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1.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255510, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Novel virus outbreaks, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, may increase psychological distress among frontline workers. Psychological distress may lead to reduced performance, reduced employability or even burnout. In the present study, we assessed experienced psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic from a self-determination theory perspective. METHODS: This mixed-methods study, with repeated measures, used surveys (quantitative data) combined with audio diaries (qualitative data) to assess work-related COVID-19 experiences, psychological need satisfaction and frustration, and psychological distress over time. Forty-six participants (nurses, junior doctors, and consultants) completed 259 surveys and shared 60 audio diaries. Surveys and audio diaries were analysed separately. RESULTS: Quantitative results indicated that perceived psychological distress during COVID-19 was higher than pre-COVID-19 and fluctuated over time. Need frustration, specifically autonomy and competence, was positively associated with psychological distress, while need satisfaction, especially relatedness, was negatively associated with psychological distress. In the qualitative, thematic analysis, we observed that especially organisational logistics (rostering, work-life balance, and internal communication) frustrated autonomy, and unfamiliarity with COVID-19 frustrated competence. Despite many need frustrating experiences, a strong connection with colleagues and patients were important sources of relatedness support (i.e. need satisfaction) that seemed to mitigate psychological distress. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in an increase of psychological distress among frontline workers. Both need frustration and need satisfaction explained unique variance of psychological distress, but seemed to originate from different sources. Challenging times require healthcare organisations to better support their professionals by tailored formal and informal support. We propose to address both indirect (e.g. organisation) and direct (e.g. colleagues) elements of the clinical and social environment in order to reduce need frustration and enhance need satisfaction.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Satisfação Pessoal , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
J Mot Behav ; : 1-10, 2020 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33252010

RESUMO

The aim of the present research is to test whether resilience in a motor task enhances or diminishes when encountering stressors. We conducted a lateral movement task during which we induced stressors and tracked the movement accuracy of each participant over time. Stressors corresponded to organismic constraints (i.e., visual occlusion), task constraints (i.e., movement sensitivity), or both types of constraints in an alternating pattern. In order to determine resilience, we introduced a measure combining the strength of a stressor and the relaxation time. Across the three conditions, we found that resilience was enhanced rather than diminished over time. This supports the notion that stressors in the form of constraint alterations can be beneficial to human motor performance.

3.
Front Psychol ; 11: 2169, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013557

RESUMO

Proactive behavior has emerged as a key component in contemporary views of individual work performance. Hence, a central question in the literature is how to enhance employees' proactive behavior. We investigated whether the more that employees experience a sense of vitality (i.e., energizing positive affect), the more likely they are to show proactive behavior at work, and whether this applies only to employees with a low personal fear of invalidity [(PFI) i.e., the inclination to be apprehensive about the risks/negative consequences of making errors]. Experimental (N = 354) and cross-sectional field (N = 85) studies provided consistent evidence for a positive relation between employees' sense of vitality at work and their self-rated proactivity. The predicted moderation effect was observed only for manager-rated proactivity. We conclude that feeling energized in the workplace is not necessarily associated with observable proactive behavior. It is only when employees experiencing a sense of vitality at work are not prone to fearing the risks/negative consequences of making errors that they are more likely to show observable proactive behavior in an organization.

4.
Front Psychol ; 11: 558123, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33071881

RESUMO

In adaptive sports (also known as Para sports, disability sports, or Paralympic sports), athletes are assigned to classes that indicate their functional potential, regardless of talent, training, or experience. The aim of the present study among wheelchair basketball athletes (n = 141) was to explore the role of functional classification as a potential stressor. Specifically, we looked into the anecdotal relationship between classification and athletes' concern about "performing in accordance with one's class." Based on a serial mediation research model, we examined the links between functional classification and three outcome variables (i.e., cognitive worry, somatic arousal, and game performance) through the mediator variables of perceived competitive demands and sport-specific self-efficacy. Unexpectedly, we did not find any evidence of a classification effect on either the mediator variables or competitive anxiety. However, we did find positive correlations between functional classification and athletes' contribution to their team's score, which align with research supporting the proportionality and the validity of the functional classification system. Moreover, regardless of classification, mediation analyses revealed an indirect link between perceived competitive demands and cognitive worry through sport-specific self-efficacy. These findings suggest that, regardless of classification, athletes' self-efficacy may be increased by managing their appraisals of competitive demands and that their cognitive worries may be reduced by self-efficacy interventions.

5.
Nonlinear Dynamics Psychol Life Sci ; 24(3): 327-351, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687777

RESUMO

In the current study, we applied the dynamical systems approach to obtain novel insights into resilience losses. Dyads (n = 42) performed a lateral rhythmical pointing (Fitts) task. To induce resilience losses and transitions in performance, dyads were exposed to ascending and descending scoring scenarios. To assess changes in the complexity of the dyadic pointing performance, reflecting their resilience, we performed cross-recurrence quantification analyses. Then, we tested for temporal patterns indicating resilience losses. We applied lag 1 autocorrelations to assess critical slowing down and mean squared successive differences (MSSD) to assess critical fluctuations. Although we did not find evidence that scoring scenarios produce performance transitions across individuals, we did observe transitions in each condition. Contrary to the lag 1 autocorrelations, our results suggest that transitions in human performance are signaled by increases in the MSSD. Specifically, both positive and negative performance transitions were accompanied with increased fluctuations in performance. Furthermore, negative performance transitions were accompanied with increased fluctuations of complexity, signaling resilience losses. On the other hand, complexity remained stable for positive performance transitions. Together, these results suggest that combining information of critical fluctuations in performance and complexity can predict both positive and negative transitions in dyadic team performance.

6.
Front Psychol ; 11: 272, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218752

RESUMO

In the past decades, much research has examined the negative effects of stressors on the performance of athletes. However, according to evolutionary biology, organisms may exhibit growth under stress, a phenomenon called antifragility. For both coaches and their athletes, a key question is how to design training conditions to help athletes develop the kinds of physical, physiological, and behavioral adaptations underlying antifragility. An answer to this important question requires a better understanding of how individual athletes respond to stress or loads in the context of relevant sports tasks. In order to contribute to such understanding, the present study leverages a theoretical and methodological approach to generate individualized load-response profiles in the context of a climbing task. Climbers (n = 37) were asked to complete different bouldering (climbing) routes with increasing loading (i.e. difficulty). We quantified the behavioral responses of each individual athlete by mathematically combining two measures obtained for each route: (a) maximal performance (i.e. the percentage of the route that was completed) and (b) number of attempts required to achieve maximal performance. We mapped this composite response variable as a function of route difficulty. This procedure resulted in load-response curves that captured each athlete's adaptability to stress, termed phenotypic plasticity (PP), specifically operationalized as the area under the generated curves. The results indicate individual load-response profiles (and by extension PP) for athletes who perform at similar maximum levels. We discuss how these profiles might be used by coaches to systematically select stress loads that may be ideally featured in performance training.

7.
Psychol Aging ; 33(4): 559-571, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29902055

RESUMO

This work examines the hypothesis that older workers' responses to negative events at work depend, in part, on daily fluctuations of subjective age bias (SAB; how old people feel compared to their actual age) and age group identification (age GI). We tested whether SAB and age GI fluctuate over time, whether they influence attributions of negative daily work events as age-related, and thereby predict older workers' daily affect and cognitive engagement in their work. A diary study with 169 older workers (aged 50-70 years) demonstrates that there are substantial daily variations in SAB and GI. Daily fluctuations of SAB and age GI respectively predicted attributions of negative personal (e.g., forgetfulness) and social (e.g., social exclusion) work events to age. Age attributions, in turn, negatively predicted affect and daily cognitive engagement over and above event occurrence. In other words, when confronted with negative daily work events, the short-term dissociation from one's chronological age and age group (i.e., feeling younger and identifying less with other older adults) seems to benefit older workers' well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Identificação Social , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Viés , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
PLoS One ; 13(3): e0193878, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29518104

RESUMO

Satisfaction with activity-based work environments (ABW environments) often falls short of expectations, with striking differences among individual workers. A better understanding of these differences may provide clues for optimising satisfaction with ABW environments and associated organisational outcomes. The current study was designed to examine how specific psychological needs, job characteristics, and demographic variables relate to satisfaction with ABW environments. Survey data collected at seven organizations in the Netherlands (N = 551) were examined using correlation and regression analyses. Significant correlates of satisfaction with ABW environments were found: need for relatedness (positive), need for privacy (negative), job autonomy (positive), social interaction (positive), internal mobility (positive), and age (negative). Need for privacy appeared to be a powerful predictor of individual differences in satisfaction with ABW environments. These findings underline the importance of providing work environments that allow for different work styles, in alignment with different psychological need strengths, job characteristics, and demographic variables. Improving privacy, especially for older workers and for workers high in need for privacy, seems key to optimizing satisfaction with ABW environments.


Assuntos
Individualidade , Satisfação no Emprego , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Autonomia Pessoal , Privacidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho/organização & administração , Adulto Jovem
9.
Pers Soc Psychol Bull ; 44(6): 851-867, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29405847

RESUMO

In the current research, we aimed to address the inconsistent finding in the brainstorming literature that cognitive stimulation sometimes results from novel input, yet other times from non-novel input. We expected and found, in three experiments, that the strength and valence of this relationship are moderated by people's psychological needs for structure and autonomy. Specifically, the effect of novel input (vs. non-novel input), through perceived creativity, on cognitive stimulation was stronger for people who were either low in need for structure or high in need for autonomy. Also, when the input people received did not fit their needs, they experienced less psychological cognitive stimulation from this input (i.e., less task enjoyment and feeling more blocked) compared with when they did not receive any input. Hence, to create the ideal circumstances for people to achieve cognitive stimulation when brainstorming, input novelty should be aligned with their psychological needs.


Assuntos
Criatividade , Comportamento Exploratório , Pensamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Cognição , Eficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autonomia Pessoal , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Bus Ethics ; 150(3): 631-645, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996502

RESUMO

The popular media has repeatedly pointed to pride as one of the key factors motivating leaders to behave unethically. However, given the devastating consequences that leader unethical behavior may have, a more scientific account of the role of pride is warranted. The present study differentiates between authentic and hubristic pride and assesses its impact on leader ethical behavior, while taking into consideration the extent to which leaders find it important to their self-concept to be a moral person. In two experiments we found that with higher levels of moral identity, authentically proud leaders are more likely to engage in ethical behavior than hubristically proud leaders, and that this effect is mediated by leaders' motivation to act selflessly. A field survey among organizational leaders corroborated that moral identity may bring the positive effect of authentic pride and the negative effect of hubristic pride on leader ethical behavior to the forefront.

11.
PLoS One ; 12(11): e0187805, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29117257

RESUMO

Integrating the social identity and aging literatures, this work tested the hypothesis that there are two independent, but simultaneous, responses by which adults transitioning into old age can buffer themselves against age discrimination: an individual response, which entails adopting a younger subjective age when facing discrimination, and a collective response, which involves increasing identification with the group of older adults. In three experimental studies with a total number of 488 older adults (50 to 75 years of age), we manipulated age discrimination in a job application scenario and measured the effects of both responses on perceived health and self-esteem. Statistical analyses include individual study results as well as a meta-analysis on the combined results of the three studies. Findings show consistent evidence only for the individual response, which was in turn associated with well-being. Furthermore, challenging previous research, the two responses (adopting a younger subjective age and increasing group identification) were not only theoretically, but also empirically distinct. This research complements prior research by signaling the value of considering both responses to discrimination as complementary rather than mutually exclusive.


Assuntos
Ageismo/psicologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Autoimagem , Identificação Social , Idoso , Ageismo/prevenção & controle , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Feminino , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Pers Soc Psychol Bull ; 43(3): 418-433, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28903696

RESUMO

The perceived possibility of movement between groups, referred to as permeability of group boundaries, is considered a key factor in explaining intergroup relations. However, so far, permeability has been conceptualized in different ways and there exists no validated measure. Integrating different conceptualizations, we developed a scale distinguishing membership permeability (e.g., a person changing from one sport team to another) versus status permeability (e.g., a person acquiring a higher social status). Scale validation occurred across samples representing five lower status groups (older adults, women, obese, lower educated, ethnic minorities). Our scale was related to central indicators of intergroup relations such as self-reported intergroup attitudes (e.g., identification) and endorsement of behavioral strategies (individual mobility, collective action). Moreover, it distinguished permeability characteristics of different types of social groups. The scale provides a novel theoretical conceptualization of permeability and can be used to examine levels and correlates of permeability perceptions across social groups.


Assuntos
Estrutura de Grupo , Hierarquia Social , Identificação Social , Atitude , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Teoria Social
13.
Prog Brain Res ; 232: 137-140, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28648232

RESUMO

Based on in-depth interviews, Hardy et al. focused on the role of psychosocial factors in the development of elite and super-elite athletes. They reveal interesting differences and commonalities in the frequencies at which certain aspects related to life events, personality, contextual factors, etc. were reported. Here, we argue that insights in the development of (super-)elite athletes will advance if we go beyond explanations in the frequency-domain, and search for process explanations in the time-domain. This means that we should investigate how athletes develop from one time point to the next, and the next, etc., thereby examining how (psychosocial) factors change and combine across time, as well as how the timing of events can shape an athlete's further developmental trajectory. We therefore present a process-oriented dynamic network model of talent development, assuming that (super-)elite performance develops out of structures of dynamically interacting (psychosocial) factors, which we illustrate using the outcomes of Hardy et al.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Humanos
14.
J Sport Exerc Psychol ; 38(1): 82-92, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27018560

RESUMO

This study on psychological momentum (PM) in sports provides the first experimental test of an interconnection between short-term PM (during a match) and long-term PM (across a series of matches). Twenty-two competitive athletes were striving to win a prize during a rowing-ergometer tournament, consisting of manipulated races. As hypothesized, athletes who had developed long-term positive PM after two successful races were less sensitive to a negative momentum scenario in the third race, compared with athletes who had developed long-term negative PM after two unsuccessful races. More specifically, the exerted efforts, perceptions of momentum, and self-efficacy were higher for participants who had developed long-term positive PM, and their perceptions of momentum and self-efficacy decreased less rapidly. These results illustrate a typical complex dynamical systems property, namely interconnected time scales, and provide deeper insights into the dynamical nature of PM.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Comportamento Competitivo , Motivação , Esportes/psicologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Esforço Físico , Autoeficácia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Motor Control ; 19(4): 355-69, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26559647

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine (1) the temporal structures of variation in rowers' (natural) ergometer strokes to make inferences about the underlying motor organization, and (2) the relation between these temporal structures and skill level. Four high-skilled and five lower-skilled rowers completed 550 strokes on a rowing ergometer. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis was used to quantify the temporal structure of the intervals between force peaks. Results showed that the temporal structure differed from random, and revealed prominent patterns of pink noise for each rower. Furthermore, the high-skilled rowers demonstrated more pink noise than the lower-skilled rowers. The presence of pink noise suggeststhat rowing performance emerges from the coordination among interacting component processes across multiple time scales. The difference in noise pattern between high-skilled and lower-skilled athletes indicates that the complexity of athletes' motor organization is a potential key characteristic of elite performance.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Ergometria/métodos , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Atletas , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Motiv Emot ; 39(5): 656-668, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26380533

RESUMO

In two randomized experiments, one conducted online (n = 174) and one in the classroom (n = 267), we tested the effects of two types of self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies on students' intentions to put effort into professional development activities: strength-based SRL strategies (i.e., identifying perceived relative strengths and, subsequently, selecting professional development activities to further improve those strengths) versus deficit-based SRL strategies (i.e., identifying perceived relative shortcomings and, subsequently, selecting professional development activities to improve those shortcomings). Across both studies, analysis of variance revealed that, relative to students who used deficit-based SRL strategies, students who used strength-based SRL strategies were higher in perceived competence, intrinsic motivation, and effort intentions. Moreover, the results of multi-mediator analysis and structural equation modeling supported the hypothesis that the effect of strength-based versus deficit-based SRL strategies on students' effort intentions was sequentially mediated by perceived competence and intrinsic motivation. Implications for the application of self-regulated learning strategies in the context of professional self-development are discussed.

17.
PLoS One ; 9(7): e102921, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25033202

RESUMO

Similarly to related developments such as blended learning and blended care, blended working is a pervasive and booming trend in modern societies. Blended working combines on-site and off-site working in an optimal way to improve workers' and organizations' outcomes. In this paper, we examine the degree to which workers feel that the two defining features of blended working (i.e., time-independent working and location-independent working) enhance their own functioning in their jobs. Blended working, enabled through the continuing advance and improvement of high-tech ICT software, devices, and infrastructure, may be considered beneficial for workers' perceived effectiveness because it increases their job autonomy. However, because blended working may have downsides as well, it is important to know for whom blended working may (not) work. As hypothesized, in a sample of 348 workers (51.7% women), representing a wide range of occupations and organizations, we found that the perceived personal effectiveness of blended working was contingent upon workers' psychological need strength. Specifically, the perceived effectiveness of both time-independent working and location-independent working was positively related to individuals' need for autonomy at work, and negatively related to their need for relatedness and need for structure at work.


Assuntos
Emprego/psicologia , Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Ocupações , Software , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
18.
PLoS One ; 9(5): e97887, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24838238

RESUMO

In business and sports, teams often experience periods of positive and negative momentum while pursuing their goals. However, researchers have not yet been able to provide insights into how psychological and behavioral states actually change during positive and negative team momentum. In the current study we aimed to provide these insights by introducing an experimental dynamical research design. Rowing pairs had to compete against a virtual opponent on rowing ergometers, while a screen in front of the team broadcasted the ongoing race. The race was manipulated so that the team's rowing avatar gradually progressed (positive momentum) or regressed (negative momentum) in relation to the victory. The participants responded verbally to collective efficacy and task cohesion items appearing on the screen each minute. In addition, effort exertion and interpersonal coordination were continuously measured. Our results showed negative psychological changes (perceptions of collective efficacy and task cohesion) during negative team momentum, which were stronger than the positive changes during positive team momentum. Moreover, teams' exerted efforts rapidly decreased during negative momentum, whereas positive momentum accompanied a more variable and adaptive sequence of effort exertion. Finally, the interpersonal coordination was worse during negative momentum than during positive momentum. These results provide the first empirical insights into actual team momentum dynamics, and demonstrate how a dynamical research approach significantly contributes to current knowledge on psychological and behavioral processes.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Comportamento Cooperativo , Desempenho Psicomotor , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 9(4): e93594, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24699695

RESUMO

During the past three decades, the achievement goal approach to achievement motivation has emerged as an influential area of research, and is dedicated to understanding the reasons behind the individual's drive to achieve competence and performance. However, the current literature on achievement goals is segmented rather than integrated. That is, citations across the three major and distinct achievement domains (work, education, and sports) are more the exception than the rule and similarities and differences between findings for the different achievement domains have yet to be tested. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships between self-reported achievement goals and nonself-report performance through meta-analysis, and the moderating potential of achievement domain. Identifying achievement domain as moderator improves our understanding to which contexts we can (not) generalize conclusions to, it helps to understand seemingly inconsistent findings, and opens avenues for future research on the underlying processes. Because the achievement goal (AG) measure used in a study is partially confounded with achievement domain, we examined the moderating role of this variable as well. Our findings suggest that - overall - approach goals (either mastery or performance) were associated positively with performance attainment, whereas avoidance goals (either mastery or performance) were associated negatively with performance attainment. These relationships were moderated by achievement domain. For example, relative to the education or work domain, in the sports domain, we did not observe negative correlations between avoidance goals and performance. The absence of statistical moderation due to AG measure suggests that the observed moderation of achievement domain cannot be explained by the AG measure utilized. We suggest further steps to integrate the achievement goal literature, and accordingly, to broaden and deepen understanding of performance attainment in competence-relevant settings, including the workplace, the sports field, and the classroom.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Humanos
20.
Pers Soc Psychol Bull ; 40(5): 676-88, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24553258

RESUMO

If people's goals and evaluative standards were aligned, then individuals with mastery-based goals should, theoretically, primarily rely on temporal comparison information (i.e., on how they performed relative to before). In contrast, individuals with performance-based goals should rely on social comparison information (i.e., on how they performed relative to others). However, across three studies, we explored a misalignment phenomenon we call "the overpowering effect of social comparison information" (TOESCI). We found that, irrespective of individuals' specific achievement goal (performance-based vs. mastery-based), there is a consistent, dominant reliance on social comparisons over temporal comparisons in their performance self-evaluations. These findings suggest that one's goals and evaluation criteria do not always align-that explicitly endorsing mastery-based goals does not necessarily lead one to rely on temporal comparison information over social comparison information. Only after receiving an explicit reminder to consider their mastery-based goal did participants align their goal and performance self-evaluation criteria.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Autoavaliação (Psicologia) , Identificação Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Atenção , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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