, cardiovascular, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and cerebrovascular). Models were adjusted for several sociodemographic variables (age, sex, marital status, country of birth, education level, employment status, and area mean income). We further adjusted our main models for annual mean (2010) values of ambient air pollution (PM2.5, PM10, NO2 and BC, one at a time), and we additionally explored potential mediation with the aforementioned pollutants. RESULTS: Higher degrees of residential green space were associated with lower rates of non-accidental and respiratory mortality. In fully adjusted models, hazard ratios (HR) per interquartile range (IQR) increase in NDVI 500 m buffer (IQR: 0.24) and UA 500 m buffer (IQR: 0.31) were 0.97 (95%CI 0.96-0.98) and 0.99 (95%CI 0.98-0.99) for non-accidental mortality, and 0.95 (95%CI 0.93-0.98) and 0.97 (95%CI 0.96-0.99) for respiratory mortality. For perceived neighborhood green space, HRs were 0.93 (95%CI 0.92-0.94) and 0.94 (95%CI 0.91-0.98) for non-accidental and respiratory mortality, respectively. The observed lower mortality risks associated with residential exposure to green space were largely independent from exposure to ambient air pollutants. CONCLUSION: We observed evidence for lower mortality risk in associations with long-term residential exposure to green space in most but not all studied causes of death in a large representative cohort for the five largest urban areas in Belgium. These findings support the importance of the availability of residential green space in urban areas.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Adulto , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Censos , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Seguimentos , Humanos , Parques Recreativos , Material Particulado
18.
Environ Int ; 146: 106230, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171378

RESUMO

Exposure of the thyroid gland to ionizing radiation at a young age is the main recognized risk factor for differentiated thyroid cancer. After the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents, thyroid cancer screening was implemented mainly for children, leading to case over-diagnosis as seen in South Korea after the implementation of opportunistic screening (where subjects are recruited at healthcare sites). The aim of cancer screening is to reduce morbidity and mortality, but screening can also cause negative effects on health (with unnecessary treatment if over-diagnosis) and on quality of life. This paper from the SHAMISEN special issue (Nuclear Emergency Situations - Improvement of Medical And Health Surveillance) presents the principles of cancer screening, the lessons learned from thyroid cancer screening, as well as the knowledge on thyroid cancer incidence after exposure to iodine-131. The SHAMISEN Consortium recommends to envisage systematic health screening after a nuclear accident, only when appropriately justified, i.e. ensuring that screening will do more good than harm. Based on the experience of the Fukushima screening, the consortium does not recommend mass or population-based thyroid cancer screening, as the negative psychological and physical effects are likely to outweigh any possible benefit in affected populations; thyroid health monitoring should however be made available to persons who request it (regardless of whether they are at increased risk or not), accompanied with appropriate information and support.


Assuntos
Acidente Nuclear de Chernobyl , Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Criança , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Humanos , Japão , Qualidade de Vida , República da Coreia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia
19.
Environ Res ; 189: 109914, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Living in green environments has been associated with various health benefits, but the evidence for positive effects on respiratory health in children is ambiguous. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if residential exposure to different types of green space is associated with childhood asthma prevalence in Belgium. METHODS: Asthma prevalence was estimated from sales data of reimbursed medication for obstructive airway disease (OAD) prescribed to children between 2010 and 2014, aggregated at census tract level (n = 1872) by sex and age group (6-12 and 13-18 years). Generalized log-linear mixed effects models with repeated measures were used to estimate effects of relative covers of forest, grassland and garden in the census tract of the residence on OAD medication sales. Models were adjusted for air pollution (PM10), housing quality and administrative region. RESULTS: Consistent associations between OAD medication sales and relative covers of grassland and garden were observed (unadjusted parameter estimates per IQR increase of relative cover, range across four strata: grassland, ß = 0.15-0.17; garden, ß = 0.13-0.17). The associations remained significant after adjusting for housing quality and chronic air pollution (adjusted parameter estimates per IQR increase of relative cover, range across four strata: grassland, ß = 0.10-0.14; garden, ß = 0.07-0.09). There was no association between OAD medication sales and forest cover. CONCLUSIONS: Based on aggregated data, we found that living in close proximity to areas with high grass cover (grasslands, but also residential gardens) may negatively impact child respiratory health. Potential allergic and non-allergic mechanisms that underlie this association include elevated exposure to grass pollen and fungi and reduced exposure to environmental biodiversity. Reducing the dominance of grass in public and private green space might be beneficial to reduce the childhood asthma burden and may simultaneously improve the ecological value of urban green space.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/epidemiologia , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Criança , Comércio , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Parques Recreativos
20.
Environ Res ; 188: 109848, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Summer temperatures are expected to increase and heat waves will occur more frequently, be longer, and be more intense as a result of global warming. A growing body of evidence indicates that increasing temperature and heatwaves are associated with excess mortality and therefore global heating may become a major public health threat. However, the heat-mortality relationship has been shown to be location-specific and differences could largely be explained by the most frequent temperature. So far, in Belgium there is little known regarding the heat-mortality relationship in the different urban areas. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to assess the heat-mortality relationship in the two largest urban areas in Belgium, i.e. Antwerp and Brussels for the warm seasons from 2002 until 2011 taking into account the effect of air pollution. METHODS: The threshold in temperature above which mortality increases was determined using segmented regressions for both urban areas. The relationship between daily temperature and mortality above the threshold was investigated using a generalized estimated equation with Poisson distribution to finally determine the percentage of deaths attributable to the effect of heat. RESULTS: Although only 50 km apart, the heat-mortality curves for the two urban areas are different. More specifically, an increase in mortality occurs above a maximum temperature of 25.2 °C in Antwerp and 22.8 °C in Brussels. We estimated that above these thresholds, there is an increase in mortality of 4.9% per 1 °C in Antwerp and of 3.1% in Brussels. During the study period, 1.5% of the deaths in Antwerp and 3.5% of the deaths in Brussels can be attributed to the effect of heat. The thresholds differed considerably from the most frequent temperature, particularly in Antwerp. Adjustment for air pollution attenuated the effect of temperature on mortality and this attenuation was more pronounced when adjusting for ambient ozone. CONCLUSION: Our results show a significant effect of temperature on mortality above a city-specific threshold, both in Antwerp and in Brussels. These findings are important given the ongoing global warming. Recurrent, intense and longer episodes of high temperature and expected changes in air pollutant levels will have an important impact on health in urban areas.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Cidades , Temperatura Alta , Mortalidade , Ozônio/análise , Estações do Ano
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