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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 264: 113234, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768640

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most prevalent diseases globally and is of considerable concern to global health. Approximately 425 million people are estimated to have DM globally and this is predicted to increase to >642 million by 2040. Whilst the prevalence of DM in South Africa is slightly lower than the global average, it is expected to rise rapidly in future years as more South Africans adopt a high calorie "westernised" diet. Traditional medicines offer an alternative for the development of new medicines to treat DM and the usage of South African plants is relatively well documented. AIM OF THE STUDY: To critically review the literature on the anti-diabetic properties of South African plants and to document plant species used for the treatment of DM. Thereafter, a thorough examination of the related research will highlight where research is lacking in the field. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of published ethnobotanical books, reviews and primary scientific studies was undertaken to identify plants used to treat DM in traditional South African healing systems and to identify gaps in the published research. The study was non-biased, without taxonomic preference and included both native and introduced species. To be included, species must be recorded in the pharmacopeia of at least one South African ethnic group for the treatment of DM. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-seven species are recorded as therapies for DM, with leaves and roots most commonly used. The activity of only 43 of these species have been verified by rigorous testing, and relatively few studies have examined the mechanism of action. CONCLUSION: Despite relatively extensive ethnobotanical records and a diverse flora, the anti-diabetic properties of South African medicinal plants is relatively poorly explored. The efficacy of most plants used traditionally to treat DM are yet to be verified and few mechanistic studies are available. Further research is required in this field.

2.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-6, 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811579

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the touch-contact antimicrobial efficacy of novel cold spray surface coatings composed of copper and silver metals, regard to their rate of microbial elimination. DESIGN: Antimicrobial time-kill assay. SETTING: Laboratory-based study. METHODS: An adapted time-kill assay was conducted to characterize the antimicrobial efficacy of the developed coatings. A simulated touch-contact pathogenic exposure to Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), and the yeast Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), as well as corresponding resistant strains of gentamicin-methicillin-resistant S. aureus (ATCC 33592), azlocillin-carbenicillin-resistant P. aeruginosa (DSM 46316), and a fluconazole-resistant C. albicans strain was undertaken. Linear regression modeling was used to deduce microbial reduction rates. RESULTS: A >7 log reduction in microbial colony forming units was achieved within minutes on surfaces with cold spray coatings compared to a single log bacterial reduction on copper metal sheets within a 3 hour contact period. Copper-coated 3-dimensional (3D) printed acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) achieved complete microbial elimination against all tested pathogens within a 15 minute exposure period. Similarly, a copper-on-copper coating achieved microbial elimination within 10 minutes and within 5 minutes with the addition of silver powder as a 5 wt% coating constituent. CONCLUSIONS: In response to the global need for alternative solutions for infection control and prevention, these effective antimicrobial surface coatings were proposed. A longitudinal study is the next step toward technology integration.

3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 251: 112539, 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899200

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Human dermatophyte infections are one of the most common classes of infection globally, with an estimated 1.7 billion people contracting at least one infection annually. Southern African ethnic groups used multiple plants to treat dermatophytosis and to alleviate the symptoms, yet the anti-dermatophyte properties of most species remain poorly explored. AIM OF THE STUDY: Our study aimed to critically review the literature to document southern African plant species used to treat one or more dermatophytic infections, and to summarise scientific evaluations of these and other plant species. Our study aims to stimulate and focus future studies in this field. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A thorough review of the ethnobotanical books, reviews and primary scientific studies were undertaken to identify southern African plants used traditionally to treat dermatophytosis, thereby identifying gaps in the research requiring further study. RESULTS: Eighty-nine southern African plant species are recorded as traditional therapies for dermatophytosis. Scientific evaluations of 140 plant species were identified, although most of the species in those studies were selected for reasons apart from their traditional uses. None of those studies examined the mechanism of action of the plant species, and only a single study screened the extracts for toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: Despite southern Africa having some of the longest continuous human civilisations globally, as well as unique and diverse flora, and good ethnobotanical records, the anti-dermatophyte properties of southern African medicinal plants remains relatively poorly explored. The efficacy of the majority of plants used traditionally to treat fungal skin disease are yet to be verified and substantial further research is required in this field.

4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 245: 112176, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446074

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMALOGICAL RELEVANCE: Malaria is one of the most prevalent and deadly parasitic diseases globally, with over 200 million new cases and nearly 500,000 deaths reported annually. It is estimated that approximately half of the world's population lives in malaria endemic areas. Malaria is substantially less prevalent in South Africa than in other African regions and the disease is limited to some regions of the Limpopo, Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal provinces. However, it still has a significant impact on the health of the populations living in those regions. Traditional medicines have long been used in South Africa by multiple ethic groups and many people continue to rely on these natural therapies for their healthcare. The usage of South African medicinal plants in several traditional healing systems to treat malaria have been documented (particularly for Zulu and Venda traditional medicine), although ethnobotanical investigations of other ethnic groups living in endemic malaria areas remains relatively neglected. AIM OF THE STUDY: To document the use of South African medicinal plants known to be used traditionally to treat Plasmodium spp. infections. We also critically reviewed the literature on the therapeutic properties of these and other South African plants screened against Plasmodium spp. parasites with the aim of highlighting neglected studies and fostering future research in this area. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Books and ethnobotanical reviews were examined for medicinal plants used specifically for fever. Exclusion criteria were studies not involving southern African medicinal plants. Furthermore, while fever is a common symptom of malaria, if not accompanied by the term "malaria" it was not considered. Databases including PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus and Google Scholar were used to source research relevant to southern African plants and malaria. Exclusion criteria were those publications where full articles could not be accessed. RESULTS: Eighty South African plant species were identified as traditional therapies for malaria. The majority of these species were documented in Zulu ethnobotanical records, despite malaria occurring in only a relatively small portion of the Zulu's traditional territory. Surprisingly, far fewer species were reported to be used by Venda, Ndebele, northern Sotho, Tsonga, Tswana, and Pedi people, despite them living in endemic malaria areas. Interestingly many of the identified species have not been investigated further. This review summarises the available ethnobotanical and laboratory research in this field, with the aim of promoting and focusing research on priority areas. CONCLUSION: Although malaria remains a serious disease affecting millions of people, medicinal plants while used extensively, have not been given the attention warranted for further investigation.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Fitoterapia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais , Plasmodium/efeitos dos fármacos , África do Sul
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 228: 92-98, 2019 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30217789

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The twigs of Elytropappus rhinocerotis are widely used in the Cape region of South Africa to treat foot odour, perspiration and also itchy, chilblained and burning feet. However, no antimicrobial studies have hitherto been published on this popular Cape herbal medicine, which is also used for a wide range of ailments. AIMS OF THE STUDY: To determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts, essential oil and two major labdane diterpenes isolated from E. rhinocerotis against micro-organisms associated with foot odour and other conditions associated with skin infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Leafy stems were harvested from three individual plants at three separate geographical localities, giving a total of nine plant samples. The samples were air-dried, powdered and extracted with a 1:1 mixture of methanol and dichloromethane, and also with sterile distilled water. A portion of each sample was also hydrodistilled to obtain nine samples of essential oil. Isolation of the major labdane diterpenes was performed using silica and ethyl acetate in hexane (3:7 v/v) as the mobile phase. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined for nine crude extracts, as well as three essential oil samples and two labdane diterpenes obtained from a bulk sample. The test organisms used in this study were from Deutsche Sammlung von Mikrooganismen (DSM) and American type culture collection (ATCC) strains and included five bacterial species (Brevibacterium agri ATCC 51663, B. epidermidis DSM 20660, B. linens DSM 20425, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, S. epidermidis ATCC 12228) and one fungal species (Trichophyton mentagrophytes ATCC 9533) associated with the skin. RESULTS: The presence of essential oil is reported for the first time. Organic extracts and essential oil samples showed moderate to noteworthy activity against selected test organisms. For the Brevibacteria, the lowest MIC values for phenolic extracts were several times lower than the corresponding values for the positive control zinc (shown in brackets): 0.0031 mg/mL against Brevibacterium agri (0.33 mg/mL), 0.17 mg/mL against B. epidermidis (3.91 mg/mL) - both for sample 2 of Vanwyksdorp; 0.13 mg/mL against B. linens (2.28 mg/mL) - for sample 3 of Vanwyksdorp. Two isolated labdane diterpenoids (one of which is here first reported) were also antimicrobially tested and showed moderate activity but had high abundance in the extracts. Two major monoterpenes and four sesquiterpenes in the essential oil were identified as 1,8-cineole (4.6-12.3%), terpinen-4-ol (9.2-24.3%), germacrene A (3.9-15.6%), (-)-spathulenol (1.7-37.8%), viridiflorol (0.3-100%), and silphiperfol-6-en-5-one (4.5-26.8%). CONCLUSION: The antimicrobial results particularly for the essential oils and against the Brevibacteria support the traditional topical use of Elytropappus rhinocerotis twigs to treat foot perspiration, foot odour and other related skin conditions.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Asteraceae , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Trichophyton/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Odorantes , Dermatopatias , África do Sul , Trichophyton/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 220: 250-264, 2018 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29621583

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Worldwide, more than three billion cases of parasitic disease are reported yearly and it is likely that this figure is substantially under-estimated. Approximately one in six people globally are estimated to be infected with at least one parasite species annually. In South Africa, the prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium (bilharzia) and intestinal worms and helminths are particularly high, especially in children and in crowded or poorer rural communities with inadequate sanitation and nutrition. Despite alarmingly high estimates, medical research into parasitic diseases remains neglected and only malaria receives significant attention and funding. Traditional medicines have been used for centuries in Africa by multiple ethnic groups and many people rely on these healing systems as their primary healthcare modality. The traditional use of South African medicinal plants to treat parasite infestations is relatively well documented, and it is important to link these traditional uses to scientific evidence validating efficacy. AIM OF THE STUDY: To document the medicinal plants used for parasitic infections and critically review the literature on the anti-parasitic properties of South African plants against some neglected parasitic diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of the literature (ethnobotanical books and publications documenting traditional plant use) was undertaken related to specific medicinal use for parasitic infections in Southern Africa. Inclusion criteria focused on human use. Exclusion criteria included veterinary use and malaria due to the extensive nature of these subject matters. An in-depth analysis of previous studies was undertaken and future prospectives are considered. RESULTS: In particular, bilharzia, gastrointestinal worms and helminths, ectoparasites, trichomoniasis, leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis are reviewed with special emphasis on the gaps in research. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the availability of relatively extensive ethnobotanical records on the anti-parasitic properties of southern African medicinal plants, the antiparasitic properties of many plants have been poorly examined. There was in many instances a lack of evidence to support traditional use of many species towards some parasites and research is urgently needed in this area.


Assuntos
Doenças Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , África Austral , Animais , Antiparasitários/isolamento & purificação , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Criança , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias/parasitologia
7.
Int J Cosmet Sci ; 2018 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29574906

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study investigated the efficacy of commercial essential oil combinations against the two pathogens responsible for acne with the aim to identify synergy and favourable oils to possibly use in a blend. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antimicrobial activity was assessed using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay against Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 2223) and Propionibacterium acnes (ATCC 11827), and the fractional inhibitory concentration index (ΣFIC) was calculated. Combinations displaying synergistic interactions were further investigated at varied ratios and the results plotted on isobolograms. RESULTS: From the 408 combinations investigated, 167 combinations were identified as displaying noteworthy antimicrobial activity (MIC value ≤1.00 mg mL-1 ). Thirteen synergistic interactions were observed against S. epidermidis, and three synergistic combinations were observed against P. acnes. It was found that not one of the synergistic interactions identified were based on the combinations recommended in the layman's aroma-therapeutic literature. Synergy was evident rather from leads based on antimicrobial activity from previous studies, thus emphasizing the importance of scientific validation. Leptospermum scoparium J.R.Forst. and G.Forst (manuka) was the essential oil mostly involved in synergistic interactions (four) against S. epidermidis. Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook.f. and Thomson (ylang ylang) essential oil was also frequently involved in synergy where synergistic interactions could be observed against both pathogens. The combination with the lowest MIC value against both acne pathogens was Vetiveria zizanioides Stapf (vetiver) with Cinnamomum verum J.Presl (cinnamon bark) (MIC values 0.19-0.25 mg mL-1 ). Pogostemon patchouli Benth. (patchouli), V. zizanioides, C. verum and Santalum spp. (sandalwood) could be identified as the oils that contributed the most noteworthy antimicrobial activity towards the combinations. The different chemotypes of the essential oils used in the combinations predominantly resulted in similar antimicrobial activity. CONCLUSIONS: The investigated essential oil combinations resulted in at least 50% of the combinations displaying noteworthy antimicrobial activity. Most of the synergistic interactions do not necessarily correspond to the recommended layman's aroma-therapeutic literature, which highlights a need for scientific validation of essential oil antimicrobial activity. No antagonism was observed.

8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 179: 76-82, 2016 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26724423

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The leaves, stems and roots of Alchornea cordifolia (Schumach. and Thonn.) Müll. Arg. are used as traditional medicine in many African countries for the management of gastrointestinal, respiratory and urinary tract infections as well as for the treatment of wounds. AIM OF THE STUDY: To determine the in vitro antibacterial activity of the crude extracts of leaves and stems of A. cordifolia on gastrointestinal, skin, respiratory and urinary tract pathogens and to identify the compounds in the extracts that may be responsible for this activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The antibacterial activities of crude extracts [hexane, chloroform (CHCl3), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), ethanol (EtOH), methanol (MeOH) and water (H2O)] as well as pure compounds isolated from these extracts were evaluated by means of the micro-dilution assay against four Gram-positive bacteria, i.e. Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and S. saprophyticus ATCC 15305, as well as four Gram-negative bacterial strains, i.e. Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883, Moraxella catarrhalis ATCC 23246 and Proteus mirabilis ATCC 43071. The isolation of the active constituents was undertaken by bio-autographic assays in conjunction with chromatographic techniques. The identification and characterisation of the isolated compounds were done using mass spectrometry (MS) and Fourier transformed infrared spectrometry (FTIR) as well as 1D- and 2D- nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses. RESULTS: The leaves and stems of A. cordifolia exhibited varied antibacterial activity against all eight pathogens. Most of the MIC values ranged between 63 and 2000µg/ml. The highest activities for the crude extracts (63µg/ml) were observed against S. saprophyticus [stem (EtOAc, CHCl3 and hexane), leaves (MeOH, EtOH, EtOAc and CHCl3)], E. coli [stem (MeOH and EtOH), leaves (MeOH, EtOH, EtOAc and CHCl3)], M. catarrhalis [leaves (EtOAc and CHCl3)], K. pneumoniae [stem (CHCl3), leaves (CHCl3)] and S. aureus [leaves (CHCl3)]. Seven constituents [stigmasterol (1), stigmasta-4,22-dien-3-one (2), friedelin (3), friedelane-3-one-28-al (4), 3-O-acetyl-aleuritolic acid (5), 3-O-acetyl-erythrodiol (6) and methyl-3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate (methyl gallate) (7)] were isolated from the stem MeOH extract. All these compounds displayed some antibacterial activity against the eight pathogens with highest activity against S. saprophyticus (2µg/ml). Furthermore, this is the first report of compounds 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 7 isolated from A. cordifolia and where a complete set of 2D-NMR data for fridelane-3-one-28-al (4) is presented. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated that the antibacterial activities of A. cordifolia extracts may be due to the presence of the seven isolated compounds, where compounds 3-6 showed the best activity. The observed activity against gastrointestinal, skin, respiratory and urinary tract pathogens supports the traditional use for the treatment of such ailments.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Euphorbiaceae/química , Infecções/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Gastroenteropatias/microbiologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Dermatopatias Infecciosas/microbiologia , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia
9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 176: 438-62, 2015 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26481608

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Annickia affinis (Exell) Versteegh & Sosef, closely related to A. chlorantha Setten & P.J.Maas (both species also referred to as Enantia chlorantha Oliv.), from the Annonaceae family, are multi-purpose medicinal plants used widely across tropical Africa. The two Annickia species are morphologically distinct from each other and have different distribution patterns, but are frequently confused. Furthermore, the name Enantia chlorantha is an illegitimate name, but is still used today. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of the literature was undertaken and an in-depth analysis of previous research and future prospectives are considered. While a myriad of publications cite the species "Enantia chlorantha", this is not the case for A. affinis and A. chlorantha, and no reviews are available for any of the species to date. Consequently, a summary of their ethnobotany, phytochemistry and biological properties is presented here (for the period 1933 - November 2014) in order to substantiate their traditional importance as medicines for rural people in Africa. RESULTS: To this effect, these species seem to be the preferred traditional treatments for malaria in tropical Africa, an area suffering heavily under the malaria pandemic. Their chemical composition is dominated particularly by various isoquinoline alkaloids, as well as by acetogenins and sesquiterpenes, which have been isolated from the bark and leaves. All three of these classes of compounds have been reported to exhibit noteworthy biological activity. CONCLUSIONS: Due to their widespread use, especially of the bark, these species have already been categorized as threatened with extinction. Consequently this study further aims to identify areas where more research needs to be conducted involving these important species, and also to suggest possible means of increasing the biological activities of their extracts as a way to conserve the species.


Assuntos
Annonaceae , Medicina Tradicional Africana , África , Animais , Annonaceae/química , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Preparações de Plantas/toxicidade , Plantas Medicinais/química
10.
Pharmacogn Mag ; 11(41): 208-18, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25709234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plants of the family Combretaceae are amongst the most widely used plants for traditional medicinal purposes in southern Africa. In particular, many species of Combretum and Terminalia are used for their antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antiviral, antidiarrhoeal, analgesic, antimalarial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities, yet their antimicrobial potential has not been rigorously studied and compared. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey of antimicrobial activity was undertaken on selected South African Combretum and Terminalia species. Sixteen extracts from 6 Combretum and 2 Terminalia plant species with a history of medicinal usage were investigated by disc diffusion assay against a panel of bacteria and fungi and their MIC values were determined. Toxicity was determined using the Artemia franciscana nauplii bioassay. RESULTS: All extracts tested displayed broad spectrum antibacterial activity, inhibiting the growth of 12-16 (75-100%) of the bacteria tested, with Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria being approximately equally susceptible. Potent antibacterial activities (generally in the range 200-5000 µg/ml) were evident for all Combretaceae extracts against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Similarly, the extracts also displayed good antifungal activity, inhibiting the growth of 2-3 (66.7-100%) of the fungal species tested, with fungal growth inhibition activities generally in the range 200-4000 µg/ml. In general, the Terminalia extracts had better efficacies than the Combretum extracts. Furthermore, the methanol extracts were generally better antimicrobial agents than the water extracts. All extracts were also shown to be non-toxic in the Artemia nauplii bioassay. CONCLUSION: The lack of toxicity of these extracts and their inhibitory bioactivity against a panel of bacteria and fungi indicate their potential as medicinal agents and partially validate their usage in multiple South African traditional medicinal systems.

11.
Inflammopharmacology ; 23(1): 21-35, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25412961

RESUMO

A wide variety of herbal remedies are used in traditional African medicine to treat inflammatory disorders, including some autoimmune diseases. Thirty-four extracts from 13 South African plant species traditionally used for the treatment of inflammation were investigated for their ability to control a microbial trigger for ankylosing spondylitis (Klebsiella pneumoniae). Twenty-six of the extracts (76.5%) inhibited the growth of K. pneumoniae. Methanol and water extracts of Ballota africana, Carpobrotus edulis leaves, Kigellia africana, Lippia javanica, Pelargonium fasiculata, Syzygium cordatum (including bark), Terminalia pruinoides and Terminalia sericea were effective K. pneumoniae inhibitors, with MIC values <1000 µg/ml. The roots of Tulbaghia violaceae and bark from Warburgia salutaris also demonstrated efficacy. The most potent extracts were examined by RP-HPLC and UV-Vis spectroscopy for the presence of resveratrol. Methanolic extracts of B. africana, C. edulis leaves, L. javanica, T. pruinoides and T. sericea, as well as aqueous B. africana, T. pruinoides and T. sericea extracts, displayed peaks with retention times and UV-Vis spectra consistent with the presence of resveratrol. Resveratrol was generally a minor component, indicating that resveratrol was not solely responsible for the anti-Klebsiella growth inhibitory properties. Plant extracts with K. pneumoniae inhibitory activity were either non-toxic, or of low toxicity in the Artemia (brine shrimp) nauplii bioassay. Their low toxicity and antibiotic bioactivity against K. pneumoniae indicate their potential for both preventing the onset of ankylosing spondylitis and minimising its symptoms once the disease is established.


Assuntos
Klebsiella/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais , Espondilite Anquilosante , Animais , Artemia , Klebsiella/metabolismo , Medicina Tradicional Africana/tendências , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , África do Sul , Espondilite Anquilosante/tratamento farmacológico , Espondilite Anquilosante/microbiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Inflammopharmacology ; 22(1): 23-36, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23877712

RESUMO

A wide variety of herbal remedies are used in traditional African medicine to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammation. Thirty-four extracts from 13 South African plant species with a history of ethnobotanical usage in the treatment of inflammation were investigated for their ability to control two microbial triggers for RA (Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris). Twenty-nine of the extracts (85.3 %) inhibited the growth of P. mirabilis and 23 of them tested (67.7 %) inhibited the growth of P. vulgaris. Methanol and water extracts of Carpobrotus edulis, Lippia javanica, Pelargonium viridflorum, Ptaeroxylon obliquum, Syzygium cordatum leaf and bark, Terminalia pruinoides, Terminalia sericea, Warburgia salutaris bark and an aqueous extract of W. salutaris leaf were effective Proteus inhibitors, with MIC values <2,000 µg/ml. The most potent extracts were examined by Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography and UV-Vis spectroscopy for the presence of resveratrol. Only extracts from T. pruinoides and T. sericea contained resveratrol, indicating that it was not responsible for the anti-Proteus properties reported here. All extracts with Proteus inhibitory activity were also either non-toxic, or of low toxicity in the Artemia nauplii bioassay. The low toxicity of these extracts and their inhibitory bioactivity against Proteus spp. indicate their potential for blocking the onset of rheumatoid arthritis.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Artrite Reumatoide/prevenção & controle , Medicina Tradicional Africana/métodos , Plantas Medicinais/química , Proteus/efeitos dos fármacos , Artrite Reumatoide/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química
13.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 151(2): 1023-7, 2014 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24333961

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Alchornea floribunda Müll. Arg. is used in traditional medicine across Africa for the treatment of bacterial, fungal, parasitic and inflammatory disorders. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of the crude extracts of different plant parts in order to provide a scientific rationale for the proposed broad efficacy of Alchornea floribunda in the treatment of bacterial infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Extracts of roots, stems and leaves were prepared using solvents of various polarities in order to extract a wide range of phytochemicals. The antibacterial activity of these crude extracts was evaluated by micro-dilution assay, against Gram-positive (i.e. Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus) as well as Gram-negative (i.e. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Proteus mirabilis) bacteria. RESULTS: Generally, the ethanol (EtOH), methanol (MeOH), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and chloroform (CHCl3) extracts demonstrated the best activities, with the leaves exhibiting the highest average activity for six of the eight pathogens. Of these, the ethanolic leaf extract was the most active against Staphylococcus aureus with an MIC value of 50µg/mL. Some other notable activity was observed for the ethyl acetate and chloroform root extracts against Staphylococcus aureus (50µg/mL), and for selected stem extracts against Staphylococcus aureus (50µg/mL), Klebsiella pneumoniae (63µg/mL) and Staphylococcus saprophyticus (63µg/mL). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the promising antibacterial activity of Alchornea floribunda against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria responsible for gastrointestinal, skin, respiratory and urinary ailments, and validates its use in the ethnopharmacology of the region.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Euphorbiaceae , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Folhas de Planta , Raízes de Plantas , Caules de Planta
14.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 149(3): 656-67, 2013 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23880127

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Although medicinal plants are used extensively to treat sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in rural northern Maputaland, KwaZulu-Natal, the efficacy and safety of these plants have not previously been evaluated. AIM OF STUDY: A study was designed to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity profiles of a selection (individual plants and selected combinations) of traditionally used plants in this study area. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aqueous and organic (dichloromethane: methanol, 1:1) extracts were prepared. Antimicrobial activity was assessed using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay against the STI associated pathogens; Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Ureaplasma urealyticum clinical strain, Oligella ureolytica ATCC 43534, Trichomonas vaginalis clinical strain, Gardnerella vaginalis ATCC 14018 and Neisseria gonorrhoeae ATCC 19424. For the combination study, interactions were assessed using the fractional inhibitory concentration (ΣFIC). The plant species were assessed for safety using the 3-[4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazol-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) cellular viability assay on the human embryonic kidney epithelial (Graham, HEK-293) cell line. RESULTS: For the antimicrobial studies, U. urealyticum was the most sensitive of the six test organisms, with the aqueous extract of Ranunculus multifidus (0.02mg/ml) and the organic extract of Peltophorum africanum (0.04mg/ml) being the most antimicrobially active plant species studied. Sclerocarya birrea was found to have the broadest spectrum of activity (mean MIC of 0.89mg/ml). The only plant species to exhibit some degree of cytotoxicity against the kidney epithelial cell line was Kigelia africana (100µg/ml), with 22% and 16% cell death for the aqueous and organic extracts, respectively. Of the 13 combinations studied, several synergistic combinations were evident, the most prominent being the combination of Albizia adianthifolia and Trichilia dregeana (aqueous extract) with an ΣFIC value of 0.15 against O. ureolytica. Synergistic interactions were observed regardless of the ratio of the aqueous mixtures of the two plants. Syzygium cordatum and S. birrea (aqueous extract) was also a combination of interest, demonstrating synergistic (ΣFIC=0.42) interactions against O. ureolytica. This combination, however, also displayed some cytotoxicity towards the human epithelial cell line. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that anecdotal evidence of plant use does not always correlate with in vitro activity. Furthermore, the toxicological profiling is of utmost importance as if not combined in its correct ratio can lead to potential adverse effects.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais/química , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/toxicidade , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , África do Sul , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 148(1): 144-51, 2013 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23588096

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Plants are often combined in traditional herbal remedies to increase medicinal efficacy, thus this investigation provides some insight into the antimicrobial efficacies of selected combinations. AIMS OF THE STUDY: The first aim was to scientifically validate antibacterial efficacy of plant mixtures that are traded within peri-urban centres of Cape Town (Western Cape, South Africa). This was followed by an in-depth evaluation of the most antimicrobially active mixture; Agathosma crenulata, Dodonaea viscosa with Eucalyptus globulus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Methanol and aqueous extracts of six plant mixtures were screened for antibacterial properties against two Gram-negative and two Gram-positive bacteria using the minimum inhibitory microdilution method. Thereafter, chloroform: methanol (1:1; v/v) extracts, essential oils and aqueous extracts of Agathosma crenulata, Dodonaea viscosa and Eucalyptus globulus were assayed for antimicrobial activity independently and in various combinations. The fractional inhibitory concentration indices (Æ©FIC) were determined for double and triple plant combinations to establish antimicrobial interactions. RESULTS: From the six plant mixtures prepared by herbalists, a methanol extract derived from combining Agathosma crenulata, Dodonaea viscosa and Eucalyptus globulus showed the best antibacterial activity. The MIC values of 49µg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, and 98µg/ml for Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli were recorded. When Agathosma crenulata, Dodonaea viscosa and Eucalyptus globulus were mixed in various 1:1 combinations, mostly additive and synergistic interactions were noted. The most noteworthy synergistic (ΣFIC value 0.07) 1:1 combinations were observed for the chloroform: methanol extracts of Agathosma crenulata mixed with Eucalyptus globulus against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. When combined in a mixture of three plants (1:1:1), enhanced efficacy was evident against most of the pathogens, for both organic and aqueous extracts. The triple combination against Bacillus subtilis demonstrated the greatest synergy (ΣFIC values of 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: The enhanced antimicrobial efficacy and synergistic interactions noted for some of the mixtures, particularly the combination of Agathosma crenulata, Dodonaea viscosa and Eucalyptus globulus support the Western Cape Khoi-San traditional medicinal practices of combining plants for enhanced efficacy.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Eucalyptus , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rutaceae , Sapindaceae , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cryptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Cryptococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 144(1): 118-27, 2012 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22960551

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Abundant availability of medicinal plants in the study area offers low cost health care, but scientific validation is needed in order to lend credibility to the traditional use against respiratory infections. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study focussed on determining the antimicrobial efficacies of 30 plant species (independently and in various combinations) used for respiratory related infections in rural Maputaland. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays were undertaken on dichloromethane-methanol (CH(2)Cl(2): MeOH) and aqueous extracts, as well as the hydro-distilled essential oils (for aromatic plants). Selected plant parts were assessed for antimicrobial activity against a range of respiratory pathogens i.e. Cryptococcus neoformans (ATCC 14116), Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 13883), Moraxella catarrhalis (ATCC 23246), Mycobacterium smegmatis (ATCC 14468) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538). The sum of the fractional inhibitory concentrations (∑FIC) was determined for plants traditionally used in combination. Isobolograms represent MIC values for a selection of interactions where two plants were combined in various ratios. RESULTS: The most antimicrobially active aqueous extracts were that of Ozoroa obovata and Sclerocarya birrea (0.10 mg/ml) while organic extracts from Parinari capensis subsp. incohata and Tetradenia riparia demonstrated the most noteworthy (0.03 mg/ml) activity. Although both Lippia javanica and Eucalyptus grandis were by far the most popular plants traditionally used for respiratory infections, the antimicrobial activity was mostly only moderate. Furthermore, the traditional use in a 1:1 combination did not display strong antimicrobial interactions, but isobolograms demonstrate (against some test organisms) that when combined in various ratios, predominant additive interactions are evident where E. grandis was present in larger proportions. The combination of E. grandis with O. obovata demonstrated synergism against both C. neoformans and K. pneumoniae, with ∑FIC values of 0.34 and 0.28 respectively. Various ratios of these two plants also demonstrated a predominantly synergistic profile. CONCLUSION: Although this in vitro study supports the traditional use of some plants independently and in combination for the treatment of respiratory ailments in rural Maputaland, results demonstrate that the traditional selection of plants in higher frequency do not necessarily correlate with higher antimicrobial efficacy.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Cryptococcus neoformans/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Plantas Medicinais , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , População Rural , África do Sul
17.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 54(4): 352-8, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22288378

RESUMO

AIMS: The in vitro antimicrobial activity of three essential oil samples of frankincense (Boswellia rivae, Boswellia neglecta and Boswellia papyrifera) and two essential oil samples of myrrh and sweet myrrh (Commiphora guidotti and Commiphora myrrha), collected from different regions of Ethiopia, was investigated independently and in combination to determine their anti-infective properties. METHODS AND RESULTS: The microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay was performed, whereby it was noted that generally Cryptococcus neoformans (MIC values in the range of 0·8-1·4 mg ml(-1)) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC values in the range of 0·5-1·3 mg ml(-1)) often appeared to be the most susceptible micro-organisms against oils of both Boswellia and Commiphora spp. When assayed in various combinations, the frankincense and myrrh oils displayed synergistic, additive and noninteractive properties, with no antagonism noted. When investigating different ratio combinations against Bacillus cereus, the most favourable combination was between B. papyrifera and C. myrrha. The composition of the oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to document the specific chemotypes used in the study, and the chemical profiles were found to be congruent with previously reported data. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of interactions identified synergistic and additive effects, with strong synergism noted between B. papyrifera and C. myrrha. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Frankincense and myrrh essential oils have been used in combination since 1500 bc; however, no antimicrobial investigations have been undertaken to confirm their effect in combination. This study validates the enhanced efficacy when used in combination against a selection of pathogens.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Boswellia/química , Commiphora/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Terpenos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Etiópia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Óleos Voláteis/química , Leveduras/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 135(3): 696-710, 2011 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21497646

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Traditional remedies are frequently used in treating various respiratory ailments, and are very important in the primary health care of the people living in rural Maputaland, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Novel information gathered from surveys like the present study is important in preserving indigenous knowledge. AIM OF THE STUDY: To explore the knowledge that the lay people of a rural community in northern Maputaland have about medicinal plants used in the vicinity to treat respiratory infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Interviews were conducted among 80 homestead inhabitants, using structured questionnaires where convenience sampling was used. The focus was on plants used in treating respiratory infections. Some of the main topics discussed during the interviews were vernacular plant names, plant parts used, harvested amounts, preparation methods, dosage forms and quantities, use of plants in combination as well as the related symptomatic relief associated with respiratory infections. RESULTS: The study documented 30 plant species (18 families) which are used to treat respiratory infections by the rural people in the study area. Decoctions made with these plants are mostly taken orally, combined with the use of steaming. To the best of our knowledge, Acanthospermum glabratum, Aloe marlothii, Krauseola mosambicina, Ozoroa obovata, Parinari capensis and Plectranthus neochilus are recorded for the first time globally as medicinal plants used for treating respiratory infections and related symptoms. The indigenous aromatic shrub, Lippia javanica was by far the most frequently used plant species, followed by Eucalyptus grandis (an exotic), Tetradenia riparia and then Senecio serratulloides. Twenty-four different plant combinations were used where the most frequently used combination encountered was Eucalyptus grandis with Lippia javanica. CONCLUSION: The large number of different plant species traditionally used against respiratory infections supports previous research on the importance of traditional medicine in the primary health care of this remote area. The finding of new vernacular plant names and plant uses in the current survey shows the importance of the documentation of such ethnobotanical knowledge.


Assuntos
Etnobotânica , Medicina Tradicional , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Coleta de Dados , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , População Rural , África do Sul , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 130(3): 552-8, 2010 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20561928

RESUMO

AIM OF THE STUDY: Eighteen plants were assessed for antimicrobial activity against pathogens associated with prevalent urogenital/sexually transmitted infections. Plant selection was based on information obtained from the ethnobotanical literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dried plant material was submerged in a 1:1 mixture of methanol and dichloromethane for 24 h. Aqueous extracts were prepared by submerging dried plant material in sterile distilled water for 24 h followed by lyophilization. Essential oils were distilled from the two aromatic plant species (Tarchonanthus camphoratus and Croton gratissimus). Antimicrobial activity was assessed using the micro-well minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay with specific modifications to facilitate fastidious growth of pathogens. RESULTS: Tarchonanthus camphoratus (solvent extract) showed the most significant broad spectrum activity with MIC values ranging between 0.50 and 0.70 mg/ml against five of the six pathogens tested. Other noteworthy activity was found for Hypericum aethiopicum (root) at 0.3 mg/ml (Neisseria gonorrhoeae).Polygala fruticosa and the solvent root extract of Hypericum aethiopicum showed highest sensitivities towards Gardnerella vaginalis at 0.2 mg/ml. Efficacy of the solvent extracts against the pathogen Oligella ureolytica demonstrated antimicrobial activity (MIC values

Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Etnobotânica , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/microbiologia
20.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 130(2): 284-9, 2010 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20452415

RESUMO

AIM OF THE STUDY: To document the ethnobotanical knowledge on antidiarrhoeal plant use by lay people in a rural community in northern Maputaland. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Interviews were conducted amongst homestead inhabitants, using structured questionnaires. The focus was on the medicinal plants which are growing in and around the immediate vicinity of the homesteads. RESULTS: Twenty-three plant species are used in the study area to treat diarrhoea. Four plants (Acacia burkei, Brachylaena transvaalensis, Cissampelos hirta and Sarcostemma viminale) are recorded for the first time globally as an antidiarrhoel. The three antidiarrhoeal plants most frequently used in the study area are Psidium guajava, Catharanthus roseus and Melia azedarach (all three are exotic to South Africa), followed by Sclerocarya birrea and Strychnos madagascariensis which are indigenous. Seven of the 23 plant species are used in five different plant combinations for increased antidiarrhoeal efficacy. CONCLUSION: The wide variety of plants that are used to treat diarrhoea in this area supports the traditional value that medicinal plants have in the primary health care system of the rural people in northern Maputaland, KwaZulu-Natal.


Assuntos
Antidiarreicos/uso terapêutico , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Etnobotânica , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Fitoterapia , Plantas Medicinais , População Rural , África do Sul , Inquéritos e Questionários
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