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1.
Lancet ; 397(10281): 1316-1324, 2021 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812490

RESUMO

The rate of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV from breastfeeding is increasing relative to other causes of MTCT. Early effective preconception and antenatal antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces intrauterine and intrapartum MTCT, whereas maternal post-partum HIV acquisition, untreated maternal HIV, and suboptimal postnatal maternal ART adherence increase the risk of MTCT through breastfeeding. Although the absolute number of cases of MTCT acquired through breastfeeding is decreasing, the rate of decrease is less than the decrease in intrauterine and intrapartum MTCT. Unless current strategies are universally applied, they might not be sufficient to eliminate MTCT due to breastfeeding. Urgent action is needed to evaluate and implement additional preventive biomedical strategies in high HIV prevalence and incidence settings to eliminate MTCT from breastfeeding. Preventive strategies include: pre-exposure prophylaxis in breastfeeding women who have an increased risk of acquiring HIV; postnatal reinforcement strategies, such as maternal retesting for HIV, maternal care reinforcement, and prophylaxis in infants exposed to HIV via breastmilk; and active (vaccine) or passive immunoprophylaxis with long-acting broadly neutralising antibodies.

2.
J Med Virol ; 93(5): 3069-3076, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554363

RESUMO

The implementation of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) may enhance the efficiency of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing, as RDTs are widely accessible and easy to use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a diagnosis strategy based on a combination of antigen and immunoglobulin M (IgM) or immunoglobulin G (IgG) serological RDTs. Plasma and nasopharyngeal samples were collected between 14 March and 11 April 2020 at hospital admission from 45 patients with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed COVID-19 and 20 negative controls. SARS-CoV-2 antigen (Ag) was assessed in nasopharyngeal swabs using the Coris Respi-Strip. For IgM/IgG detection, SureScreen Diagnostics and Szybio Biotech RDTs were used in addition to laboratory assays (Abbott Alinity i SARS-CoV-2 IgG and Theradiag COVID-19 IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Using the Ag RDT, 13 out of 45 (29.0%) specimens tested positive, the sensitivity was 87.0% for cycle threshold (Ct ) values ≤25% and 0% for Ct values greater than 25. IgG detection was associated with high Ct values and the amount of time after the onset of symptoms. The profile of isolated IgM on RDTs was more frequently observed during the first and second week after the onset of symptoms. The combination of Ag and IgM/IgG RDTs enabled the detection of up to 84.0% of COVID-19 confirmed cases at hospital admission. Antigen and antibody-based RDTs showed suboptimal performances when used alone. However when used in combination, they are able to identify most COVID-19 patients admitted in an emergency department.

3.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(4): e552-e557, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631131

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has raised concern about the possibility and effects of mother-infant transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through breastfeeding and close contact. The insufficient available evidence has resulted in differing recommendations by health professional associations and national health authorities. We present an approach for deciding public health policy on infant feeding and mother-infant contact in the context of COVID-19, or for future emerging viruses, that balances the risks that are associated with viral infection against child survival, lifelong health, and development, and also maternal health. Using the Lives Saved Tool, we used available data to show how different public health approaches might affect infant mortality. Based on existing evidence, including population and survival estimates, the number of infant deaths in low-income and middle-income countries due to COVID-19 (2020-21) might range between 1800 and 2800. By contrast, if mothers with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection are recommended to separate from their newborn babies and avoid or stop breastfeeding, additional deaths among infants would range between 188 000 and 273 000.


Assuntos
Relações Mãe-Filho , Formulação de Políticas , Saúde Pública , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Lactente
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594740

RESUMO

As breastfeeding is of utmost importance for child development and survival, identifying whether breast milk is a route of transmission for human viruses is critical. Based on the principle of Koch's postulate, we propose an analytical framework to determine the plausibility of viral transmission by breast milk. This framework is based on five criteria: viral infection in children receiving breast milk from infected mothers; the presence of virus, viral antigen, or viral genome in the breast milk of infected mothers; the evidence for the virus in breast milk being infectious; the attempts to rule out other transmission modalities; and the reproduction of viral transmission by oral inoculation in an animal model. We searched for evidence in published reports to determine whether the 5 criteria are fulfilled for 16 human viruses that are suspected to be transmissible by breast milk. We considered breast milk transmission is proven if all 5 criteria are fulfilled, as probable if 4 of the 5 criteria are met, as possible if 3 of the 5 criteria are fulfilled, and as unlikely if less than 3 criteria are met. Only five viruses have proven transmission through breast milk: human T-cell lymphotropic virus 1, human immunodeficiency virus, human cytomegalovirus, dengue virus, and Zika virus. The other 11 viruses fulfilled some but not all criteria and were categorized accordingly. Our framework analysis is useful for guiding public health recommendations and for identifying knowledge gaps amenable to original experiments.

5.
J Neuroinflammation ; 18(1): 11, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Usutu virus (USUV) is an emerging neurotropic arthropod-borne virus recently involved in massive die offs of wild birds predominantly reported in Europe. Although primarily asymptomatic or presenting mild clinical signs, humans infected by USUV can develop neuroinvasive pathologies (including encephalitis and meningoencephalitis). Similar to other flaviviruses, such as West Nile virus, USUV is capable of reaching the central nervous system. However, the neuropathogenesis of USUV is still poorly understood, and the virulence of the specific USUV lineages is currently unknown. One of the major complexities of the study of USUV pathogenesis is the presence of a great diversity of lineages circulating at the same time and in the same location. METHODS: The aim of this work was to determine the neurovirulence of isolates from the six main lineages circulating in Europe using mouse model and several neuronal cell lines (neurons, microglia, pericytes, brain endothelial cells, astrocytes, and in vitro Blood-Brain Barrier model). RESULTS: Our results indicate that all strains are neurotropic but have different virulence profiles. The Europe 2 strain, previously described as being involved in several clinical cases, induced the shortest survival time and highest mortality in vivo and appeared to be more virulent and persistent in microglial, astrocytes, and brain endothelial cells, while also inducing an atypical cytopathic effect. Moreover, an amino acid substitution (D3425E) was specifically identified in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domain of the NS5 protein of this lineage. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, these data show a broad neurotropism for USUV in the central nervous system with lineage-dependent virulence. Our results will help to better understand the biological and epidemiological diversity of USUV infection.

6.
Breastfeed Med ; 16(1): 29-38, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33393841

RESUMO

In addition to providing life-giving nutrients and other substances to the breastfed infant, human milk can also represent a vehicle of pathogen transfer. As such, when an infectious disease outbreak, epidemic, or pandemic occurs-particularly when it is associated with a novel pathogen-the question will naturally arise as to whether the pathogen can be transmitted through breastfeeding. Until high-quality data are generated to answer this question, abandonment of breastfeeding due to uncertainty can result. The COVID-19 pandemic, which was in full swing at the time this document was written, is an excellent example of this scenario. During these times of uncertainty, it is critical for investigators conducting research to assess the possible transmission of pathogens through milk, whether by transfer through the mammary gland or contamination from respiratory droplets, skin, breast pumps, and milk containers, and/or close contact between mother and infant. To promote the most rigorous science, it is critical to outline optimal methods for milk collection, handling, storage, and analysis in these situations, and investigators should openly share their methods in published materials. Otherwise, the risks of inconsistent test results from preanalytical and analytical variation, false positives, and false negatives are unacceptably high and the ability to provide public health guidance poor. In this study, we provide "best practices" for collecting human milk samples for COVID-19 research with the intention that this will also be a useful guide for future pandemics.


Assuntos
Benchmarking , Aleitamento Materno/métodos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , /transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Intenção , Leite Humano/virologia , Mães/psicologia
8.
J Infect Dis ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206973

RESUMO

We assessed the expression of CD169, a type I interferon-inducible receptor, on monocytes (mCD169) in 53 adult patients admitted to the hospital during the COVID-19 outbreak for a suspicion of SARS-CoV-2 infection. mCD169 was strongly overexpressed in 30 out of 32 (93.7%) confirmed COVID-19 cases, compared to three out of 21 (14.3%) patients in whom the diagnosis of COVID-19 was finally ruled out. mCD169 was associated with the plasma interferon alpha level and thrombocytopenia. mCD169 testing may be helpful for the rapid triage of suspected COVID-19 patients during an outbreak.

9.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 546189, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33102251

RESUMO

Human milk is a significant source of different CD133+ and/or CD34+ stem/progenitor-like cell subsets in healthy women but their cell distribution and percentages in this compartment of HIV-positive women have not been explored. To date, a decrease of CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell frequencies in peripheral blood and bone marrow of HIV-positive patients has been reported. Herein, human milk and peripheral blood samples were collected between day 2-15 post-partum from HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, and cells were stained with stem cell markers and analyzed by flow cytometry. We report that the median percentage of CD45+/highCD34-CD133+ cell subset from milk and blood was significantly higher in HIV-positive than in HIV-negative women. The percentage of CD45dimCD34-CD133+ cell subset from blood was significantly higher in HIV-positive than HIV-negative women. Moreover, percentages of CD45dimCD34+, CD45dimCD34+CD133-, and CD45+highCD34+CD133- cell subsets from blood were significantly lower in HIV-positive than HIV-negative women. The CD133+ stem/progenitor-like cell subsets are increased in early human milk and blood of HIV-positive women and are differentially distributed to CD34+ cell subset frequencies which are decreased in blood.

10.
J Clin Med ; 9(9)2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937988

RESUMO

Children who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed but uninfected (CHEU) accumulate maternal HIV and antiretroviral exposures through pregnancy, postnatal prophylaxis, and breastfeeding. Here, we compared the dynamics of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) parameters in African breastfed CHEU receiving lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) or lamivudine (3TC) pre-exposure prophylaxis during the first year of life. The number of mtDNA copies per cell (MCN) and the proportion of deleted mtDNA (MDD) were assessed at day 7 and at week 50 post-delivery (PrEP group). mtDNA depletion was defined as a 50% or more decrease from the initial value, and mtDNA deletions was the detection of mtDNA molecules with large DNA fragment loss. We also performed a sub-analysis with CHEU who did not receive a prophylactic treatment in South Africa (control group). From day seven to week 50, MCN decreased with a median of 41.7% (interquartile range, IQR: 12.1; 64.4) in the PrEP group. The proportion of children with mtDNA depletion was not significantly different between the two prophylactic regimens. Poisson regressions showed that LPV/r and 3TC were associated with mtDNA depletion (reference: control group; LPV/r: PR = 1.75 (CI95%: 1.15-2.68), p < 0.01; 3TC: PR = 1.54 (CI95%: 1.00-2.37), p = 0.05). Moreover, the proportion of children with MDD was unexpectedly high before randomisation in both groups. Long-term health impacts of these mitochondrial DNA parameters should be investigated further for both CHEU and HIV-infected children receiving LPV/r- or 3TC- based regimens.

11.
J Neuroinflammation ; 17(1): 233, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778106

RESUMO

Arthropod-borne viruses or arbovirus, are most commonly associated with acute infections, resulting on various symptoms ranging from mild fever to more severe disorders such as hemorrhagic fever. Moreover, some arboviral infections can be associated with important neuroinflammation that can trigger neurological disorders including encephalitis, paralysis, ophthalmological impairments, or developmental defects, which in some cases, can lead to long-term defects of the central nervous system (CNS). This is well illustrated in Zika virus-associated congenital brain malformations but also in West Nile virus-induced synaptic dysfunctions that can last well beyond infection and lead to cognitive deficits. Here, we summarize clinical and mechanistic data reporting on cognitive disturbances triggered by arboviral infections, which may highlight growing public health issues spanning the five continents.

12.
mBio ; 11(4)2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753493

RESUMO

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) largely prevents toxins and pathogens from accessing the brain. Some viruses have the ability to cross this barrier and replicate in the central nervous system (CNS). Zika virus (ZIKV) was responsible in 2015 to 2016 for a major epidemic in South America and was associated in some cases with neurological impairments. Here, we characterized some of the mechanisms behind its neuroinvasion using an innovative in vitro human BBB model. ZIKV efficiently replicated, was released on the BBB parenchyma side, and triggered subtle modulation of BBB integrity as well as an upregulation of inflammatory and cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), which in turn favored leukocyte recruitment. Finally, we showed that ZIKV-infected mouse models displayed similar CAM upregulation and that soluble CAMs were increased in plasma samples from ZIKV-infected patients. Our observations suggest a complex interplay between ZIKV and the BBB, which may trigger local inflammation, leukocyte recruitment, and possible cerebral vasculature impairment.IMPORTANCE Zika virus (ZIKV) can be associated with neurological impairment in children and adults. To reach the central nervous system, viruses have to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a multicellular system allowing a tight separation between the bloodstream and the brain. Here, we show that ZIKV infects cells of the BBB and triggers a subtle change in its permeability. Moreover, ZIKV infection leads to the production of inflammatory molecules known to modulate BBB integrity and participate in immune cell attraction. The virus also led to the upregulation of cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs), which in turn favored immune cell binding to the BBB and potentially increased infiltration into the brain. These results were also observed in a mouse model of ZIKV infection. Furthermore, plasma samples from ZIKV-infected patients displayed an increase in CAMs, suggesting that this mechanism could be involved in neuroinflammation triggered by ZIKV.

13.
Liver Int ; 40(10): 2367-2376, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) is a challenge for controlling the hepatitis B epidemic. In Sub-Saharan countries, pilot interventions including the screening of pregnant women for HBsAg, implementation of anti-HBV therapy and infant immunization within 24 hours of life are initiated and need to be evaluated. This pilot study aimed to describe the cascade of care for hepatitis B PMTCT in a real life situation, and to identify sociodemographic factors associated with adequate management of pregnant women and infants. METHOD: The study was conducted from October 1st, 2014 to February 28th, 2016 in the antenatal clinics (ANCV) of Baskuy district which comprises nine first-level public health centres. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to identify sociodemographic factors associated with the likelihood of retention in the cohort, HBV DNA testing, birth dose delivery and HBsAg testing of the children at 6 months of age; P ˂ .05 was selected as cut off for significance. RESULTS: In this prospective cohort study, of 5200 pregnant women consulting for the antenatal visit, 2261 (43.5%) were proposed pre-test counselling and HBsAg screening and 2220 (98.2%) have agreed to screening. Among 1580 (71.2%) women that came back for the post-counselling interview, 75 were positive for HBsAg (4.8%), 73 (97.3% of the women provided HBsAg result) consented to medical consultation with hepatogastroenterologists and 53 (72.6%); performed the HBV DNA testing. Forty-seven out of 60 (78.3%; 65.8-87.9) children born alive were immunized for HBV within 24 hours of life. Retention in care was associated with the level of education of the infant's father, secondary school or higher was associated with a better retention in care of the women (OR: 6.6; P = .03). CONCLUSION: Our study shows large gaps in HBV PMTCT. Resources for hepatitis B screening, care and prevention including universal access to the vaccine birth dose should be allocated to reduce infection in HBV exposed infants born in Burkina Faso.

14.
J Clin Med ; 9(4)2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32235676

RESUMO

Mastitis frequently affects women of childbearing age. Of all the pathological breast conditions requiring specific management, autoimmune mastitis is in the third position after infection and breast cancer. The aim of this literature review was to make a comprehensive description of autoimmune diseases targeting the mammary gland. Four main histological patterns of autoimmune mastitis are described: (i) lymphocytic infiltrates; (ii) ductal ectasia; (iii) granulomatous mastitis; and (iv) vasculitis. Our literature search found that all types of autoimmune disease may target the mammary gland: organ-specific diseases (diabetes, thyroiditis); connective tissue diseases (such as systemic erythematosus lupus or Sjögren's syndrome); vasculitides (granulomatosis with polyangiitis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, giant cell arteritis, polyarteritis nodosa, Behçet's disease); granulomatous diseases (sarcoidosis, Crohn's disease); and IgG4-related disease. Cases of breast-specific autoimmune diseases have also been reported, including idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. These breast-limited inflammatory diseases are sometimes the first symptom of a systemic autoimmune disease. Although autoimmune mastitis is rare, it is probably underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Early diagnosis may allow us to detect systemic diseases at an earlier stage, which could help to initiate a prompt, appropriate therapeutic strategy. In case of suspected autoimmune mastitis, we hereby propose a diagnostic pathway and discuss the potential pathophysiological pathways leading to autoimmune breast damage.

15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(4): e0008223, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324736

RESUMO

Usutu virus (USUV), an African mosquito-borne flavivirus closely related to West Nile virus, was first isolated in South Africa in 1959. USUV emerged in Europe two decades ago, causing notably massive mortality in Eurasian blackbirds. USUV is attracting increasing attention due to its potential for emergence and its rapid spread in Europe in recent years. Although mainly asymptomatic or responsible for mild clinical signs, USUV was recently described as being associated with neurological disorders in humans such as encephalitis and meningoencephalitis, highlighting the potential health threat posed by the virus. Despite this, USUV pathogenesis remains largely unexplored. The aim of this study was to evaluate USUV neuropathogenicity using in vivo and in vitro approaches. Our results indicate that USUV efficiently replicates in the murine central nervous system. Replication in the spinal cord and brain is associated with recruitment of inflammatory cells and the release of inflammatory molecules as well as induction of antiviral-responses without major modulation of blood-brain barrier integrity. Endothelial cells integrity is also maintained in a human model of the blood-brain barrier despite USUV replication and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, USUV-inoculated mice developed major ocular defects associated with inflammation. Moreover, USUV efficiently replicates in human retinal pigment epithelium. Our results will help to better characterize the physiopathology related to USUV infection in order to anticipate the potential threat of USUV emergence.


Assuntos
Flavivirus/patogenicidade , Modelos Biológicos , Sistema Nervoso/virologia , Animais , Encéfalo/virologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais/virologia , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Flavivirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Camundongos , Epitélio Pigmentado Ocular/virologia , Medula Espinal/virologia
16.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 20, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32117090

RESUMO

The existence of an antisense Open Reading Frame (ORF) that encodes a putative AntiSense Protein (ASP) on the proviral genome of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) was a source of debate for 30 years. During the last years, some progresses have been made to characterize the cellular immune response against ASP in HIV-1 seropositive patients. However, no tools were available for the detection of antibodies to ASP in the plasma of HIV-1-infected patients during the natural course of the infection. The aim of our study was to develop a Luciferase Immuno-Precipitation System (LIPS) to monitor the quantitative detection of ASP-specific antibodies in the plasma of HIV-1-infected patients [antiretroviral therapy (ART) naive-patients, patients under ART and HIV-1 controllers], patients who discontinued antiretroviral drugs (ARV). We further used this approach to delineate the epitopes of ASP targeted by antibodies. Antibodies directed against ASP were detected in 3 out of 19 patients who discontinued ARV (15%) and in 1 out of 10 ART-naive patients (10%), but were neither detected in HIV-1 infected patients under ART nor in HIV-1 controllers. Individual variations in levels of ASP-specific antibodies were detected overtime. Both the conserved prolin-rich motif and the core 60-189 region of ASP were found to be essential for antibody recognition in the four patients tested positive for anti-ASP antibodies, who were all untreated at the time of sampling. Moreover, for two of these patients, increased levels of ASP-specific antibodies were observed concomitantly to viremia declines. Overall, our method may represent a useful tool to detect a humoral response to ASP in HIV-1-infected patients, which allowed us to confirm the expression of ASP during the course of HIV-1 infection. Further studies will be needed to fully characterize the humoral response to ASP in HIV-1-infected patients.

17.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 373, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210946

RESUMO

Blood collected and dried on a paper card - dried blood spot (DBS) - knows a growing interest as a sampling method that can be performed outside care facilities by capillary puncture, and transported in a simple and safe manner by mail. The benefits of this method for blood collection and transport has recently led the World Health Organization to recommend DBS for HIV and hepatitis B and C diagnosis. The clinical utility of DBS sampling to improve diagnostics and care of HIV and hepatitis B and C infection in hard to reach populations, key populations and people living in low-income settings was highlighted. Literature about usefulness of DBS specimens in the therapeutic cascade of care - screening, confirmation, quantification of nucleic acids, and resistance genotyping -, was reviewed. DBS samples are suitable for testing antibodies, antigens, or nucleic acids using most laboratory methods. Good sensibility and specificity have been reported for infant HIV diagnosis and diagnosis of hepatitis B and C. The performance of HIV RNA testing on DBS to identified virological failure on antiretroviral therapy is also high but not optimal because of the dilution of dried blood in the elution buffer, reducing the analytical sensitivity, and because of the contamination by intracellular HIV DNA. Standardized protocols are needed for inter-laboratory comparisons, and manufacturers should pursue regulatory approval for in vitro diagnostics using DBS specimens. Despite these limitations, DBS sampling is a clinically relevant tool to improve access to infectious disease diagnosis worldwide.

18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune control of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is impaired in HIV-infected individuals. We explored maternal factors associated with EBV acquisition in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants and the relationship between EBV infection and serious adverse events (SAE) during the first year of life. METHODS: Two hundred and one HEU infants from Uganda enrolled in the ANRS12174 trial were tested for anti-viral capsid antigen (VCA) antibodies at week 50 of life. The date of infection was estimated by testing of EBV DNA at weeks 1, 6, 14, 26, 38 and 50 postpartum on dried blood spot (DBS). RESULTS: Eighty-seven (43%) infants were tested positive for anti-VCA IgG at week 50. Among the 59 infants positive for EBV DNA, 25% were infected within the first 26 weeks. Almost half of them (12%) were infected before week 14. Shedding of EBV in breast milk was associated with EBV DNA in maternal plasma (P=.009), HIV RNA detection (P=.039), lower CD4 count (P=.001) and was correlated with plasma EBV DNA levels (P=.002). EBV infant infection at week 50 was associated with shedding of EBV in breast milk (P=.009) and young maternal age (P=.029). Occurrence of a clinical SAE, including malaria and pneumonia, was associated with higher levels of EBV DNA in infants (P=.010). CONCLUSIONS: By assessing EBV infection in HEU infants we observed that infection during the first year of life is determined by HIV and EBV maternal factors and that EBV DNA levels was higher among infants with clinical SAE.

19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(4): 1030-1039, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perinatal treatment with lopinavir boosted by ritonavir (LPV/r) is associated with steroidogenic abnormalities. Long-term effects in infants have not been studied. METHODS: Adrenal-hormone profiles were compared at weeks 6 and 26 between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-exposed but uninfected infants randomly assigned at 7 days of life to prophylaxis with LPV/r or lamivudine (3TC) to prevent transmission during breastfeeding. LPV/r in vitro effect on steroidogenesis was assessed in H295R cells. RESULTS: At week 6, 159 frozen plasma samples from Burkina Faso and South Africa were assessed (LPV/r group: n = 92; 3TC group: n = 67) and at week 26, 95 samples from Burkina Faso (LPV/r group: n = 47; 3TC group: n = 48). At week 6, LPV/r-treated infants had a higher median dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) level than infants from the 3TC arm: 3.91 versus 1.48 ng/mL (P < .001). Higher DHEA levels (>5 ng/mL) at week 6 were associated with higher 17-OH-pregnenolone (7.78 vs 3.71 ng/mL, P = .0004) and lower testosterone (0.05 vs 1.34 ng/mL, P = .009) levels in LPV/r-exposed children. There was a significant correlation between the DHEA and LPV/r AUC levels (ρ = 0.40, P = .019) and Ctrough (ρ = 0.40, P = .017). At week 26, DHEA levels remained higher in the LPV/r arm: 0.45 versus 0.13 ng/mL (P = .002). Lopinavir, but not ritonavir, inhibited CYP17A1 and CYP21A2 activity in H295R cells. CONCLUSIONS: Lopinavir was associated with dose-dependent adrenal dysfunction in infants. The impact of long-term exposure and potential clinical consequences require evaluation. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT00640263.

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