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2.
PLoS Biol ; 17(9): e3000280, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513563

RESUMO

The human lateral occipital complex (LOC) is more strongly activated by images of objects compared to scrambled controls, but detailed information at the neuronal level is currently lacking. We recorded with microelectrode arrays in the LOC of 2 patients and obtained highly selective single-unit, multi-unit, and high-gamma responses to images of objects. Contrary to predictions derived from functional imaging studies, all neuronal properties indicated that the posterior subsector of LOC we recorded from occupies an unexpectedly high position in the hierarchy of visual areas. Notably, the response latencies of LOC neurons were long, the shape selectivity was spatially clustered, LOC receptive fields (RFs) were large and bilateral, and a number of LOC neurons exhibited three-dimensional (3D)-structure selectivity (a preference for convex or concave stimuli), which are all properties typical of end-stage ventral stream areas. Thus, our results challenge prevailing ideas about the position of the more posterior subsector of LOC in the hierarchy of visual areas.

3.
Epilepsia ; 60(8): e78-e82, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247119

RESUMO

The Epilepsy Surgery Grading Scale (ESGS) is a simple tool that predicts a patient's likelihood of progressing to resective surgery and becoming seizure-free. The aim of our study was to validate the ESGS in an independent patient cohort. We retrospectively calculated the ESGS score for adult patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy undergoing presurgical evaluation at two reference centers for drug-resistant epilepsy in Belgium. We classified patients into ESGS grade 1 (most favorable), grade 2 (intermediate), and grade 3 (least favorable). We assessed progression to surgery and postsurgical seizure freedom. A total of 238 patients underwent presurgical evaluation (presurgical cohort), of whom 140 progressed to surgery (surgical cohort). In the presurgical cohort, we observed significant differences in rates of surgery and in rates of seizure freedom between grades 1, 2, and 3. In the surgical cohort, we observed significant differences in rates of seizure freedom between grades 1 and 2 and between grades 1 and 3. We confirm the usefulness of the ESGS for the prognostic stratification of patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy undergoing presurgical evaluation. Our results support the use of the ESGS in the decision process of presurgical evaluation in clinical practice.

4.
Epilepsia ; 60(4): 689-706, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866059

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Copy number variations (CNVs) represent a significant genetic risk for several neurodevelopmental disorders including epilepsy. As knowledge increases, reanalysis of existing data is essential. Reliable estimates of the contribution of CNVs to epilepsies from sizeable populations are not available. METHODS: We assembled a cohort of 1255 patients with preexisting array comparative genomic hybridization or single nucleotide polymorphism array based CNV data. All patients had "epilepsy plus," defined as epilepsy with comorbid features, including intellectual disability, psychiatric symptoms, and other neurological and nonneurological features. CNV classification was conducted using a systematic filtering workflow adapted to epilepsy. RESULTS: Of 1097 patients remaining after genetic data quality control, 120 individuals (10.9%) carried at least one autosomal CNV classified as pathogenic; 19 individuals (1.7%) carried at least one autosomal CNV classified as possibly pathogenic. Eleven patients (1%) carried more than one (possibly) pathogenic CNV. We identified CNVs covering recently reported (HNRNPU) or emerging (RORB) epilepsy genes, and further delineated the phenotype associated with mutations of these genes. Additional novel epilepsy candidate genes emerge from our study. Comparing phenotypic features of pathogenic CNV carriers to those of noncarriers of pathogenic CNVs, we show that patients with nonneurological comorbidities, especially dysmorphism, were more likely to carry pathogenic CNVs (odds ratio = 4.09, confidence interval = 2.51-6.68; P = 2.34 × 10-9 ). Meta-analysis including data from published control groups showed that the presence or absence of epilepsy did not affect the detected frequency of CNVs. SIGNIFICANCE: The use of a specifically adapted workflow enabled identification of pathogenic autosomal CNVs in 10.9% of patients with epilepsy plus, which rose to 12.7% when we also considered possibly pathogenic CNVs. Our data indicate that epilepsy with comorbid features should be considered an indication for patients to be selected for a diagnostic algorithm including CNV detection. Collaborative large-scale CNV reanalysis leads to novel declaration of pathogenicity in unexplained cases and can promote discovery of promising candidate epilepsy genes.

5.
Neurology ; 92(11): e1238-e1249, 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737342

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to expand the spectrum of epilepsy syndromes related to STX1B, encoding the presynaptic protein syntaxin-1B, and establish genotype-phenotype correlations by identifying further disease-related variants. METHODS: We used next-generation sequencing in the framework of research projects and diagnostic testing. Clinical data and EEGs were reviewed, including already published cases. To estimate the pathogenicity of the variants, we used established and newly developed in silico prediction tools. RESULTS: We describe 17 new variants in STX1B, which are distributed across the whole gene. We discerned 4 different phenotypic groups across the newly identified and previously published patients (49 patients in 23 families): (1) 6 sporadic patients or families (31 affected individuals) with febrile and afebrile seizures with a benign course, generally good drug response, normal development, and without permanent neurologic deficits; (2) 2 patients with genetic generalized epilepsy without febrile seizures and cognitive deficits; (3) 13 patients or families with intractable seizures, developmental regression after seizure onset and additional neuropsychiatric symptoms; (4) 2 patients with focal epilepsy. More often, we found loss-of-function mutations in benign syndromes, whereas missense variants in the SNARE motif of syntaxin-1B were associated with more severe phenotypes. CONCLUSION: These data expand the genetic and phenotypic spectrum of STX1B-related epilepsies to a diverse range of epilepsies that span the International League Against Epilepsy classification. Variants in STX1B are protean and contribute to many different epilepsy phenotypes, similar to SCN1A, the most important gene associated with fever-associated epilepsies.

6.
Neuroimage Clin ; 21: 101657, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a useful technique to help localize motor function prior to neurosurgical procedures. Adequate modelling of the effect of TMS on the brain is a prerequisite to obtain reliable data. METHODS: Twelve patients were included with perirolandic tumors to undergo TMS-based motor mapping. Several models were developed to analyze the mapping data, from a projection to the nearest brain surface to motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude informed weighted average of the induced electric fields over a multilayer detailed individual head model. The probability maps were compared with direct cortical stimulation (DCS) data in all patients for the hand and in three for the foot. The gold standard was defined as the results of the DCS sampling (with on average 8 DCS-points per surgery) extrapolated over the exposed cortex (of the tailored craniotomy), and the outcome parameters were based on the similarity of the probability maps with this gold standard. RESULTS: All models accurately gauge the location of the motor cortex, with point-cloud based mapping algorithms having an accuracy of 83-86%, with similarly high specificity. To delineate the whole area of the motor cortex representation, the model based on the weighted average of the induced electric fields calculated with a realistic head model performs best. The optimal single threshold to visualize the field based maps is 40% of the maximal value for the anisotropic model and 50% for the isotropic model, but dynamic thresholding adds information for clinical practice. CONCLUSIONS: The method with which TMS mapping data are analyzed clearly affects the predicted area of the primary motor cortex representation. Realistic electric field based modelling is feasible in clinical practice and improves delineation of the motor cortex representation compared to more simple point-cloud based methods.

7.
Seizure ; 62: 74-78, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30308426

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Despite the availability of a broad range of treatments for epilepsy, a significant proportion of patients have ongoing seizures. This study aims to characterize the drug resistant population and to report long-term outcomes of patients undergoing different types of pharmacological and surgical treatment. METHODS: Adult patients with drug resistant epilepsy (DRE) were identified from a largely retrospective database of 900 consecutive patients with epilepsy, recruited from two reference centers for DRE in Belgium. We report treatment trajectories and long-term seizure outcomes in the different treatment groups. RESULTS: 640 patients had DRE. 249 (38.9%) underwent presurgical assessment, followed by surgical treatment in 197 (30.8%), resulting in seizure freedom in 86 (13.4%). 443 patients (69.2%) were treated only with further AED trials, of which 163 (25.5%) became seizure free. In the 391 patients with ongoing seizures (61.1%), mean age was 43.2 years, mean disease duration 23 years and mean number of AED trials 6.9. 291 (74.4%) had tonic-clonic seizures, and 43 (11.0%) had one or more episodes of status epilepticus. Patients with hippocampal sclerosis were significantly more likely to be seizure free, while patients with malformation of cortical development and those with temporal lobe epilepsy of unknown etiology were more likely to have ongoing seizures. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that - even with adequate access to surgical treatment and further AED trials - 61.1% of patients with DRE had ongoing seizures. This illustrates that there is a scope for ongoing development of novel treatments for DRE.

8.
J Neurosci ; 38(43): 9263-9274, 2018 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30228228

RESUMO

Humans with amygdalar lesions show proportional reductions of the emotional response to facial expressions in the fusiform face area as well as deficits in emotion recognition from facial expressions. While processing of bodily expressions shares many similarities with facial expressions, there is no substantial evidence that lesions of the amygdala result in similar behavioral and neural sequelae. We combined behavioral assessment with functional neuroimaging in a group of male and female humans with unilateral anterior temporal lobe (ATL) resections, including the amygdala (right: n = 10; left: n = 10) and 12 matched controls. The objective was to assess whether the amygdala is crucial for the recognition of body expressions and for modulatory effects on distant areas during perception of body expressions. The behavioral results revealed normal performance in both patient groups on emotion categorization of body expressions. The neuroimaging results showed that ATL patients displayed no enhanced activations in right fusiform body area and left extrastriate body area and that left ATL patients additionally displayed no enhanced activations in right posterior superior temporal sulcus and right extrastriate body area, respectively. Multivoxel pattern analysis revealed altered categorization capacity between emotional and neutral stimuli in right posterior superior temporal sulcus in right ATL patients. In addition, we also found emotional enhancement in frontal, parietal, occipital, and cingulate regions in controls. Together, our data show that the amygdala and ATLs are not necessary for recognition of dynamic body expressions, but suggest that amygdala lesions affect body emotion processing in distant brain areas.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT For humans, information from emotional expressions of others is crucial to support social interactions. The majority of emotion studies has focused on facial expressions; however, in daily life, we also use information from body postures and body movement. Visual processing of body expressions relies on a brain network, including body-specific visual areas and visuomotor areas. Even though the importance of the amygdala and its modulatory effects on distant brain regions have been documented, it remains unclear whether the amygdala plays a crucial role in emotional body processing. By combining behavioral and neuroimaging data in patients with amygdalar lesions, we provide further evidence for its modulatory effect on distant areas during the perception of body expressions.

9.
Epilepsia ; 59(5): 959-970, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29663353

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigated changes in the endocannabinoid system and glucose metabolism during temporal lobe epileptogenesis. METHODS: Because it is rarely possible to study epileptogenesis in humans, we applied the electrical amygdala kindling model in nonhuman primates to image longitudinal changes in type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) binding and cerebral glucose metabolism. Two rhesus monkeys received [18 F]-MK-9470 and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography ([18 F]-FDG -PET) scans in each of the 4 kindling stages to quantify relative changes over time of CB1R binding and cerebral glucose metabolism in vivo. We constructed z-score images relative to a control group (n = 8), and considered only those changes measured in both kindled animals by calculating the binary conjunction image per kindling stage. RESULTS: The seizure-onset zone exhibited an increased CB1R binding and a decreased glucose metabolism, which both aggravated gradually in extent and intensity throughout kindling. The ipsilateral thalamus and insula showed hypometabolism that coincided with an increase and a decrease in CB1R binding, respectively. These changes also became gradually more severe throughout kindling and overlapped with ictal perfusion changes during the final stage of amygdala kindling, with hyperperfusion in the ipsilateral thalamus and hypoperfusion in the ipsilateral insula. SIGNIFICANCE: The observed changes in CB1R binding may reflect a combination of a protective mechanism of neurons against seizure activity that becomes stronger over time to combat more severe seizures, and on the other hand, a process of epileptogenesis that facilitates seizure activity and generalization, depending on the cell type involved in those specific regions. This study provides unique evidence that the CB1R is dynamically and progressively involved from the start of mesial temporal lobe epileptogenesis.

10.
EJNMMI Res ; 8(1): 34, 2018 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29667074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In epilepsy patients, SISCOM or subtraction ictal single photon emission computed tomography co-registered to magnetic resonance imaging has become a routinely used, non-invasive technique to localize the ictal onset zone (IOZ). Thresholding of clusters with a predefined number of standard deviations from normality (z-score) is generally accepted to localize the IOZ. In this study, we aimed to assess the robustness of this parameter in a group of patients with well-characterized drug-resistant epilepsy in whom the exact location of the IOZ was known after successful epilepsy surgery. Eighty patients underwent preoperative SISCOM and were seizure free in a postoperative period of minimum 1 year. SISCOMs with z-threshold 2 and 1.5 were analyzed by two experienced readers separately, blinded from the clinical ground truth data. Their reported location of the IOZ was compared with the operative resection zone. Furthermore, confidence scores of the SISCOM IOZ were compared for the two thresholds. RESULTS: Visual reporting with a z-score threshold of 1.5 and 2 showed no statistically significant difference in localizing correspondence with the ground truth (70 vs. 72% respectively, p = 0.17). Interrater agreement was moderate (κ = 0.65) at the threshold of 1.5, but high (κ = 0.84) at a threshold of 2, where also reviewers were significantly more confident (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: SISCOM is a clinically useful, routinely used modality in the preoperative work-up in many epilepsy surgery centers. We found no significant differences in localizing value of the IOZ using a threshold of 1.5 or 2, but interrater agreement and reader confidence were higher using a z-score threshold of 2.

11.
EJNMMI Res ; 8(1): 31, 2018 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29651571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epilepsy surgery often causes changes in cognition and cerebral glucose metabolism. Our aim was to explore relationships between pre- and postoperative cerebral metabolism as measured with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and neuropsychological test scores in patients with left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS), who were rendered seizure-free after epilepsy surgery. RESULTS: Thirteen patients were included. All had neuropsychological testing and an interictal FDG-PET scan of the brain pre- and postoperative. Correlations between changes in neuropsychological test scores and metabolism were examined using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). There were no significant changes in the neuropsychological test scores pre- and postoperatively at the group level. Decreased metabolism was observed in the left mesial temporal regions and occipital lobe. Increased metabolism was observed in the bi-frontal and right parietal lobes, temporal lobes, occipital lobes, thalamus, cerebellum, and vermis. In these regions, we did not find a correlation between changes in metabolism and neuropsychological test scores. A significant negative correlation, however, was found between metabolic changes in the precuneus and Boston Naming Test (BNT) scores. CONCLUSIONS: There are significant metabolic decreases in the left mesial temporal regions and increases in the bi-frontal lobes; right parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes; right thalamus; cerebellum; and vermis in patients with left MTLE-HS who were rendered seizure-free after epilepsy surgery. We could not confirm that these changes translate into significant cognitive changes. A significant negative correlation was found between changes in confrontation naming and changes in metabolism in the precuneus. We speculate that the precuneus may play a compensatory role in patients with postoperative naming difficulties after left TLE surgery. Understanding of these neural mechanisms may aid in designing cognitive rehabilitation strategies.

12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(5): 744-759, 2018 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29656859

RESUMO

RORα, the RAR-related orphan nuclear receptor alpha, is essential for cerebellar development. The spontaneous mutant mouse staggerer, with an ataxic gait caused by neurodegeneration of cerebellar Purkinje cells, was discovered two decades ago to result from homozygous intragenic Rora deletions. However, RORA mutations were hitherto undocumented in humans. Through a multi-centric collaboration, we identified three copy-number variant deletions (two de novo and one dominantly inherited in three generations), one de novo disrupting duplication, and nine de novo point mutations (three truncating, one canonical splice site, and five missense mutations) involving RORA in 16 individuals from 13 families with variable neurodevelopmental delay and intellectual disability (ID)-associated autistic features, cerebellar ataxia, and epilepsy. Consistent with the human and mouse data, disruption of the D. rerio ortholog, roraa, causes significant reduction in the size of the developing cerebellum. Systematic in vivo complementation studies showed that, whereas wild-type human RORA mRNA could complement the cerebellar pathology, missense variants had two distinct pathogenic mechanisms of either haploinsufficiency or a dominant toxic effect according to their localization in the ligand-binding or DNA-binding domains, respectively. This dichotomous direction of effect is likely relevant to the phenotype in humans: individuals with loss-of-function variants leading to haploinsufficiency show ID with autistic features, while individuals with de novo dominant toxic variants present with ID, ataxia, and cerebellar atrophy. Our combined genetic and functional data highlight the complex mutational landscape at the human RORA locus and suggest that dual mutational effects likely determine phenotypic outcome.

13.
Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) ; 14(1): 45-50, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29253283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Posterior quadrant disconnection can be highly effective in the surgical treatment of selected cases of refractory epilepsy. The technique aims to deafferent extensive areas of epileptogenic posterior cortex from the rest of the brain by isolating the temporoparietooccipital cortex. OBJECTIVE: To describe this procedure and relevant white matter tracts with a specific emphasis on the extent of callosotomy in an anatomic study. METHODS: Twenty hemispheres were dissected according to Klingler's fiber dissection technique illustrating the peri-insular (temporal stem, superior longitudinal fasciculus, corona radiata) and mesial disconnection (mesiotemporal cortex, cingulum, and corpus callosum). RESULTS: Extensive white matter tract disconnection is obtained after posterior quadrant disconnection. Callosal fibers connecting the anterior most part of the parietal cortex invariably ran through the isthmus of the corpus callosum and need to be disconnected, while frontal lobe connections including the corticospinal tract and the anterior two-thirds of the corpus callosum are spared during the procedure. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest the involvement of both the splenium and the isthmus in interhemispheric propagation in posterior cortex epilepsies. Sectioning the total extent of the posterior one-third of the corpus callosum might therefore be necessary to achieve optimal outcomes in posterior quadrant epilepsy surgery.

14.
Acta Clin Belg ; 73(5): 382-388, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29173113

RESUMO

Introduction Advances in systemic chemotherapy, molecular targeted therapy and immunotherapy have extended and improved the quality of life of patients with cancer. However, the central nervous system is very susceptible to complications of systemic cancer and its treatment. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a rare clinical and neuroradiologic entity which has garnered increasing recognition in the past two decades. Cancer patients are generally treated with cytotoxic agents, immunotherapy, molecular targeted therapies or glucosteroids which are more frequently associated with PRES. Case presentation A 59-year old female, known with a relapse of her lung adenocarcinoma, had been treated with 4 cycles of cisplatin (75 mg/m²) and pemetrexed (500 mg/m²). Six weeks after this combination chemotherapy and within 28 h after the administration of pemetrexed maintenance therapy, she developed a generalised epileptic insult. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed bilateral areas of increased signal intensity in the subcortical parietal and frontal white matter. She was treated with a broad spectrum antiseizure drug, levetiracetam 750 mg twice daily and strict control of blood pressure. Discussion Diagnosis of PRES should be considered in all patients with neurologic symptoms who are at risk to develop PRES. It is crucial to establish the diagnosis as soon as possible since there is no specific treatment of PRES other than correction of the underlying risk factors and preventing seizure recurrence. Administration of pemetrexed is a possible risk factor for the development of PRES.

15.
Epileptic Disord ; 20(1): 1-12, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29265005

RESUMO

Refractory extratemporal lobe epilepsy (ETLE) tends to have a less favourable surgical outcome in comparison to temporal lobe epilepsy. ETLE poses specific diagnostic and therapeutic challenges, particularly in cases where seizures develop from the midline. This review focuses on the diagnostic challenges and therapeutic strategies in mesial ETLE. The great diversity of interhemispheric functional areas and extensive connectivity to extramesial structures results in very heterogeneous seizure semiology. Specific signs, such as ictal body turning, can suggest a mesial onset. The hidden cortex of the mesial wall furthermore gives rise to specific diagnostic difficulties due to the low localizing value of scalp EEG. Advanced imaging, as well as targeted intracranial studies, can substantially contribute to depict the seizure onset zone since electroclinical findings are difficult to interpret in most cases. Surgical accessibility of the interhemispheric space can be challenging, both for the placement of subdural grids, as well as for resective surgery. When facing the hidden cortex on the mesial wall of the hemispheres, targeted intra- or extra-operative intracranial recordings can lead to satisfactory outcomes in properly selected cases.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Parciais , Epilepsias Parciais/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsias Parciais/patologia , Epilepsias Parciais/fisiopatologia , Epilepsias Parciais/cirurgia , Humanos
16.
Brain ; 140(7): 1872-1884, 2017 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28582473

RESUMO

Subtraction ictal and interictal single photon emission computed tomography can demonstrate complex ictal perfusion patterns. Regions with ictal hyperperfusion are suggested to reflect seizure onset and propagation pathways. The significance of ictal hypoperfusion is not well understood. The aim of this study was to verify whether ictal perfusion changes, both hyper- and hypoperfusion, correspond to electrically connected brain networks. A total of 36 subtraction ictal and interictal perfusion studies were analysed in 31 consecutive medically refractory focal epilepsy patients, evaluated by stereo-electroencephalography that demonstrated a single focal onset. Cortico-cortical evoked potential studies were performed after repetitive electrical stimulation of the ictal onset zone. Evoked responses at electrode contacts outside the stimulation site were used as a measure of connectivity. The evoked responses at these electrodes were compared to ictal perfusion values noted at these locations. In 67% of studies, evoked responses were significantly larger in hyperperfused compared to baseline-perfused areas. The majority of hyperperfused contacts also had significantly increased evoked responses relative to pre-stimulus electroencephalogram. In contrast, baseline-perfused and hypoperfused contacts mainly demonstrated non-significant evoked responses. Finally, positive significant correlations (P < 0.05) were found between perfusion scores and evoked responses in 61% of studies. When the stimulated ictal onset area was hyperperfused, 82% of studies demonstrated positive significant correlations. Following stimulation of hyperperfused areas outside seizure onset, positive significant correlations between perfusion changes and evoked responses could be seen, suggesting bidirectional connectivity. We conclude that strong connectivity was demonstrated between the ictal onset zone and hyperperfused regions, while connectivity was weaker in the direction of baseline-perfused or hypoperfused areas. In trying to understand a patient's epilepsy, one should consider the contribution of all hyperperfused regions, as these are likely not random, but represent an electrically connected epileptic network.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/fisiopatologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Criança , Estimulação Elétrica , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Adulto Jovem
17.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 11: 240, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28553217

RESUMO

Spatial-attentional reorienting and selection between competing stimuli are two distinct attentional processes of clinical and fundamental relevance. In the past, reorienting has been mainly associated with inferior parietal cortex. In a patient with a subdural grid covering the upper and lower bank of the left anterior and middle intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and the superior parietal lobule (SPL), we examined the involvement of superior parietal cortex using a hybrid spatial cueing paradigm identical to that previously applied in stroke and in healthy controls. In SPL, as early as 164 ms following target onset, an invalidly compared to a validly cued target elicited a positive event-related potential (ERP) and an increase in intertrial coherence (ITC) in the theta band, regardless of the direction of attention. From around 400-650 ms, functional connectivity [weighted phase lag index (wPLI) analysis] between SPL and IPS briefly inverted such that SPL activity was driving IPS activity. In contrast, the presence of a competing distracter elicited a robust change mainly in IPS from 300 to 600 ms. Within superior parietal cortex reorienting of attention is associated with a distinct and early electrophysiological response in SPL while attentional selection is indexed by a relatively late electrophysiological response in the IPS. The long latency suggests a role of IPS in working memory or cognitive control rather than early selection.

18.
Int J Neural Syst ; 27(7): 1750022, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28359222

RESUMO

Automated seizure detection in a home environment has been of increased interest the last couple of decades. The electrocardiogram is one of the signals that is suited for this application. In this paper, a new method is described that classifies different heart rate characteristics in order to detect seizures from temporal lobe epilepsy patients. The used support vector machine classifier is trained on data from other patients, so that the algorithm can be used directly from the start of each new recording. The algorithm was tested on a dataset of more than 918[Formula: see text]h of data coming from 17 patients containing 127 complex partial and generalized partial seizures. The algorithm was able to detect 81.89% of the seizures, with on average 1.97 false alarms per hour. These results show a strong drop in the number of false alarms of more than 50% compared to other heart rate-based patient-independent algorithms from the literature, at the expense of a slightly higher detection delay of 17.8s on average.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Sistemas On-Line , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Adolescente , Adulto , Algoritmos , Ondas Encefálicas , Criança , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 18(1)2017 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29295522

RESUMO

A wearable electroencephalogram (EEG) device for continuous monitoring of patients suffering from epilepsy would provide valuable information for the management of the disease. Currently no EEG setup is small and unobtrusive enough to be used in daily life. Recording behind the ear could prove to be a solution to a wearable EEG setup. This article examines the feasibility of recording epileptic EEG from behind the ear. It is achieved by comparison with scalp EEG recordings. Traditional scalp EEG and behind-the-ear EEG were simultaneously acquired from 12 patients with temporal, parietal, or occipital lobe epilepsy. Behind-the-ear EEG consisted of cross-head channels and unilateral channels. The analysis on Electrooculography (EOG) artifacts resulting from eye blinking showed that EOG artifacts were absent on cross-head channels and had significantly small amplitudes on unilateral channels. Temporal waveform and frequency content during seizures from behind-the-ear EEG visually resembled that from scalp EEG. Further, coherence analysis confirmed that behind-the-ear EEG acquired meaningful epileptic discharges similarly to scalp EEG. Moreover, automatic seizure detection based on support vector machine (SVM) showed that comparable seizure detection performance can be achieved using these two recordings. With scalp EEG, detection had a median sensitivity of 100% and a false detection rate of 1.14 per hour, while, with behind-the-ear EEG, it had a median sensitivity of 94.5% and a false detection rate of 0.52 per hour. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of detecting seizures from EEG recordings behind the ear for patients with focal epilepsy.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsias Parciais , Humanos , Couro Cabeludo , Convulsões , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
20.
Neuroimage Clin ; 12: 252-61, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27489773

RESUMO

Epileptic seizures are network-level phenomena. Hence, epilepsy may be regarded as a circuit-level disorder that cannot be understood outside this context. Better insight into the effective connectivity of the seizure onset zone and the manner in which seizure activity spreads could lead to specifically-tailored therapies for epilepsy. We applied the electrical amygdala kindling model in two rhesus monkeys until these animals displayed consistent stage IV seizures. At this stage, we investigated the effective connectivity of the amygdala by means of electrical microstimulation during fMRI (EM-fMRI). In addition, we imaged changes in perfusion during a seizure using ictal SPECT perfusion imaging. The spatial overlap between the connectivity network and the ictal perfusion network was assessed both at the regional level, by calculating Dice coefficients using anatomically defined regions of interest, and at the voxel level. The kindled amygdala was extensively connected to bilateral cortical and subcortical structures, which in many cases were connected multisynaptically to the amygdala. At the regional level, the spatial extents of many of these fMRI activations and deactivations corresponded to the respective increases and decreases in perfusion imaged during a stage IV seizure. At the voxel level, however, some regions showed residual seizure-specific activity (not overlapping with the EM-fMRI activations) or fMRI-specific activation (not overlapping with the ictal SPECT activations), indicating that frequently, only a part of a region anatomically connected to the seizure onset zone participated in seizure propagation. Thus, EM-fMRI in the amygdala of electrically-kindled monkeys reveals widespread areas that are often connected multisynaptically to the seizure focus. Seizure activity appears to spread, to a large extent, via these connected areas.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/patologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Excitação Neurológica/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Cisteína/análogos & derivados , Cisteína/farmacocinética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Estimulação Elétrica/efeitos adversos , Eletroencefalografia , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Macaca mulatta , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Compostos de Organotecnécio/farmacocinética , Oxigênio/sangue , Convulsões/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único
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