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1.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 30(5): 796-805, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911904

RESUMO

Because of the high stability and inertness of the U=O bonds, activation and/or functionalization of UO22+ and UO2+ remain challenging tasks. We show here that collision-induced dissociation (CID) of the uranyl-propiolate cation, [UVIO2(O2C-C≡CH)]+, can be used to prepare [UVIO2(C≡CH)]+ in the gas phase by decarboxylation. Remarkably, CID of [UVIO2(C≡CH)]+ caused elimination of CO to create [OUVICH]+, thus providing a new example of a well-defined substitution of an "yl" oxo ligand of UVIO22+ in a unimolecular reaction. Relative energies for candidate structures based on density functional theory calculations suggest that the [OUVICH]+ ion is a uranium-methylidyne product, with a U≡C triple bond composed of one σ-bond with contributions from the U df and C sp hybrid orbitals, and two π-bonds with contributions from the U df and C p orbitals. Upon isolation, without imposed collisional activation, [OUVICH]+ appears to react spontaneously with O2 to produce [UVO2]+. Graphical Abstract .

2.
Eur J Mass Spectrom (Chichester) ; 25(1): 58-72, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773924

RESUMO

Electrospray ionization was used to generate species such as [ZnNO3(CH3OH)2]+ from Zn(NO3)2•XH2O dissolved in a mixture of CH3OH and H2O. Collision-induced dissociation of [ZnNO3(CH3OH)2]+ causes elimination of CH3OH to form [ZnNO3(CH3OH)]+. Subsequent collision-induced dissociation of [ZnNO3(CH3OH)]+ causes elimination of 47 mass units (u), consistent with ejection of HNO2. The neutral loss shifts to 48 u for collision-induced dissociation of [ZnNO3(CD3OH)]+, demonstrating the ejection of HNO2 involves intra-complex transfer of H from the methyl group methanol ligand. Subsequent collision-induced dissociation causes the elimination of 30 u (32 u for the complex with CD3OH), suggesting the elimination of formaldehyde (CH2 = O). The product ion is [ZnOH]+. Collision-induced dissociation of a precursor complex created using CH3-18OH shows the isotope label is retained in CH2 = O. Density functional theory calculations suggested that the "rearranged" product, ZnOH with bound HNO2 and formaldehyde is significantly lower in energy than ZnNO3 with bound methanol. We therefore used infrared multiple-photon photodissociation spectroscopy to determine the structures of both [ZnNO3(CH3OH)2]+ and [ZnNO3(CH3OH)]+. The infrared spectra clearly show that both ions contain intact nitrate and methanol ligands, which suggests that rearrangement occurs during collision-induced dissociation of [ZnNO3(CH3OH)]+. Based on the density functional theory calculations, we propose that transfer of H, from the methyl group of the CH3OH ligand to nitrate, occurs in concert with the formation of a Zn-C bond. After dissociation to release HNO2, the product rearranges with the insertion of the remaining O atom into the Zn-C bond. Subsequent C-O bond cleavage, with H transfer, produces an ion-molecule complex composed of [ZnOH]+ and O = CH2.

4.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 29(7): 1416-1424, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29654536

RESUMO

Developing a comprehensive understanding of the reactivity of uranium-containing species remains an important goal in areas ranging from the development of nuclear fuel processing methods to studies of the migration and fate of the element in the environment. Electrospray ionization (ESI) is an effective way to generate gas-phase complexes containing uranium for subsequent studies of intrinsic structure and reactivity. Recent experiments by our group have demonstrated that the relatively low levels of residual H2O in a 2-D, linear ion trap (LIT) make it possible to examine fragmentation pathways and reactions not observed in earlier studies conducted with 3-D ion traps (Van Stipdonk et al. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 14, 1205-1214, 2003). In the present study, we revisited the dissociation of complexes composed of uranyl nitrate cation [UVIO2(NO3)]+ coordinated by alcohol ligands (methanol and ethanol) using the 2-D LIT. With relatively low levels of background H2O, collision-induced dissociation (CID) of [UVIO2(NO3)]+ primarily creates [UO2(O2)]+ by the ejection of NO. However, CID (using He as collision gas) of [UVIO2(NO3)]+ creates [UO2(H2O)]+ and UO2+ when the 2-D LIT is used with higher levels of background H2O. Based on the results presented here, we propose that product ion spectrum in the previous experiments was the result of a two-step process: initial formation of [UVIO2(O2)]+ followed by rapid exchange of O2 for H2O by ion-molecule reaction. Our experiments illustrate the impact of residual H2O in ion trap instruments on the product ions generated by CID and provide a more accurate description of the intrinsic dissociation pathway for [UVIO2(NO3)]+. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

5.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 32(13): 1085-1091, 2018 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29645301

RESUMO

RATIONALE: In a previous study [Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2004;18:3028-3034], collision-induced dissociation (CID) of [UVI O2 (ClO4 )]+ appeared to be influenced by the high levels of background H2 O in a quadrupole ion trap. The CID of the same species was re-examined here with the goal of determining whether additional, previously obscured dissociation pathways would be revealed under conditions in which the level of background H2 O was lower. METHODS: Water- and methanol-coordinated [UVI O2 (ClO4 )]+ precursor ions were generated by electrospray ionization. Multiple-stage tandem mass spectrometry (MSn ) for CID and ion-molecule reaction (IMR) studies was performed using a linear ion trap mass spectrometer. RESULTS: Under conditions of low background H2 O, CID of [UVI O2 (ClO4 )]+ generates [UVI O2 (Cl)]+ , presumably by elimination of two O2 molecules. Using low isolation/reaction times, we found that [UVI O2 (Cl)]+ will undergo an IMR with H2 O to generate [UVI O2 (OH)]+ . CONCLUSIONS: With lower levels of background H2 O, CID experiments reveal that the intrinsic dissociation pathway for [UVI O2 (ClO4 )]+ leads to [UVI O2 (Cl)]+ , apparently by loss of two O2 molecules. We propose that the results reported in the earlier CID study reflected a two-step process: initial formation of [UVI O2 (Cl)]+ by CID, followed by a very rapid hydrolysis reaction to leave [UVI O2 (OH)]+ .

6.
Inorg Chem ; 57(7): 4125-4134, 2018 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29558121

RESUMO

The following gas-phase uranyl/12-crown-4 (12C4) complexes were synthesized by electrospray ionization: [UO2(12C4)2]2+ and [UO2(12C4)2(OH)]+. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) of the dication resulted in [UO2(12C4-H)]+ (12C4-H is a 12C4 that has lost one H), which spontaneously adds water to yield [UO2(12C4-H)(H2O)]+. The latter has the same composition as complex [UO2(12C4)(OH)]+ produced by CID of [UO2(12C4)2(OH)]+ but exhibits different reactivity with water. The postulated structures as isomeric [UO2(12C4-H)(H2O)]+ and [UO2(12C4)(OH)]+ were confirmed by comparison of infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) spectra with computed spectra. The structure of [UO2(12C4-H)]+ corresponds to cleavage of a C-O bond in the 12C4 ring, with formation of a discrete U-Oeq bond and equatorial coordination by three intact ether moieties. Comparison of IRMPD and computed IR spectra furthermore enabled assignment of the structures of the other complexes. Theoretical studies of the chemical bonding features of the complexes provide an understanding of their stabilities and reactivities. The results reveal bonding and structures of the uranyl/12C4 complexes and demonstrate the synthesis and identification of two different isomers of gas-phase uranyl coordination complexes.

7.
Inorg Chem ; 56(21): 12930-12937, 2017 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29019408

RESUMO

Recent efforts to activate the strong uranium-oxygen bonds in the dioxo uranyl cation have been limited to single oxo-group activation through either uranyl reduction and functionalization in solution, or by collision induced dissociation (CID) in the gas-phase, using mass spectrometry (MS). Here, we report and investigate the surprising double activation of uranyl by an organic ligand, 3,4,3-LI(CAM), leading to the formation of a formal U6+ chelate in the gas-phase. The cleavage of both uranyl oxo bonds was experimentally evidenced by CID, using deuterium and 18O isotopic substitutions, and by infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy. Density functional theory (DFT) computations predict that the overall reaction requires only 132 kJ/mol, with the first oxygen activation entailing about 107 kJ/mol. Combined with analysis of similar, but unreactive ligands, these results shed light on the chelation-driven mechanism of uranyl oxo bond cleavage, demonstrating its dependence on the presence of ligand hydroxyl protons available for direct interactions with the uranyl oxygens.

8.
Inorg Chem ; 56(6): 3686-3694, 2017 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28276685

RESUMO

The synthesis, reactivity, structures, and bonding in gas-phase binary and complex oxide anion molecules of protactinium and uranium have been studied by experiment and theory. The oxalate ions, AnVO2(C2O4)-, where An = Pa or U, are essentially actinyl ions, AnVO2+, coordinated by an oxalate dianion. Both react with water to yield the pentavalent hydroxides, AnVO(OH)2(C2O4)-. The chemistry of Pa and U becomes divergent for reactions that result in oxidation: whereas PaVI is inaccessible, UVI is very stable. The UVO2(C2O4)- complex exhibits a remarkable spontaneous exothermic replacement of the oxalate ligand by O2 to yield UO4- and two CO2 molecules. The structure of the uranium tetroxide anion is computed to correspond to distorted uranyl, UVIO22+, coordinated in the equatorial plane by two equivalent O atoms each having formal charges of -1.5 and U-O bond orders intermediate between single and double. The unreactive nature of PaVO2(C2O4)- toward O2 is a manifestation of the resistance toward oxidation of PaV, and clearly reveals the disparate chemistries of Pa and U. The uranium tetroxide anion, UO4-, reacts with water to yield UO5H2-. Infrared spectra obtained for UO5H2- confirm the computed lowest-energy structure, UO3(OH)2-.

9.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 28(4): 739-757, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28197927

RESUMO

We present a thorough characterization of fragmentations observed in threshold collision-induced dissociation (TCID) experiments of protonated triglycine (H+GGG) with Xe using a guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometer (GIBMS). Kinetic energy-dependent cross-sections for 10 ionic products are observed and analyzed to provide 0 K barriers for six primary products: [b2]+, [y1 + 2H]+, [b3]+, CO loss, [y2 + 2H]+, and [a1]+; three secondary products: [a2]+, [a3]+, and [y2 + 2H - CO]+; and two tertiary products: high energy [y1 + 2H]+ and [a2 - CO]+ after accounting for multiple ion-molecule collisions, internal energy of reactant ions, unimolecular decay rates, competition between channels, and sequential dissociations. Relaxed potential energy surface scans performed at the B3LYP-D3/6-311+G(d,p) level of theory are used to identify transition states (TSs) and intermediates of the six primary and one secondary products. Geometry optimizations and single point energy calculations were performed at several levels of theory. These theoretical energies are compared with experimental energies and are found to give reasonably good agreement, in particular for the M06-2X level of theory. This good agreement between experiment and theory validates the reaction mechanisms explored computationally here and elsewhere and allows identification of the product structures formed at threshold energies. The present work presents the first measurement of absolute experimental threshold energies of important sequence ions and non-sequence ions: [y1 + 2H]+, [b3]+, CO loss, [a1]+, and [a3]+, and refines those for [b2]+ and [y2 + 2H]+ previously measured. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

10.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 52(86): 12761-12764, 2016 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27725983

RESUMO

Understanding of the nature and extent of chemical bonding in uranyl coordination complexes is crucial for the design of new ligands for nuclear waste separation, uranium extraction from seawater, and other applications. We report here the synthesis, infrared spectroscopic characterization, and quantum chemical studies of a molecular uranyl-di-15-crown-5 complex. The structure and bonding of this unique complex featuring a distinctive 6-fold coplanar coordination staggered sandwich structure and an unusual non-perpendicular orientation of the uranyl moiety are evaluated using density functional theory and chemical bonding analyses. The results provide fundamental understanding of the coordination interaction of uranyl with oxygen-donor ligands.

11.
Polyhedron ; 114: 370-377, 2016 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27667891

RESUMO

Neutral complexes of zinc with N,N'-diisopropylpiperazine-2,3-dithione ( i Pr2Dt0) and N,N'-dimethylpiperazine-2,3-dithione (Me2Dt0) with chloride or maleonitriledithiolate (mnt2-) as coligands have been synthesized and characterized. The molecular structures of these zinc complexes have been determined using single crystal X-ray diffractometry. Complexes recrystallize in monoclinic P type systems with zinc adopting a distorted tetrahedral geometry. Two zinc complexes with mixed-valent dithiolene ligands exhibit ligand-to-ligand charge transfer bands. Optimized geometries, molecular vibrations and electronic structures of charge-transfer complexes were calculated using density functional theory (B3LYP/6-311G+(d,p) level). Redox orbitals are shown to be almost exclusively ligand in nature, with a HOMO based heavily on the electron-rich maleonitriledithiolate ligand, and a LUMO comprised mostly of the electron-deficient dithione ligand. Charge transfer is thus believed to proceed from dithiolate HOMO to dithione LUMO, showing ligand-to-ligand redox interplay across a d10 metal.

12.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 30(16): 1879-90, 2016 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27392274

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The lower levels of adventitious H2 O in a linear ion trap allow the fragmentation reactions of [UO2 OCH3 ](+) and [UO2 OCH2 CH3 ](+) to be examined in detail. METHODS: Methanol- and ethanol-coordinated UO2 (2+) -alkoxide precursors were generated by electrospray ionization (ESI). Multiple-stage tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n) ) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) were performed using a linear ion trap mass spectrometer. RESULTS: CID of [UO2 OCH3 (CH3 OH)n ](+) and [UO2 OCH2 CH3 (CH3 CH2 OH)n ](+) , n = 3 and 2, causes loss of neutral alcohol ligands, leading ultimately to bare uranyl-alkoxide species. Comparison of 'native' to deuterium-labeled precursors reveals dissociation pathways not previously observed in 3-D ion trap experiments. CONCLUSIONS: UO2 H(+) is generated from [UO2 OCH3 ](+) by transfer of H from the methyl group. Variable-energy and variable-time CID experiments suggest that the apparent threshold for production of UO2 H(+) is lower than for UO2 (+) , but the pathway is kinetically less favored for the former than for the latter. CID experiments reveal that [UO2 OCH2 CH3 ](+) dissociates to generate [UO2 CH3 ](+) , a relatively rare species with a U-C bond, and [UO2 (O = CH2 )](+) .

13.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 30(1): 69-80, 2016 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26661972

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Experiments were performed to probe the creation of apparent even-electron, [M-H](+) ions by CID of Ag-cationized peptides with N-terminal imine groups (Schiff bases). METHODS: Imine-modified peptides were prepared using condensation reactions with aldehydes. Ag(+) -cationized precursors were generated by electrospray ionization (ESI). Tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n) ) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) were performed using a linear ion trap mass spectrometer. RESULTS: Loss of AgH from peptide [M + Ag](+) ions, at the MS/MS stage, creates closed-shell [M-H](+) ions from imine-modified peptides. Isotope labeling unambiguously identifies the imine C-H group as the source of H eliminated in AgH. Subsequent CID of the [M-H](+) ions generated sequence ions that are analogous to those produced from [M + H](+) ions of the imine-modified peptides. CONCLUSIONS: Experiments show (a) formation of novel even-electron peptide cations by CID and (b) the extent to which sequence ions (conventional b, a and y ions) are generated from peptides with fixed charge site and thus lacking a conventional mobile proton.


Assuntos
Arginina/química , Iminas/química , Peptídeos/química , Compostos de Prata/química , Elétrons , Íons/química , Espectrometria de Massas
14.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 30(1): 101-11, 2016 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26661976

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Ion trap mass spectrometry was used to study the reactivity of species derived from gas-phase, mixed-metal complexes, [Ag2 Xx(Gly-H)3 ](+) , where Xx = Ca, Mg, Sr and Ag, and in particular the apparent activation of an H2 O ligand added during an ion-molecule reaction. METHODS: Precursor [Ag2 Xx(Gly-H)3 ](+) complexes were formed by electrospray ionization (ESI) using spray solutions in which AgNO3 , XxNO3 and glycine were mixed in a 1:1:3 molar ratio. Specific species for study of ion-molecule reactions were created in a "top down" fashion using collision-induced dissociation (CID). Ion-molecule reactions were performed by selective isolation and storage in a linear ion trap, where reactions with adventitious H2 O can occur. RESULTS: Multiple stages of CID of [Ag2 Ca(Gly-H)3 ](+) resulted in the formation of [AgHCa(Gly-H)](+) . An ion-molecule reaction of this ion produced a peak 16 mass units higher which is hypothesized to be a result of addition of H2 O followed by loss of H2 . This reaction was studied further by replacing Ca with Mg, Sr and Ag; as well as by incorporating deuterium-labelled glycine into the complex. CONCLUSIONS: The experimental results showed the following pattern for the apparent rates of reaction: Mg > Sr > Ca. When silver is the only metal present there is an addition of water but no loss of H2 . DFT and MP2 calculations help identify plausible pathways for decomposition of H2 O and formation of H2.

15.
Eur J Mass Spectrom (Chichester) ; 21(3): 589-97, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26307738

RESUMO

Radical migration, both intramolecular and intermolecular, from the tyrosine phenoxyl radical Tyr(O(∙)) to the cysteine radical Cys(S(∙)) in model peptide systems was observed in the gas phase. Ion-molecule reactions (IMRs) between the radical cation of homotyrosine and propyl thiol resulted in a fast hydrogen atom transfer. In addition, radical cations of the peptide LysTyrCys were formed via two different methods, affording regiospecific production of Tyr(O(∙)) or Cys(S(∙)) radicals. Collision-induced dissociation of these isomeric species displayed evidence of radical migration from the oxygen to sulfur, but not for the reverse process. This was supported by theoretical calculations, which showed the Cys(S(∙)) radical slightly lower in energy than the Tyr(O(∙)) isomer. IMRs of the LysTyrCys radical cation with allyl iodide further confirmed these findings. A mechanism for radical migration involving a proton shuttle by the C-terminal carboxylic group is proposed.


Assuntos
Cisteína/química , Gases/química , Modelos Químicos , Peptídeos/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Tirosina/química , Simulação por Computador , Cisteína/análise , Radicais Livres/análise , Radicais Livres/química , Transição de Fase , Tirosina/análise
16.
Inorg Chem ; 54(16): 7703-16, 2015 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26244772

RESUMO

The syntheses of cationic nickel complexes using N,N'-dimethyl piperazine 2,3-dithione (Me2Dt(0)) and N,N'-diisopropyl piperazine 2,3-dithione ((i)Pr2Dt(0)) ligands are reported. These ligands were used in synthesizing bis and tris(dithione)Ni(II) complexes as tetrafluoroborate or hexafluorophosphate salts, i.e., [Ni((i)Pr2Dt(0))2][BF4]2 ([1a][BF4]2), [Ni((i)Pr2Dt(0))2][PF6]2 ([1a][PF6]2), [Ni(Me2Dt(0))2][BF4]2 ([1b][BF4]2), [Ni((i)Pr2Dt(0))3][BF4]2 ([2a][BF4]2), and [Ni((i)Pr2Dt(0))3][PF6]2 ([2a][PF6]2), respectively. Complex [2a][PF6]2 was isolated from a methanolic solution of [1a][PF6]2. Compound [1a][BF4]2 crystallizes in a trigonal crystal system (space group, P31/c) and exhibits unique packing features, whereas [2a][BF4]2 crystallizes in a monoclinic (P21/n) space group. Cyclic voltammograms of [1a][BF4]2 and [1b][BF4]2 are indicative of four reduction processes associated with stepwise single-electron reduction of the ligands. Spectroelectrochemical experiments on [1a][BF4]2 exhibit an intervalence charge transfer (IVCT) transition as a spectroscopic signature of the mixed-valence [Ni((i)Pr2Dt(0))((i)Pr2Dt(1-))](-) species. Analysis of this IVCT band suggests that this ligand based mixed valence complex, [Ni((i)Pr2Dt(0))((i)Pr2Dt(1-))](-), behaves more like a traditional class II/III metal based mixed-valence complex. The density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent DFT calculations provide a theoretical framework for understanding the electronic structures and the nature of excited states of the target compounds that are consistent with their spectroscopic and redox properties. Vibrational spectra of [1a](2+) and [2a](2+) were investigated as discrete species in the gas phase using infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy.


Assuntos
Gases/química , Níquel/química , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Enxofre/química , Ligantes , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Compostos Organometálicos/síntese química , Teoria Quântica , Soluções , Vibração
17.
J Phys Chem A ; 119(14): 3366-74, 2015 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25785482

RESUMO

The gas-phase complex UO2(TMOGA)2(2+) (TMOGA = tetramethyl-3-oxa-glutaramide) prepared by electrospray ionization was characterized by infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy. The IRMPD spectrum from 700-1800 cm(-1) was interpreted using a computational study based on density functional theory. The predicted vibrational frequencies are in good agreement with the measured values, with an average deviation of only 8 cm(-1) (<1%) and a maximum deviation of 21 cm(-1) (<2%). The only IR peak assigned to the linear uranyl moiety was the asymmetric ν3 mode, which appeared at 965 cm(-1) and was predicted by DFT as 953 cm(-1). This ν3 frequency is red-shifted relative to bare uranyl, UO2(2+), by ca. 150 cm(-1) due to electron donation from the TMOGA ligands. Based on the degree of red-shifting, it is inferred that two TMOGA oxygen-donor ligands have a greater effective gas basicity than the four monodentate acetone ligands in UO2(acetone)4(2+). The uranyl ν3 frequency was also computed for uranyl coordinated by two TMGA ligands, in which the central Oether of TMOGA has been replaced by CH2. The computed ν3 for UO2(TMGA)2(2+), 950 cm(-1), is essentially the same as that for UO2(TMOGA)2(2+), suggesting that electron donation to uranyl from the Oether of TMOGA is minor. The computed ν3 asymmetric stretching frequencies for the three actinyl complexes, UO2(TMOGA)2(2+), NpO2(TMOGA)2(2+) and PuO2(TMOGA)2(2+), are comparable. This similarity is discussed in the context of the relationship between ν3 and intrinsic actinide-oxygen bond energies in actinyl complexes.

18.
J Phys Chem A ; 118(36): 7838-46, 2014 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25121574

RESUMO

In a prior study [Van Stipdonk; et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 2006, 110, 959-970], electrospray ionization (ESI) was used to generate doubly charged complex ions composed of the uranyl ion and acetonitrile (acn) ligands. The complexes, general formula [UO2(acn)n](2+), n = 0-5, were isolated in an 3-D quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometer to probe intrinsic reactions with H2O. Two general reaction pathways were observed: (a) the direct addition of one or more H2O ligands to the doubly charged complexes and (b) charge-exchange reactions. For the former, the intrinsic tendency to add H2O was dependent on the number and type of nitrile ligand. For the latter, charge exchange involved primarily the formation of uranyl hydroxide, [UO2OH](+), presumably via a collision with gas-phase H2O and the elimination of a protonated nitrile ligand. Examination of general ion fragmentation patterns by collision-induced dissociation, however, was hindered by the pronounced tendency to generate hydrated species. In an update to this story, we have revisited the fragmentation of uranyl-acetonitrile complexes in a linear ion-trap (LIT) mass spectrometer. Lower partial pressures of adventitious H2O in the LIT (compared to the 3-D ion trap used in our previous study) minimized adduct formation and allowed access to lower uranyl coordination numbers than previously possible. We have now been able to investigate the fragmentation behavior of these complex ions completely, with a focus on tendency to undergo ligand elimination versus charge reduction reactions. CID can be used to drive ligand elimination to completion to furnish the bare uranyl dication, UO2(2+). In addition, fragmentation of [UO2(acn)](2+) generated [UO2(NC)](+), which subsequently fragmented to furnish NUO(+). Formation of the nitrido by transfer of N from cyanide was confirmed using precursors labeled with (15)N. The observed formation of [UO2(NC)](+) and NUO(+) was modeled by density functional theory.

19.
J Phys Chem A ; 118(29): 5407-18, 2014 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24988369

RESUMO

Electrospray ionization (ESI) in the negative ion mode was used to create anionic, gas-phase oxo-molybdenum complexes with dithiolene ligands. By varying ESI and ion transfer conditions, both doubly and singly charged forms of the complex, with identical formulas, could be observed. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) of the dianion generated exclusively the monoanion, while fragmentation of the monoanion involved decomposition of the dithiolene ligands. The intrinsic structure of the monoanion and the dianion were determined by using wavelength-selective infrared multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. The IRMPD spectrum for the dianion exhibits absorptions that can be assigned to (ligand) C ═ C, C-S, C-C ≡ N, and Mo ═ O stretches. Comparison of the IRMPD spectrum to spectra predicted for various possible conformations allows assignment of a pseudo square pyramidal structure with C2v symmetry, equatorial coordination of MoO(2+) by the S atoms of the dithiolene ligands, and a singlet spin state. A single absorption was observed for the oxidized complex. When the same scaling factor employed for the dianion is used for the oxidized version, theoretical spectra suggest that the absorption is the Mo ═ O stretch for a distorted square pyramidal structure and doublet spin state. A predicted change in conformation upon oxidation of the dianion is consistent with a proposed bonding scheme for the bent-metallocene dithiolene compounds [Lauher, J. W.; Hoffmann, R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1976 , 98 , 1729 - 1742], where a large folding of the dithiolene moiety along the S · · · S vector is dependent on the occupancy of the in-plane metal d-orbital.


Assuntos
Molibdênio/química , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Oxigênio/química , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Gases/química , Ligantes , Fótons , Teoria Quântica , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho
20.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 28(7): 691-8, 2014 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24573799

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Hydroxynicotinic acids (2-, 4-, 5- and 6-hydroxy) are widely used in the manufacture of industrial products, and hydroxypyridines are important model systems for study of the tautomerization of N-heterocyclic compounds. Here we determined the gas-phase structure of deprotonated 6-hydroxynicotinic acid (6OHNic). METHODS: Anions were generated by electrospray ionization, and isolated and stored in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Infrared (action) spectra were collected by monitoring photodissociation yield versus photon energy. Experimental spectra were then compared with those predicted by density functional theory (DFT) and second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) perturbation theory calculations. RESULTS: For neutral 6OHNic, DFT and MP2 calculations strongly suggest that the 6-pyridone tautomer is favored when solvent effects are included. The lowest energy isomer of deprotonated 6OHNic, in the aqueous or gas phase, is predicted to be the 6-pyridone structure deprotonated by the carboxylic acid group. CONCLUSIONS: The deprotonated, 6-pyridone structure is confirmed by comparison of the infrared multiple-photon photodissociation (IRMPD) spectrum in the region of 1100-1900 cm(-1) with those predicted using DFT and MP2 calculations.

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