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1.
Artif Intell Med ; 118: 102127, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412844

RESUMO

In case of comorbidity, i.e., multiple medical conditions, Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS) should issue recommendations based on all relevant disease-related Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG). However, treatments from multiple comorbid CPG often interact adversely (e.g., drug-drug interactions) or introduce operational inefficiencies (e.g., redundant scans). A common solution is the a-priori integration of computerized CPG, which involves integration decisions such as discarding, replacing or delaying clinical tasks (e.g., treatments) to avoid adverse interactions or inefficiencies. We argue this insufficiently deals with execution-time events: as the patient's health profile evolves, acute conditions occur, and real-time delays take place, new CPG integration decisions will often be needed, and prior ones may need to be reverted or undone. Any realistic CPG integration effort needs to further consider temporal aspects of clinical tasks-these are not only restricted by temporal constraints from CPGs (e.g., sequential relations, task durations) but also by CPG integration efforts (e.g., avoid treatment overlap). This poses a complex execution-time challenge and makes it difficult to determine an up-to-date, optimal comorbid care plan. We present a solution for dynamic integration of CPG in response to evolving health profiles and execution-time events. CPG integration policies are formulated by clinical experts for coping with comorbidity at execution-time, with clearly defined integration semantics that build on Description and Transaction Logics. A dynamic planning approach reconciles temporal constraints of CPG tasks at execution-time based on their importance, and continuously updates an optimal task schedule.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Semântica , Comorbidade , Humanos , Tempo
2.
Clin Biochem ; 2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34437886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sellar masses (SM) frequently present with insidious hormonal dysfunction. We previously showed that, by utilizing a combined reflex/reflecting approach involving a laboratory clinician (LC) on common endocrine test results requested by non-specialists, and subsequently adding further warranted tests, previously undiagnosed pituitary disorders can be identified. However, manually employing these strategies by an LC is not feasible for wider screening of pituitary disorders. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy and financial impact of an Artificial Intelligence (AI) based, fully computerized reflex protocol with manual reflex/reflective intervention protocol led by an LC. METHODS: We developed a proof-of-concept AI-based framework to fully computerize multi-stage reflex testing protocols for pituitary dysfunction using automated reasoning methods. We compared the efficacy of this AI-based protocol with a reflex/reflective protocol based on manually curated retrospective data in identifying pituitary dysfunction based on 12 months of laboratory testing. RESULTS: The AI-based reflex protocol, as compared with the manual protocol, would have identified laboratory tests for add-on that either directly matched or included all manual add-on tests in 92% of cases, and recommended a similar specialist referral in 90% of the cases. The AI-based protocol would have issued 2.8 times the total number of manual add-on laboratory tests at an 85% lower operation cost than the manual protocol when considering marginal test costs, technical staff and specialist salary. CONCLUSION/DISCUSSION: Our AI-based reflex protocol can successfully identify patients with pituitary dysfunction, with lower estimated laboratory cost. Future research will focus on enhancing the protocol's accuracy and incorporating the AI-based reflex protocol into institutional laboratory and hospital information systems for the detection of undiagnosed pituitary disorders.

3.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 281: 729-733, 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34042672

RESUMO

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is an action-oriented psychotherapy that combines cognitive and behavioural techniques for psychosocial treatment for depression, and is considered by many to be the golden standard in psychotherapy. More recently, computerized CBT (CCBT) has been deployed to help increase availability and access to this evidence-based therapy. In this vein, a CBT ontology, as a shared common understanding of the domain, can facilitate the aggregation, verification, and operationalization of computerized CBT knowledge. Moreover, as opposed to black-box applications, ontology-enabled systems allow recommended, evidence-based treatment interventions to be traced back to the corresponding psychological concepts. We used a Knowledge Management approach to synthesize and computerize CBT knowledge from multiple sources into a CBT ontology, which allows generating personalized action plans for treating mild depression, using the Web Ontology Language (OWL) and Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL). We performed a formative evaluation of the CBT ontology in terms of its completeness, consistency, and conciseness.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtorno Depressivo , Cognição , Depressão/terapia , Humanos
4.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 281: 417-421, 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34042777

RESUMO

Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) are increasingly being deployed at primary points of care and clinics for digital record keeping, increasing productivity and improving communication. In practice, however, there still exists an often incomplete picture of patient profiles, not only because of disconnected EMR systems but also due to incomplete EMR data entry - often caused by clinician time constraints and lack of data entry restrictions. To complete a patient's partial EMR data, we plausibly infer missing causal associations between medical EMR concepts, such as diagnoses and treatments, for situations that lack sufficient raw data to enable machine learning methods. We follow a knowledge-based approach, where we leverage open medical knowledge sources such as SNOMED-CT and ICD, combined with knowledge-based reasoning with explainable inferences, to infer clinical encounter information from incomplete medical records. To bootstrap this process, we apply a semantic Extract-Transform-Load process to convert an EMR database into an enriched domain-specific Knowledge Graph.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão , Humanos , Bases de Conhecimento , Semântica , Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine
5.
Artif Intell Med ; 108: 101931, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972660

RESUMO

In a digitally enabled healthcare setting, we posit that an individual's current location is pivotal for supporting many virtual care services-such as tailoring educational content towards an individual's current location, and, hence, current stage in an acute care process; improving activity recognition for supporting self-management in a home-based setting; and guiding individuals with cognitive decline through daily activities in their home. However, unobtrusively estimating an individual's indoor location in real-world care settings is still a challenging problem. Moreover, the needs of location-specific care interventions go beyond absolute coordinates and require the individual's discrete semantic location; i.e., it is the concrete type of an individual's location (e.g., exam vs. waiting room; bathroom vs. kitchen) that will drive the tailoring of educational content or recognition of activities. We utilized Machine Learning methods to accurately identify an individual's discrete location, together with knowledge-based models and tools to supply the associated semantics of identified locations. We considered clustering solutions to improve localization accuracy at the expense of granularity; and investigate sensor fusion-based heuristics to rule out false location estimates. We present an AI-driven indoor localization approach that integrates both data-driven and knowledge-based processes and artifacts. We illustrate the application of our approach in two compelling healthcare use cases, and empirically validated our localization approach at the emergency unit of a large Canadian pediatric hospital.

6.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(4): e14897, 2020 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smartphone apps are an increasingly popular means for delivering psychological interventions to patients suffering from a mental disorder. In line with this popularity, there is a need to analyze and summarize the state of the art, both from a psychological and technical perspective. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to systematically review the literature on the use of smartphones for psychological interventions. Our systematic review has the following objectives: (1) analyze the coverage of mental disorders in research articles per year; (2) study the types of assessment in research articles per mental disorder per year; (3) map the use of advanced technical features, such as sensors, and novel software features, such as personalization and social media, per mental disorder; (4) provide an overview of smartphone apps per mental disorder; and (5) provide an overview of the key characteristics of empirical assessments with rigorous designs (ie, randomized controlled trials [RCTs]). METHODS: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines for systematic reviews were followed. We performed searches in Scopus, Web of Science, American Psychological Association PsycNET, and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, covering a period of 6 years (2013-2018). We included papers that described the use of smartphone apps to deliver psychological interventions for known mental disorders. We formed multidisciplinary teams, comprising experts in psychology and computer science, to select and classify articles based on psychological and technical features. RESULTS: We found 158 articles that met the inclusion criteria. We observed an increasing interest in smartphone-based interventions over time. Most research targeted disorders with high prevalence, that is, depressive (31/158,19.6%) and anxiety disorders (18/158, 11.4%). Of the total, 72.7% (115/158) of the papers focused on six mental disorders: depression, anxiety, trauma and stressor-related, substance-related and addiction, schizophrenia spectrum, and other psychotic disorders, or a combination of disorders. More than half of known mental disorders were not or very scarcely (<3%) represented. An increasing number of studies were dedicated to assessing clinical effects, but RCTs were still a minority (25/158, 15.8%). From a technical viewpoint, interventions were leveraging the improved modalities (screen and sound) and interactivity of smartphones but only sparingly leveraged their truly novel capabilities, such as sensors, alternative delivery paradigms, and analytical methods. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for designing interventions for the full breadth of mental disorders, rather than primarily focusing on most prevalent disorders. We further contend that an increasingly systematic focus, that is, involving RCTs, is needed to improve the robustness and trustworthiness of assessments. Regarding technical aspects, we argue that further exploration and innovative use of the novel capabilities of smartphones are needed to fully realize their potential for the treatment of mental health disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Aplicativos Móveis , Transtornos Psicóticos , Smartphone , Ansiedade , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia
7.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 571-575, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437988

RESUMO

Developmental delay is a deviation from the regular development of normative milestones during childhood. Early stimulation is a standardized and straightforward technique to support children with developmental delays (aged 0-3 years) in reaching basic motor skills, which are essential for the execution of everyday activities, such as playing, feeding and locomotion. In doing so, early stimulation reduces the chances of permanent motor impairment, thus allowing the child to live a more functional life. However, outcomes of this treatment depend heavily on the involvement of the family, who are required to continue the early stimulation activities at home on a daily basis. To empower and educate families to administer standardized early stimulation programs at home, we developed an electronic early stimulation program, which provides personalized guidance to parents to administer early stimulation; together with evidence-based clinical decision support to therapists in tailoring ESP to observed needs.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento , Pais , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido
8.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 858-862, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438046

RESUMO

Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS) utilize computerized Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) to deliver evidence-based care recommendations. However, when dealing with comorbidity (i.e., patients with multiple conditions), disease-specific CPG often interact in adverse ways (e.g., drug-drug, drug-disease interactions), and may involve redundant elements as well (e.g., repeated care tasks). To avoid adverse interactions and optimize care, current options involve the static, a priori integration of comorbid CPG by replacing or removing therapeutic tasks. Nevertheless, many aspects are relevant to a clinically safe and efficient integration, and these may change over time-task delays, test outcomes, and health profiles-which are not taken into account by static integrations. Moreover, in case of comorbidity, clinical practice often demands nuanced solutions, based on current health profiles. We propose an execution-time approach to safely and efficiently cope with comorbid conditions, leveraging knowledge from medical Linked Open Datasets to aid during CIG integration.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Comorbidade , Humanos
9.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 863-867, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438047

RESUMO

Assisted Ambient Living (AAL) focuses on self-sufficiency, assisting disabled people to perform activities of daily living (ADL) by automating assistive actions in smart environments. Importantly, AAL provides opportunities for dynamically guiding patients with a cognitive decline through an ADL. Activity recognition is a pivotal task since it allows detecting when an ADL is started by recognizing its constituent activities. When dealing cognitive decline, activity recognition should also be able to detect when activities are performed incorrectly-e.g., performed out-of-order, at the wrong location or time, or with the wrong objects (e.g., utensils) - which is nevertheless not a common goal in activity recognition. Moreover, it should be able to cope with non-uniform ways of performing the ADL that are nevertheless correct. We present a novel knowledge-driven activity recognition approach, which employs semantic reasoning to recognize both correct and incorrect actions, based on the ADL workflow as well as associated environment context.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Pessoas com Deficiência , Humanos
10.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1337-1341, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438143

RESUMO

Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is the most common chronic rheumatic disease of childhood, with outcomes including pain, prolonged dependence on medications, and disability. Parents of children with JIA report being overwhelmed by the volume of information in the patient education materials that are available to them. This paper addresses this educational gap by applying an artificial intelligence method, based on an extended model of argument, to design and implement a dialogue system that allows users get the educational material they need, when they need it. In the developed system, the studied model of argument was leveraged as part of the system's dialogue manager. A qualitative evaluation of the system, using cognitive walkthroughs and semi-structured interviews with JIA domain experts, suggests that these methods show great promise for providing quality information to families of children with JIA when they need it.


Assuntos
Artrite Juvenil , Doenças Reumáticas , Inteligência Artificial , Criança , Humanos , Pais , Qualidade de Vida
11.
Artif Intell Med ; 94: 117-137, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30871678

RESUMO

Patients with multiple medical conditions (comorbidity) pose major challenges to clinical decision support systems, since the different Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) often involve adverse interactions, such as drug-drug or drug-disease interactions. Moreover, opportunities often exist for optimizing care and resources across multiple CPG. These challenges have been taken up in the state of the art, with many approaches focusing on the static integration of comorbid CIG. Nevertheless, we observe that many aspects often change dynamically over time, in ways that cannot be foreseen - such as delays in care tasks, resource availability, test outcomes, and acute comorbid conditions. To ensure the clinical safety and effectiveness of integrating multiple comorbid CIG, these execution-time difficulties must be considered. Further, when dealing with comorbid conditions, we remark that clinical practitioners typically consider multiple complex solutions, depending on the patient's health profile. Hence, execution-time flexibility, based on dynamic health parameters, is needed to effectively and safely cope with comorbid conditions. In this work, we introduce a flexible, knowledge-driven and execution-time approach to comorbid CIG integration, based on an OWL ontology with clearly defined integration semantics.


Assuntos
Comorbidade , Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Humanos
12.
BioData Min ; 10: 7, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28203277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Capturing complete medical knowledge is challenging-often due to incomplete patient Electronic Health Records (EHR), but also because of valuable, tacit medical knowledge hidden away in physicians' experiences. To extend the coverage of incomplete medical knowledge-based systems beyond their deductive closure, and thus enhance their decision-support capabilities, we argue that innovative, multi-strategy reasoning approaches should be applied. In particular, plausible reasoning mechanisms apply patterns from human thought processes, such as generalization, similarity and interpolation, based on attributional, hierarchical, and relational knowledge. Plausible reasoning mechanisms include inductive reasoning, which generalizes the commonalities among the data to induce new rules, and analogical reasoning, which is guided by data similarities to infer new facts. By further leveraging rich, biomedical Semantic Web ontologies to represent medical knowledge, both known and tentative, we increase the accuracy and expressivity of plausible reasoning, and cope with issues such as data heterogeneity, inconsistency and interoperability. In this paper, we present a Semantic Web-based, multi-strategy reasoning approach, which integrates deductive and plausible reasoning and exploits Semantic Web technology to solve complex clinical decision support queries. RESULTS: We evaluated our system using a real-world medical dataset of patients with hepatitis, from which we randomly removed different percentages of data (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) to reflect scenarios with increasing amounts of incomplete medical knowledge. To increase the reliability of the results, we generated 5 independent datasets for each percentage of missing values, which resulted in 20 experimental datasets (in addition to the original dataset). The results show that plausibly inferred knowledge extends the coverage of the knowledge base by, on average, 2%, 7%, 12%, and 16% for datasets with, respectively, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of missing values. This expansion in the KB coverage allowed solving complex disease diagnostic queries that were previously unresolvable, without losing the correctness of the answers. However, compared to deductive reasoning, data-intensive plausible reasoning mechanisms yield a significant performance overhead. CONCLUSIONS: We observed that plausible reasoning approaches, by generating tentative inferences and leveraging domain knowledge of experts, allow us to extend the coverage of medical knowledge bases, resulting in improved clinical decision support. Second, by leveraging OWL ontological knowledge, we are able to increase the expressivity and accuracy of plausible reasoning methods. Third, our approach is applicable to clinical decision support systems for a range of chronic diseases.

13.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 216: 118-22, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26262022

RESUMO

By involving patients in their own long-term care, patient self-management approaches aim to increase self-sufficiency and reduce healthcare costs. For example, electronic patient diaries enable patients to collect health data autonomously, increasing self-reliance and reducing strain on health professionals. By deploying patient diaries on mobile platforms, health data collection can occur at any time and place, increasing the mobility of chronic patients who typically need to enter health data frequently. Importantly, an opportunity also arises for mobile clinical decision support, where health feedback is directly issued to patients without relying on connectivity or remote servers. Regardless of the specific self-management strategy, patient and healthcare provider adoption are crucial. Tailoring the system towards the particular patient and toward institution-specific clinical pathways is essential to increasing acceptance. In this paper we discuss a mobile patient diary realizing both the opportunities and challenges of mobile deployment.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/terapia , Registros Médicos , Aplicativos Móveis , Autocuidado/métodos , Smartphone , Telemedicina/métodos , Humanos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação/métodos , Design de Software , Interface Usuário-Computador
14.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 216: 148-52, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26262028

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to determine if shared decisions for managing non-critical chronic illness, made through an online biomedical technology intervention, us feasible and usable. The technology intervention incorporates behavioural and decision theories to increase patient engagement, and ultimately long term adherence to health behaviour change. We devised the iheart web intervention as a "proof of concept" in five phases. The implementation incorporates the Vaadin web application framework, Drools, EclipseLink and a MySQL database. Two-thirds of the study participants favoured the technology intervention, based on Likert-scale questions from a post-study questionnaire. Qualitative analysis of think aloud feedback, video screen captures and open-ended questions from the post-study questionnaire uncovered six main areas or themes for improvement. We conclude that online shared decisions for managing a non-critical chronic illness are feasible and usable through the iheart web intervention.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/terapia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Tomada de Decisões , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Mídias Sociais , Revisão da Utilização de Recursos de Saúde , Canadá , Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Estudos de Viabilidade
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